EPUB is an e-book file format that uses the ".epub" file extension. The term is short for .. "The ePub torture test: Starring 'Three Shadows,' a graphic novel". This EPUB specification defines a model for template-based adaptive paginated .. background-origin; background-clip; background-attachment; box-shadow do not need to be contiguous, nor does their location in the html DOM change. A set of reference stylesheets for EPUB Reading Systems, starting with Readium 2. -ibooks-stroke, -ibooks-popover-background, and -ibooks-popover-shadow This attribute is used to indicate DOM elements for which text-align must be.

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The most accessible approach is to prepare a complete shadow DOM inside the can vas element. In this implementation, the script controlling the canvas also. The next-gen Web and EPUB Editor based on the rendering engine of Firefox®. Version CSS 3 including 2D and 3D Transformations, Transitions, Shadows, Columns, Font Features and more, supported DOM Explorer panel, supported. Shadow DOM serves for encapsulation. It allows a component to have its very own “shadow” DOM tree, that can't be accidentally accessed from the main.

If an element has both, then the browser renders only the shadow tree. But we can setup a kind of composition between shadow and light trees as well.

Shadow tree can be used in Custom Elements to hide component internals and apply component-local styles. We can only access the shadow DOM by the reference returned by attachShadow and probably hidden inside a class. The shadow root , returned by attachShadow , is like an element: We want to make this open-source project available for people all around the world. Tutorial map. Built-in shadow DOM Did you ever think how complex browser controls are created and styled?

Previous lesson Next lesson. Comments read this before commenting… You're welcome to post additions, questions to the articles and answers to them. The -epubx-partition rule defines a partition inside a page master.

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It simply contains property declarations:. The following standard CSS2. For partitions in horizontal writing mode, the height property of a partition, if not given or set to auto , is calculated automatically based on the content. First, the maximum possible height that can be used without overflowing the page is determined. Next, content is laid out using the maximum height as a partition height. After the layout is set, partition height is calculated as a minimal possible height of the partition that would still fit all the content that was laid out.

In vertical writing mode as determined by -epub-writing-mode property , width property is treated in the similar fashion. The overflow property of a partition is set by default to hidden.

Content authors may overwrite it with the visible value. Other values are not supported, and using any of these values will turn the overflow property into hidden. The -epubx-wrap-flow property of a partition is set by default to both. This property causes the partition to create exclusions for content in all subsequent partitions.

Content authors may overwrite the property with the auto making this partition overlap content in other partitions and clear settings.

Note that subsequent partitions in the page master always exclude the content in the prior partitions. Content is only excluded in partitions that grow in their block progression direction. More precisely, if a partition has a dimension which is automatically calculated and the position of its before edge depends on the automatically calculated dimension, exclusions are not applied to the content. Specifying -epubx-flow-from property in the partition content binds the partition to the flow.

Content from the flow is laid out in that partition. By default -epubx-flow-from is set to body. This page master will cause content to be presented on a pages with the given padding, border, and margin and broken into multiple columns when each column can be at least 20em wide. If partition head has some content assigned to it, it will exclude the content in the partition body.

To apply partition-specific styling inside some partitions, you can use the CSS Regions -epubx-region rule. For instance, in the following example content is flowed from the top single-column region into the bottom 2-column region, and -epubx-region rule increases font size in the top region only. Note that partition and content are not considered to have ancestor-descendant relationship, thus this stylesheet does not have the desired effect:. Typically -epubx-partition rules are nested directly in the -epubx-page-master rule.

However, it may be necessary to have a common container.

Specifying a property on individual subcontainers would have different result. This is the case, for instance, for z-index and opacity properties.

And in some cases, it is just convenient to have an additional CSS box that can contain several partitions. The -epubx-partition-group rule can be used for grouping partitions.

Grouping does not affect partition scoping, position or excluding behavior partition-group CSS box size is always the same as the page size. The -epubx-partition-group rule can contain -epubx-partition and -epubx-partition-group rules and the following properties:.

Properties are optional; however, every -epubx-partition-group must contain at least one -epubx-partition or -epubx-partition-group rule. In many cases a page master or a particular partition can only be used under certain conditions. Before a page master or a partition within the selected page master is used it is first determined if it is enabled or not. This is done by calculating the computed value of the -epubx-enabled property. The calculation is different for partitions and page masters.

In both cases for -epubx-enabled computed value to be true all of the following conditions must be met:. Additional conditions for partitions all of which must be satisfied are listed below.

The partition is said to have an explicit height when either its height property is not auto or when both top and bottom properties are not auto. Specifies that the page master or the partition is only enabled for a particular numbered page. These properties define minimal page dimensions for which the page master or the partition are still usable.

They participate in calculation of the -epubx-enabled property computed value. This property determines if this partition must be present for page master to be usable. The property is typically used to select a particular page master based on availability of content in a particular flow. It participates in calculation of the enclosing page master -epubx-enabled property computed value.

This property determines if this partition cannot be used together with one or more other partitions in the page master. For example, their use together might cause overlap or visual conflict. The property participates in calculation of the enclosing page master -epubx-enabled property computed value.

This property cannot be specified using -epubx-expr syntax. This property determines if this partition must be only used together with one or more other partitions in the page master. These properties have effect only for the -epubx-partition rule; however, if they are specified on the -epubx-partition-group or -epubx-page-master rules, the value is inherited in the enclosed -epubx-partition rules. In printed layouts, text lines in adjacent columns typically align. This alignment can be achieved in CSS multicolumn layout if special attention is given to paragraph spacing and line height because each column starts at the same position in block progression direction.

However, when text is flowing into multiple arbitrarily positioned partitions, lines align only if partitions are positioned a whole number of lines apart in block progression direction. The -epubx-snap-height and -epubx-snap-width properties help to control this automatically. Two properties are defined, -epubx-snap-height for vertical and -epubx-snap-width for horizontal direction. The -epubx-snap-height property is primarily useful for horizontal writing, and -epubx-snap-width - for vertical.

However, both of them can be used in the same page master or even for the same partition. These properties snap partition content origin position and edges of overlapping floated partitions to the grid with the given interval: Partition position is pushed in the block or inline progression direction to the next grid line. Edges of the exclusion are moved to make exclusion bigger, such as up for the top edge and down for the bottom edge.

Partitions that caused exclusions themselves are not moved; adjustment happens only for the exclusion areas that they generate. The -epubx-flow rule defines the flow's global properties:.

Note that this rule does not create the flow; it merely defines its properties. It is not necessary to declare flow in any way; simply using -epubx-flow-into property is sufficient. The only property that is defined for the -epubx-flow rule is -epubx-flow-consume:. If -epubx-flow-consume is set to all on a particular flow, that flow is considered to be primary. Pages are generated from page masters while at least one primary flow still has content to render. When all primary flows are exhausted, the document is considered fully rendered.

Content-based page master selection see -epubx-required property relies on knowledge about which partitions are going to have eligible content for the next page. This lookahead is only a heuristic and in some instances it is desirable to adjust it.

For instance, if page master contains partition for the primary flow which only covers a small fraction of the page area, it may be desirable to decrease the lookahead size. The -epubx-utilization property defines a range of content which is looked up ahead to find the content available for various partitions.

The lookup size is determined in the following manner: The result is the amount of content to look forward for this page master. Lookup position in the content is determined in the following way:. Note that lookup position can occur between two code points of the surrogate pair. This is not a problem because it is never used to split the text content.

Each -epubx-page-master rule creates a scope for named values.

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In addition to the names that are defined by -epubx-define rule, certain values related to the page master partitions can be accessed using partition name with the "dot" notation:. These names correspond to positions of the edges of the corresponding box relative to the page top left corner. As usual, values can be used before they are defined, as long as there are no circular dependencies. Rules for calculating the actual the values of the partition properties are implicitly included in the overall dependency resolution and value calculation.

The only constraint is that when the height of the partition is not specified or set to auto or width of the partition in the vertical writing mode , CSS rules prescribe to lay out the content to determine block height. Partitions are always laid out in the reverse order of their appearance in the page master, so partition parameters can depend only on the height of the partitions that follow that partition, or of partitions that explicitly specify a height.

In the example above, the partition pict is positioned horizontally between two right columns in the partition body and centered on the page vertically. Note that each element is still aware of its position in the document.

1. Introduction

In other words, flow sequences contain references to the elements in the document, not the elements themselves. Each element used in the pagination algorithm has the following values conceptually associated with them:. Going through the partitions in the page master in the reverse order, for each partition find its corresponding flow and place content in the partition using the following rules. Only eligible elements are considered.

Viewport rule contains a set of properties that apply to the overall page layout:. Width and height properties should be used together. If both are set to some length value, they define the logical size of the viewport. Each page will have that size as its dimension, and all pages will be scaled up or down to fit completely into the available device viewport.

The -epubx-text-zoom property controls how content is zoomed or more colloquially "text size increased". When -epubx-text-zoom is set to font-size default , zooming will increase the initial value of the font-size property and as a result em unit.

This will increase the size of everything sized in em or ex units.

When -epubx-text-zoom is set to scale , logical viewport size is decreased by some scale factor and the resulting pages are zoomed by the same factor to keep real viewport size the same. All constructs defined in this specification must occur within a containing -epubx-page-template rule. This ensures compatibility with Reading Systems that do not support Adaptive Layout since they are required to ignore content inside any unsupported at-rule.

Reading Systems supporting this specification may also activate its functionality conditionally. Determination of activation is Reading-System-dependent and not defined here, but this could for example include ignoring Adaptive Layout on a very small screen device unless printing, or when creating an aural rendition.

When Adaptive Layout is unsupported or not active, only regular rules are applied. When Adaptive Layout is active, both regular rules and rules inside -epubx-page-template are applied.

Introduction 1.


Related Modules 1. Prefixes 2. Adaptive styling 2. Calculated Values: Defining named values: Conditional styling: Page Layout 3. Flows, partition and page masters 3. Introduction 3.

EPUB Adaptive Layout

Regions 3. Exclusions 3. Multi-column Layout 3. Backgrounds and Borders 3. Content Styling 3. Flow overview 3. Types of content in the flow: Flow content lifetime: Flow content selection: Page Masters 3.

Assigning CSS classes to at-rules 3. Defining page layout: Page Master Selection 3. Allocating the page area: Styling content in a partition: Grouping the partitions: Conditional page master and partition usage:There are, however, a few restrictions on certain elements.

Program for writers. We recommend not trying to implement those features in your app unless JavaScript is strictly disabled for authoring purposes. But how can we affect its internals? The Los Angeles Times. The partition is said to have an explicit height when either its height property is not auto or when both top and bottom properties are not auto.

The idea behind shadow tree is to encapsulate internal implementation details of a component. They are unlikely to accept CSS Lengths.

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