Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Fowler, Martin. UML distilled : a brief guide to the standard object modeling language/Martin Fowler with. This is still the best short book an UML. it's the best short book an many subjects ." Jim Rumbaugh Author and originator of UML "Martin Fowler's UML Distilled is. UML Distilled. Third Edition. A Brief Guide to the Standard. Object Modeling Language. Martin Fowler v:Addison-Wesley. Boston " San Francisco " New York .

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The UML appeared in to eliminate the bedlam that had overtaken graphical modeling languages in the object-oriented world. Before the UML there were a. Page 1. Fowler, Martin, UML distilled: a brief guide to the standard object modeling language, 3rd ed.,. Addison-Wesley, Page 2. uml distilled - third edition - dokument [*.pdf] ii NIL DIsTILLED THIRB EDITION MARTIN FOWLER is Ko r n t a..*0y y so an u ayg scanned by dataCore A BRIEF .

This is the only book 1 consider when teaching a dass involving UML or if asked to recommend one that can be used to learn it. Martin Fowler selects the parts of UML that you need, and presents them in an easy to read style. More valuable than a mere description of the modeling language, however, is the author's insight and experience in how to use this technique to communicate and document design. Reusable Object Models Fowler et al. Practice and Promi.

Analysis and Design for the. Allen, Realizing eBusiness with Components Apperly et al. Where those designations appear in this book, and Addison- Wesley was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed with initial capital letters or in all capitals. The author and publisher have taken care in the preparation of this book, but make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions.

No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein. The publisher offers discounts an this book when ordered in quantity for bulk downloads and special sales. For more information, please contact: Corporate and Government Sales corpsales pearsontechgroup.

International Sales international pearsontechgroup. Includes bibliographical references and Index. ISBN alk. Object-oriented methods Computer science 2. Computer software- Development. UML Computer science 1.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo- copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior consent of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Published simultaneously in Canada.

For information an obtaining permission for use of material from this work, please sub- mit a written request to: Pearson Education, Inc. Class Diagrams: Collaborations When to Use Collaborations Chapter A small piece of the UML meta-model 10 Figure 1.

Classification of UML diagram types 12 Figure 1. An informal screen flow diagram for part of the wiki http: A simple class diagram 36 Figure 3. Showing properties of an order as attributes 37 Figure 3.

Showing properties of an order as associations 38 Figure 3. A bidirectional association 42 Figure 3. Using a verb phrase to name an association 42 Figure 3. A note is used as a comment an one or more diagram elements 46 Figure 3.

Example dependencies 47 Figure 4. A sequence diagram for centralized control 54 Figure 4. A sequence diagram for distributed control 55 Figure 4. Creation and deletion of participants 57 Figure 4. Interaction frames 58 Figure 4. Older conventions for control logic 60 Figure 4. A sample CRC card 62 Figure 5. Showing responsibilities in a class diagram 67 Figure 5. Static notation 67 Figure 5.

Aggregation 68 Figure 5. Why Bother with the UML? Graphical design notations have been with us for a while. In a brief book like this. I've also added bits of other material about techniques. Diagrams can also help you understand either a software system or a business process. Of these graphical notations. As part of a team trying to figure out something.

I've only provided a quick example and explanation. Chapter 2 talks about software process. You'11 probably find lt handy to refer to them as you're reading some of the other parts of the book. I've often heard people say that these covers are the most valuable part of the book. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss the two most useful parts of the UML: The UML is a large and growing beast. Changes for the Third Edition If you have earlier editions of this book. Chapters 9 through 11 show three further useful behavioral techniques: Although this is strictly independent of the UML.

I've organized the rest of the book around the diagram types within the UML. In particular. The inside covers summarize the most useful parts of the notation. Chapters 12 through 17 are very brief and cover diagrams that are generally less important.

Even though this book is slim. Chapters 6 through 8 describe three useful diagrams that shed fur- ther light an the structure of a system: Chapter 5 goes into detail an the less essential but still useful parts of dass diagrams. I've done my best to keep pace.

So to know what's going on. Guus Ramackers. I've incorporated much that I've learned in teaching and using the UML over the past five years. UML 2 has added a lot of new stuff. Between them.

Errors in 18th and later printings

Over the years. My first thanks go Carter Shanklin and Kendall Scott. I've worked hard to keep this book as current as is possible. As the UML has Bone through its changes. It's unlikely that further changes will occur between that vote and more formal votes.

So although the spirit of this ultrathin UML book is intact. Steve Cook. His contribution to this book is both profound and difficult to measure. They also kept pushing out changes during the early days of the UML when nothing seemed stable.

I'll post information any further updates an my Web site http: He's also been deeply involved with the technical and personal issues of making opinionated methodologists settle their differences and agree to a com- mon standard. Even familiar diagrams have a lot of new notation. If you want to be aware of what's happened but don't want to wade through the specification 1 certainly don't recommend that!

Jim Odell has been my mentor and guide for much of the early part of my career. Carter was the editor at Addison-Wesley who suggested this book to me. This book is based an the UML 2 drafts that were accepted by the relevant commit- tee in June Kendall Scott helped me put together the first two editions.

Without these spies. I've also taken this opportunity to completely rewrite most of the book. Cris Kobryn. Jim Odell. The UML is a creature of standards. Acknowledgments Over many years. James Odell.

Nathan Dyk- man. I would be sunk. Many people have contacted me an the Net and in person with suggestions and questions and to point out errors. Tom Had- field. Never forget that my jabs usually sprout from fond appreciation. Ronald E. Joshua Kerievsky. Massa- chusetts. The reviewers of the previous editions of this book were Simmi Kochhar Bhargava. Grady Booch. Birger Moller-Pedersen. Eran Gery. Sridhar Iyengar. Jim Rumbaugh.

David Frankel. The people at my favorite technical bookstore. Bran Selic. Despite the playful jibes I've given them over the years. Helen Klein. Anders Ek. SoftPro in Burlington. They've all given nie useful tips and answered stupid questions. Any howlers that remain are entirely my responsibility.

Eric Evans. Oystein Haugen. Thomas Weigert. Conrad Bock. Philippe Desfray. My sincere thanks to all of them. Karin Palmkvist. Reviewers are the key to a book's quality. Without them. The third edition also had a fine group of reviewers: For the third edition, the acquisition editor was Mike Hendrickson.

Kim Arney Mulcahy managed the project, as well as did the Layout and clean-up of the diagrams. John Fuller, at Addison-Wesley, was the production editor, while Evelyn Pyle and Rebecca Rider helped with the copyediting and proofreading of the book. Cindy has stayed with me while 1 persist in writing books. She then plants the proceeds in the Barden. My parents started nie off with a good education, from which all else springs.

What Is the UML? The Unified Modeling Language UML is a family of graphical notations, backed by single meta-model, that help in describing and designing software systems, particularly software systems built using the object-oriented 00 style. That's a somewhat simplified definition. In fact, the UML is a few differ- ent things to different people.

This comes both from its own history and from the different views that people have about what makes an effective software engineering process. As a result, my task in much of this chapter is to set the scene for this book by explaining the different ways in which people see and use the UML. Graphical modeling languages have been around in the software industry for a long time. The fundamental driver behind them all is that programming lan- guages are not at a high enough level of abstraction to facilitate discussions about design.

Despite the fact that graphical modeling languages have been around for a long time, there is an enormous amount of dispute in the software industry about their role. These disputes play directly into how people perceive the role of the UML itself. The OMG was formed to build standards that supported interoperability, specifically the interoperabil- ity of object-oriented systems. The UML was born out of the unification of the many object-oriented graph- ical modeling languages that thrived in the late s and early s.

Since its appearance in , it has relegated that particular tower of Babel to history. That's a service I, and many other developers, am deeply thankful for. Ways of Using the UML At the heart of the role of the UML in software development are the different ways in which people want to use it, differences that carry over from other graphical modeling languages. These differences lead to long and difficult argu- ments about how the UML should be used.

To untangle this, Steve Mellor and I independently came up with a character- ization of the three modes in which people use the UML: By far the most common of the three, at least to my biased eye, is UML as sketch. In this usage, developers use the UML to help communicate some aspects of a system. As with blueprints, you can use sketches in a forward-engineering or reverse-engineering direction.

Forward engineering draws a UML diagram before you write code, while reverse engineering builds a UML diagram from existing code in order to help understand it. The essence of sketching is selectivity. With forward sketching, you rough out some issues in code you are about to write, usually discussing them with a group of people an your team. Your aim is to use the sketches to help commu- nicate ideas and alternatives about what you're about to do.

You don't talk about all the code you are going to work on, only important issues that you want to run past your colleagues first or sections of the design that you want to visualize before you begin programming. Sessions like this can be very short: With reverse engineering, you use sketches to explain how some part of a system works. You don't show every class, simply those that are interesting and worth talking about before you dig into the code.

Because sketching is pretty informal and dynamic, you need to do it quickly and collaboratively, so a common medium is a whiteboard. Sketches are also useful in documents, in which case the focus is communication rather than com- pleteness. The tools used for sketching are lightweight drawing tools, and often people aren't too particular about keeping to every strict rule of the UML. Most UML diagrams shown in books, such as my other books, are sketches.

Their emphasis is an selective communication rather than complete specification. In contrast, UML as blueprint is about completeness.

In forward engineer- ing, the idea is that blueprints are developed by a designer whose ob is to build a detailed design for a programmer to code up.

That design should be suffi- ciently complete in that all design decisions are laid out, and the programmer should be able to follow it as a pretty straightforward activity that requires little thought. The designer may be the same person as the programmer, but usually.

Tools that can do both forward and reverse engineering like this are referred to as round-trip tools. Blueprints require much more sophisticated tools than sketches do in order to handle the details required for the task. Specialized CASE computer-aided software engineering tools fall into this category. I'd say that sketches are explorative. Reverse-engineering tools read source code and Interpret from it into the repository and generate diagrams.

In a sound bite. In this environment. As you do more and more in the UML and the programming gets increasingly mechanical. These tools tie muck more closely into program- ming and often integrate directly with programming editors. The line between blueprints and Sketches is somewhat blurry. Blueprinting may be used for all details.

A common approach is for a designer to develop blueprint- level models as far as interfaces of subsystems but then let developers work out the details of implementing those details. Forward-engineering tools support diagram drawing and back it up with a repository to hold the information. The inspiration for this approach is other forms of engineering in which Profes- sional engineers create engineering drawings that are handed over to construc- tion companies to build.

In reverse engineering. Some tools use the source code itself as the repository and use diagrams as a graphic viewport an the code. The blueprints can show every detail about a class in a graphical form that's easier for developers to understand.

The PSM is a model ot a System targeted to a specific execution environment. NIellor and Balcer]. Further tools then take the PSM and generate code tor that platform. Rum eich archetype an your executahle UMI. By producing a modeling environ- ment that conforms to the NIDA. Executable U MI. So if you wanz to build a varehousiug system using NIDA. The model compilers are based ou reusable archetypes.

So for the warehousing example. As the term coinpiler suggests. Thera fur- ther tools would generate code tor the two plattorms. An archetype describes how to take an executahle UiNIL model and turn it into a partic- ular programming platform. Even if it is more productive. As we shall see. In this software perspective. There are no hard-and-fast rules about perspective. In m y view. All this Sounds good. All have their proponents for programming in. Like many.

First is the question of the tools: Another way in which people look at the UML is the range between using it for conceptual and for software modeling. One of the interesting questions around the UML as programming language is how to model behavioral logic. UML 2 offers three ways of behavioral mod- eling: As a result. Some tools automatically turn source code into the UML diagrams.

But as Sm illtalk is now only a niche language. This is something that changes over time. Most people are familiar with the UML used for Software modeling. With the conceptual perspective. If the UML does gain popularity as a programming language. That's a big hurdle in itself. In mv view. Only then can you make sense of the often fierce arguments that the UML encourages.

Another difference in viewpoints is what the essence of the UML is. These different ways of using the UML lead to a host of arguments about what UML diagrams mean and what their relationship is to the rest of the world. In previous editions of this book.

Almost all the time. I'm not convinced that graphical forms are more pro- ductive than textual forms for most programming tasks and that even if they are. I'm not a fan of detailed forward-engineered blueprints.

Diagrams are simply a pre- sentation of the meta-model. Having said all that. If you use UML diagrams to try and understand the various meanings of the terms asset Pool with a bunch of accountants.

I'm always inclined to emphasize inter- face rather than implementation in my diagrams. In my view.

So whenever you read anything involving the UML. As a result of my biases. Some people hold the view that the UML should be used to create a design that is independent of the programming language that's used for imple- mentation. In practice. The value of reverse-engineered blueprints is dependent an how the tool works.

This view also makes sense to blueprinters and UML programming language users. If it's used as a dynamic browser. Blueprinting to a level of subsystem interfaces is reasonable. Others believe that language-independent design is an oxymoron. Ivar Jacobson Objectory [Jacobson.

In the s. This reminds me of an old joke. Jim Odell [Odell]. At that time. A team from the OMG tried to look at standardization but got only an open Letter of protest from all the key methodologists.

The key books about object-oriented graphical modeling languages appeared between and Peter Coad [Coad. I'd suggest that you treat this book as an introduction and move an to other books as you need them. Leading figures included Grady Booch [Booch. So if you're interested in the UML in its other modes.

But 1 also know that it's not everybody's idea of fun. Each of those authors was now informally leading a group of practitioners who liked those ideas. Grady and Jim proclaimed that "the methods war is over-we won.

What is the difference between a methodologist and a ter- rorist? You can negotiate with a terrorist. I'm a history buff. If you're interested only in sketches. My favorite idea of light reading is a good history book. All these methods were very similar. During that heady time. Smalltalk stabilized into a platform that people could use. The same basic con- cepts would appear in very different notations.

Ratio- nal collaborated with a number of other organizations and released version 1. The UML notation was first formed in. When people talk about the UML. In January Mary Loomis and Jim Odell chaired the initial task force. But 1 don't think that the screams of book authors would even be heard by the OMG. Even more significant. Revision 1. Method- ologists. At this point. What got the OMG involved were the screams of tools vendors.

Odell made it clear that he was prepared to give up his method to a standard. Grady and Jim had prepared their first public description of their merged method: More important. Rational held a well-attended party to celebrate the release of the 0. The highlight of the party was the first public display of Jim Rumbaugh's sing- ing.

Although they are most credited with the UML. The OMG. Some revisions were made later on. Then followed a short period of arm twisting while the various proposals were merged. Rational had to incorpo- rate Ivar's ideas and also spent time with other partners. The next year saw a more open process emerge. The OMG adopted the resulting 1.

Ivar Jacobson would be joining the Unified team. They are generally referred to as the Three Amigos. This banner was important. The idea of rigorous specification and design languages is most prevalent in the field of formal methods. Such definitions are mathematically rigorous and allow no ambiguity. Most graphical modeling languages have very little rigor.

How muck does the meta-model affect a user of the modeling notation? The answer depends mostly an the mode of usage. Figure 1. In such techniques. The nota- tion is the graphical stuff you sec in models. Common usage suggests some informal def- initions. On the whole. One way to do this is to define a meta-model: Of course. Even if you can prove that a program sat- isfies a mathematical specification. These methods may be informal. During these later stages. The extract is there to give you a flavor of what meta-models are like.

I'm not even going to try to explain it. Jim Rumbaugh is the only one of the three to have made a heavy commitment.

It's vitally important to those who use the UML as a programming language. A sketcher usually doesn't care too much. For instance. That's natural for a small book like this written by an author who's inclined mostly to a sketch usage. This is why UML tools are so complex.

As you get deeper into the more detailed usage of the UML. Notational issues often tun second place. Although these diagram types are the way many people. If you want more rigor. The UML standard indicates that certain elements are typically drawn an certain diagram types. At first blush, this should be a simple question to answer: Legal UML is what is defined as well formed in the specification.

In practice, however, the answer is a bit more complicated. An important part of this question is whether the UML has descriptive or prescriptive rules. A language with prescriptive rules is controlled by an official body that states what is or isn't legal in the language and what meaning you give to utterances in that language.

A language with descriptive rules is one in which you understand its rules by looking at how people use the language in practice. Programming languages tend to have prescriptive rules set by a Stan- dards committee or dominant vendor, while natural languages, such as English, tend to have descriptive rules whose meaning is set by convention.

UML is quite a precise language, so you might expect it to have prescriptive rules. But UML is often considered to be the software equivalent of the blueprints in other engineering disciplines, and these blueprints are not prescriptive nota- tions. No committee says what the legal symbols are an a structural engineering drawing; the notation has been accepted by convention, similarly to a natural lan- guage.

In addition, the UML is so complex that the Standard is often open to multiple interpretations. This issue is important both for nie writing this book and for you using the UML.

If you want to understand a UML diagram, it's important to realize that understanding the UML standard is not the whole picture.

People do adopt conventions, both in the industry widely and within a particular project. My attitude is that, for most people, the UML has descriptive rules. In this book, therefore, I'm trying to summarize the UML as 1 find it: When 1 have to make a dis- tinction in this book, I'll use the term conventional use to indicate something that isn't in the standard but that 1 think is widely used.

For something that conforms to the standard, use the terms standard or normative. When you are looking at a UML diagram, you should bear in mind that a general principle in the UML is that any information may be suppressed for a particular diagram.

This suppression can occur either generally-hide all attributes-or specifically-don't show these three classes. In a diagram, there- fore, you can never infer anything by its absence.

If a multiplicity is missing, you cannot infer what value it might be. Even if the UML meta-model has a default, such as [1] for attributes, if you don't see the information an the dia- gram, it may be because it's the default or because it's suppressed. Having said that, there are some general conventions, such as multivalued properties being sets.

In the text, l'11 point out these default conventions.

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It's important to not put too much emphasis an having legal UML if you're a sketcher or blueprinter. It's more important to have a good design for your Sys- tem, and 1 would rather have a good design in illegal UML than a legal but poor design. Obviously, good and legal is best, but t'ou're better off putting your energy into having a good design than worrying about the arcana of UML.

Of course, you have to be legal in UML as programming language, or your program won't run properly! One of the awkward issues about the UML is that, although the specification describes in great detail what well-formed UML is, it doesn't have much to say about what the UML means outside of the rarefied world of the UML meta- model.

No formal definition exists of how the UML maps to any particular pro- gramming language. You cannot look at a UML diagram and say exactly what the equivalent code would look like. However, you can get a rough idea of what the code would look like. In practice, that's enough to be useful. Development teams often form their local conventions for these, and you'11 need to be famil- iar with the ones in use.

Although the UML provides quite a considerable body of various diagrams that help to define an application, it's by no means a complete list of all the useful. In many places, different diagrams can be useful, and you shouldn't hesitate to use a non-UML diagram if no UML dia- gram suits your purpose.

I've Seen and used these screen flow dia- grams for many years. I've never seen more than a very rough definition of what they mean ; there isn't anything like it in the UML, yet I've found it a very useful diagram.

Table 1. Decision tables are a good way to show complicated logical conditions. You can do this with an activity diagram, but once you get beyond simple cases, the table is both more compact and more clear. Again, many forms of decision tables are out there. Each column shows how a particular combination of conditions leads to a particular set of consequences. As of June A lot of words are out there and a lot of worthwhile things to read. Most people use a small subset of the UML and work with that.

Once you've got the hang of those. If you are starting out. Don't hesitate to try out techniques that seem appropriate for your project. Experiment with the diagrams and see how helpful they are to you. These are the most common and. As with all book recommendations. This is. The books 1. Don't be afraid to drop any that don't seem be useful to your work. Here are some general books an the UML and object-oriented design. As 1 discuss the individual topics. If they work well.

If not. You have to find the subset of the UML that works for you and your colleagues. For the conclusive word an the UML. For more detailed advice an object-oriented design. If you are new to objects. The author's strong responsibility-driven approach to design is worth following. UML Referencel.

Errors in the 11th thru 18th printing

For a much more digestible version of the standard. Now that the methods war is over. The UML can be used with any pro- cess. I'm not going to go into great detail an any particular process. To some extent.

Iterative and Waterfall Processes One of the biggest debates about process is that between waterfall and iterative styles. But other than the common involvement of various people from Rational and the name "unified. Chapter 2 Development Process As I've already mentioned.

RUP is one process-or. The title of this book is UML Distilled. The way you use the UML depends a lot an the style of process you use. When you hear people discuss the UML. The terms often get misused. RUP is a popular approach and is discussed an page Some high-level design decisions may occur during exploration too.

To build Software. In this situation. The waterfall style breaks down a project based an activity. With iteration. You may well not put the system into production at the end of each iteration. You might take a year and break it into 3-month iterations. Then you'd do a second iteration so that at the end of 6 months.

Our 1-year project might thus have a 2-month analysis phase. Some breakdown is needed so that people can approach the problem and track progress. The iterative style breaks down a project by subsets of functionality. You certainly should not assume that all design is finished when coding begins. It's inevitable that analysis and design decisions will have to be revisited in later phases.

At the other end. At the end of the first iteration. During coding. With waterfall development. If you have a project that you think will take a year. In the first iteration. At the very least.

D.O.W.N.L.O.A.D in [P.D.F] UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modeling Language

Most writers an software process in the past few years. This forces an iter- ation to be a fixed length of time. You should at least use staged delivery. One reason for this is what 1 refer to as pseudoiterative development: People claim to be doing iterative development but are in fact doing waterfall.

You can have hybrid approaches. Such a project might have 4 months of analysis and design followed by four 2-month iterative builds of the System.

By doing this repeatedly. The 00 community has long been in favor of iterative development. Of the many rea- sons for this. If it appears that you can't build all you intended to build during an iteration.

Testing and integration are the hardest activities to estimate. For that reason alone. A common technique with iterations is to use time boxing. The test should be that any iteration that's not scheduled to be released could be released without substan- tial extra development work. My sense of industrial practice is that waterfall development is still the more common approach.

Common symptoms of this are: It's too easy to declare victory with early phases and hide a schedule slip. Various people make distinctions among them. The xUnit family of testing frameworks is a particularly valuable tool for building automated unit tests. Most projects that use iterative development use the same iteration length throughout the project. In many domains. Starting with the original JUnit http: By practicing slipping function regularly.

A good rule of thumb is that the size of your unit test code should be about the same size as your production code. One of the most common concerns about iterative development is the issue of rework.

The build process includes running a large block of automated regression tests so that any inconsistencies are caught quickly so they can be fixed easily. Refactoring works by using a series of small behavior- preserving transformations to the code base. Slipping function during iterations is also effective at helping people learn what the real requirements priorities are.

Developers are expected to check in daily. All these technical practices have been popularized recently by Extreme Pro- gramming [Beck]. At the heart of this lies a fully automated build process that can be kicked off automatically whenever any member of the team checks code into the code base. But software isn't like manufacturing. Many of these transforma- tions can be automated see http: A number of technical practices can greatly help make rework be more efficient.

Iterative development explicitly assumes that you will be reworking and deleting existing code during the later iterations of a project. The difference between a predictive project and an adaptive project surfaces in many ways that people talk about how the project goes. When people talk about. A predictive approach looks to do work early in the project in order to yield a greater understanding of what has to be done later.

Another school contends that requirements churn is unavoidable. Instead of fooling ourselves with illusory predictability. One of the unique sources of complexity in software projects is the difficulty in understanding the requirements for a software system.

One rollte is to put more effort into the requirements process itself. This may be either owing to the sheer difficulty of envisioning what software can do or because market conditions force unpredictable changes. You can combat these changes by freezing the requirements early an and not permitting changes. This way. This change is controlled so that the project delivers the best software it can.

You simply expect that the deviations become less signifi- cant once a solid plan is in place. With predictive planning. The first stage comes up with plans and is difficult to predict.

This problem leads to two very different reactions. And even once you have a predictive plan. At the heart of this question is requirements analysis.

The majority of software projects experience significant requirements churn: This school of thought advocates adaptive planning. This isn't necessarily a black-and-white affair. As the project goes on. Nothing is more frustrating than not having a clear idea how much lt will cost to build some software and how long it will take to build it.

These changes shatter the foundations of a predic- tive plan. Predictive planning can be done either way. In terms of our discussion. Examples of these processes are Extreme Program- ming XP.

As such. Don't make a predictive plan until you have precise and accurate require- ments and are confident that they won't significantly change. You can't say "according to plan" in an adaptive environment. Such a contract says exactly what should be built. This leads to two important pieces of advice. You can fix a budget and a time for delivery. If you can't get precise. Such fixing isn't possible with an adaptive plan.

Agile Processes In the past few years. They are also very much people-oriented processes. Agile approaches. Agile is an umbrella term that covers many processes that share a common set of values and principles as defined by the Manifesto of Agile Software Development http: Predictivity and adaptivity feed into the choice of life cycle.

An adaptive plan absolutely requires an iterative process. An adaptive contract assumes that the users will collaborate with the development team to regularly reassess what functionality needs to be built and will cancel the project if progress ends up being too slow.

With a predictive plan. If you cannot stabilize your requirements. This doesn't mean that adaptive projects don't plan.

Choosing a development case needs someone early an who is very familiar with RUP: So 1 think it's worth saying a few things about it here. Because they don't attach much weight to documents.

Alterna- tively. When you use RUP. Elaboration identifies the primary use cases of the project and builds soft- ware in iterations in order to shake out the architecture of the system.

A high-ceremony.

Whatever the development case. RUP is essentially an iterative process. Agile pro- cesses consider that ceremony makes it harder to make changes and works against the grain of talented people. Which process they use and which tools they use are strictly second-order effects. Inception makes an initial evaluation of a project. Agile processes tend to be low in ceremony. A waterfall style isn't compatible with the philosophy of RUP. Although RUP is called a process. Most use the UML in sketch mode.

It's important to realize that the lack of ceremony is a consequence of adaptivity and people orientation rather than a fundamental property. Development cases can vary widely. Agile methods tend to use short. Typically in inception. All RUP projects should follow four phases.

Either way. This should give you a short list of processes to consider. For others. Many processes are difficult to fully appreciate until you've worked with them. Transition includes various late-stage activities that you don't do iteratively.

The way you go about soft- ware development depends an many factors: In par- ticular. There's a fair amount of fuzziness between the phases. In these cases. You have to be somewhat careful with this. This is usually done by organizations that wish to use the terminology and overall style of RUP without using the licensed products of Rational Software.

You should then consider what adaptations you need to make to fit them to your project. For some. Construction continues the building process. Then you can starr modifying the process. Fitting a Process to a Project Software projects differ greatly from one another. One of the first things you need to do is look at your project and con- sider which processes seem close to a fit.

If from the beginning you are more familiar with how a process works. These may include deployment into the data center. A pattern is mach more than a model. They formed a community interested in writing patterns. If you want to know about proxies.More valuable than a mere description of the modeling language.

A good rule of thumb is that the size of your unit test code should be about the same size as your production code. Computer software- Development. Class Diagrams: Figure 3. Effective COM:

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