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The Legend of the Great Game. MALCOLM YAPP. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. A PERSISTENT THEME IN THE WRITINGS of. PDF | In playing this game, Russia runs no risk. What does it matter to her whether a few thousand British troops are on her side of the Hindu. (From The Great Game and Setting the East Ablaze, by Peter Hopkirk). An Arab army conquers Sind. Mahmud of Ghazni raids northern India.

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The Great Game

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New in The Great Game. Description For nearly a century the two most powerful nations on earth, Victorian Britain and Tsarist Russia, fought a secret war in the lonely passes and deserts of Central Asia. Those engaged in this shadowy struggle called it 'The Great Game', a phrase immortalized by Kipling.

When play first began the two rival empires lay nearly 2, miles apart. By the end, some Russian outposts were within 20 miles of India. Following from this, he sent three reconnaissance missions —20 to spy out the region, establishing also three military outposts along the northern borders of the Kazakh steppe.

After the Qing slaughter of the Jungars produced a period of relative tranquility, an official pronouncement of the annexation of Kazakh lands came in followed by the subsequent advance of the military to Novo-Alexandrovsk in the western steppe in , the attempted but failed Russian assault on Khiva in cf.

Thus the Russian advance into Central Asia was already under way well before the Crimean War was even on the horizon. It was not commenced following the war, simply resumed. The same can be said for Russia's war plans against British India cf. The Crimean War simply interrupted the Central Asian advance on the one hand, and stoked the fires of fury and determination to attack British India all the more brightly on the other.

It resulted in a definite intensification, but not the commencement of Great Game activities. All these ideas are poignantly summed up in his conclusion: At the beginning of the Great Game, Central and East Asia were characterized by more or less medieval political, social, economic, and cultural features. Then the competition between British and Russian civilizing patterns led to modern changes in all spheres of daily routine.

Instead of the social apathy, economic backwardness, and political anarchy in which they had been stuck for centuries, local nations gradually began to awake under the influence of innovations that were brought to them by the Great Game's "players" of different caliber pp. Numerous gangs of mounted bandits frequently broke through defensive lines of cordon posts, looted Russian colonists, captured many people, and sold them as white slaves on the markets of Khiva and Bokhara, while frontier guards were enlisted mostly to garrison service.

To the contrary, Kenessary was the grandson of the great Kazakh khan Ablai —81 and, therefore, rightful heir to the Kazakh khanship. He was clearly affirmed and embraced by a large portion of the Kazakh population as the last khan to rule the Kazakh khanate before a Russian provincial governing system was instituted on the Kazakh Steppe. Before commencing any armed revolt he sent letters on numerous occasions to the rulers of the Russian empire setting forth the required demands.

This is evidenced most vividly in the sentencing of the noted Kazakh historian Yermukhan Bekmakhanov in to 25 years in prison for attempting precisely such an interpretation in his work on Kazakhstan in the s and s.

According to them, nomads … cannot even be placed on a level with human beings. They are even ascribed the position of being the offspring of demons and devils who suddenly came forth from hell on the day humanity came into being. His direct descent from this line of scholarship is only reinforced by the continuation of the same quote which clarifies that all Soviet scholars shared the opinion that Britain had always been an aggressive imperialistic power in the Orient and that British colonial rule should be considered far crueler and less acceptable to indigenous ethnicities than that inaugurated by Tsarist civil and military authorities p.

And so, Sergeev, following in the footsteps of Soviet scholarship, highlights that: Symptomatically, many Europeans were convinced that [the] Russian … pattern of colonial government proved to be not less progressive and sometimes more efficient than that of the British. This is also confirmed by Anara Tabyshalieva, a Kyrgyz scholar offering critical comments on this review essay before its publication, saying: I fully agree with your critique of the Eurocentric approach of E.

His statements remind me of some pre-Soviet and Soviet publications. We certainly welcome the former. It is one thing to simply portray the 19th-century Russian views as they were expressed. But this does not keep the historian from critically analyzing those views in relation to and in light of the modern setting in which they are investigated, especially when framing introductions and drawing conclusions. To this he makes an important contribution, one from which the reader will richly benefit, just as this reviewer has, provided that the book is read with a critical eye.

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Anara Tabyshalieva co-editor with M. Palat of History of the Civilizations of Central Asia: Volume 6: towards the contemporary period: From the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century, UNESCO, for offering critical comments on this review before its publication. Responsibility for all content remains my own. Notes The author does not provide an explicit description of the late s and s as one of re-emerging tensions. It is supplied from my own reading of the narrative.

Back to 1 See e. All titles are, of course, originally in Kazakh-Turkic.

Back to 3 Scott C. Back to 5 Ibid, pp. New York: St.

Back to 7 Ozcan, Pan-Islamism, p. Back to 8 Ibid, p. Back to 9 Ibid, p. Back to 10 Kemal H.

Ertuk Ithaca Press, , pp. Back to 12 Cf. James H. Renee Worringer, ed. Back to 14 See esp.

Dilyara M. Frank Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, , pp. Back to 15 See esp. Back to 16 Along with works cited above, see also: A. Back to 17 Pp. Back to 19 Ibid, pp. Noor-Aiman I.

Back to 22 Selcuk Esenbel and Inaba Chiharu, eds. Published on H-Africa March, Available at: www. Back to 26 Ibid, pp. Back to 28 Cf. Sergeev, pp.

The great game

Back to 31 Cf. Back to 32 See Zh. Kasimbaev, "Kenesari Kasimuhli bastagan Kazakh xalkining ult-azattik kozgalisi," in Kazakhstan ulttik [national] encyclopediasi, ed. Back to 33 Zh. Kasimbaev, "Kenesari Kasimuhli bastagan Kazakh xalkining ult-azattik kozgalisi," p. Concerning his diplomatic correspondence with Tsarist officials, cf. Martha B. Back to 36 Cf. Back to 37 A. Seidimbek, Kazakh alemi: etnomadeni paiimdau [The Kazakh World: an ethnocultural exegesis] Almaty, Kazakhstan, , pp.Invest in Kazakhstan.

His intention was to take Herat then move on to Kandahar. The term "Great Game" was used by nineteenth-century British imperialists to describe the British-Russian struggle for position on the chessboard of Afghanistan and Central Asia — a contest with a few players, mostly limited to intelligence forays and short wars fought on horseback with rifles, and with those living on the chessboard largely bystanders or victims.

Thus the Russian advance into Central Asia was already under way well before the Crimean War was even on the horizon.

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Burnes, a Christian travelling through a Muslim country was one of the first to study Afghanistan for British Intelligence and upon his return, he published his book, Travels To Bukhara, [34] which became an overnight success in The hope of fresh faces bringing change with regards to the CAS and the early visits to Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan by PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan was however, undermined by the inexperience of provincial politicians who had suddenly found themselves at the national level.

On hearing of the execution of the two British officers, Emperor Nicholas I of Russia would no longer receive Bukhara's gifts or emissaries, and its ambassador was turned back at Orenburg with a message that the Emperor would no longer have anything to do with the Emir of Bukhara. Having shown how the original game played out, it is crucial to analyze the true significance of The Game by reviewing it with a critical mindset by utilizing contemporary tools for international political analysis.

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