Pascal and Programming with Structured BASIC in the Schaum's Outline Schaum's outline of theory and problems of programming with C /. bestthing.info Oh Crap! OF PROGRAMMING WITH C, Second Edition BYRON S. GOTTFRIED, Ph.D. SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF. Like all Schaum's Outline Series books, this volume is intended to be used primarily for self study, preferably in conjunction with a regular course in C++ programming language or computer So unless someone has installed a C++ compiler.
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Schaum's outline of theory and problems of programming with C Schaum's outline series. Material. Type. Book. Language English. Title. Schaum's outline of . covertitle: author publisher isbn10 | asin print isbn13 ebook isbn13 language subjectpublication date. Programming With C By Byron Gottfried || Schaum's Outline Free Download Word power made easy By Norman lewis PDF Free Download.
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We have used some of these from the header file. Our first example uses of one of the mathematical functions in. Example 4. The sqrt function when given a positive number will return the value of the square root of the argument. The include tells the compiler to use the functions defined in file math. A function like sqrt is executed by using its name as a variable in a statement, like this: In the last example, sqrt i calls the sqrt function. The expression x in the parentheses is the argument or actual parameter..
So when i is 3, the value 3 is passed to the sqrt function by the call sqrt i. This process is illustrated by the following diagram: During the fourth iteration of the for loop, its value is 3.
That value is passed to the sqrt function, which then returns the value 1. Table 4. If passed an integer, it is promoted to double before it is processed by the function. For example, if you want the random number function rand , place include at the beginning of your main program file.
User-Defined Functions The functions provided by libraries are not sufficient for all problems. Programmers must be able to define their own functions. A user-defined function has two parts: The header of a function specifies its return type, name, and parameter list.
Thus the header for the cube function is int cube int x The body of a function is the block of code that follows its header. It contains the code that performs the function's action, including the return statement that specifies the value that the function sends back to the place where it was called.
Usually the body is much larger. But the function's header typically fits on a single line. A function's return statement serves two purposes: Its syntax is return expression; where expression is any expression whose value could be assigned to a variable whose type is the same as the function's return type. Test Drivers Whenever you create your own function, you should test it with a simple program called a test driver. Its only purpose is to test the function.
It is a temporary, ad hoc program that can be "quick and dirty. Don't Forget! Once you have used a test driver, discard it. This directive of course is required for every program that uses cin or cout. It is omitted from further examples only to save space. We can visualize the relationship between the main function and the cube function like this: The main function passes the value 5 to the cube function, and the cube function returns to the main function.
The actual parameter n is passed by value to the formal parameter x. This simply means that x is assigned the value of n when the function is called.
Note that the cube function is defined above the main function in the example. The next example shows a user-defined function named max , which returns the larger of the two ints passed to it. This function has two arguments. A return statement is like a break statement. Another, more common arrangement is to list only the function's header above the main program, and then list the function's complete definition header and body below the main program.
A function declaration or prototype is its header, followed by a semicolon. The definition is the complete function: Like a variable declaration, a function declaration must appear above any use of its name. However, the function definition, when listed separately from the declaration, may appear anywhere outside the main function and is usually listed after it or in a separate file.
You Need to Know A function declaration is like a variable declaration. It provides the compiler with information needed to compile the rest of the file.
The compiler doesn't need to know how the function works.
It only needs the function's name, the number and types of its parameters, and its return type. This is the information contained in the function's header. They are local variables that exist only during the execution of the function. Their listing in the parameter list declares them.
The variables that are listed in the function's calls are called the actual parameters or actual arguments.
Like any other variable in the main program, they must be declared before they are used in the call. In these examples, the actual parameters are passed by value. This means that their values are assigned to the function's corresponding formal parameters. So in the previous example, the value of m is assigned to x and the value of n is assigned to y. When passed by value, actual parameters may be constants or expressions.
The function's declaration appears above the main program and its definition follows it: The function would be declared as int length ; whereas the variable would be declared as int length; The only difference is that the function declaration includes the parentheses.
In reality, the two alternatives are quite different, but syntactically they are nearly the same when they are used. In cases like this one can regard a function as a kind of ''active variable''; i.
Separate Compilation Function definitions are often compiled independently in separate files. For example, all the functions declared in the Standard C Library are compiled separately. One reason for separate compilation is "information hiding" that is, information that is necessary for the complete compilation of the program but not essential to the programmer's understanding of the program is hidden. Experience shows that information hiding facilitates the understanding and thus success of large software projects.
The actual commands that you would use to compile these files will depend upon your local system. Another advantage of compiling functions separately is that they can be tested separately before the program s that call them are written. Once you know that the max function works properly, you can forget about how it works and save it to be used whenever it is needed. If you happen to discover a better way to implement max , you can compile and test that function, and then link that module with whatever programs were using the previous version of the max function.
Local Variables and Functions A local variable is one declared inside a block. It is accessible only from within that block. Since the body of a function itself is a block, variables declared within a function are local to that function; they exist only while the function is executing. A function's formal parameters arguments are also regarded as being local to the function. This function has two local variables: The parameter n is local because it is declared in the function's parameter list.
The variable f is local because it is declared within the function body. The use of local variables within functions is another example of information hiding. The user of a function need not know what variables are used within the function. In other programming languages, such a function is called a procedure or subroutine. A void function is one that returns no value. Since a void function does not return a value, it need not include a return statement.
If it does have a return statement, then it appears simply as return; with no expression following the keyword return. In this case, the return statement is simply terminates the function.
A function with no return value is an action. Accordingly, it is usually best to use a verb phrase for its name. Boolean Functions Sometimes it is helpful to use a function to evaluate a condition, typically within an if or while statement.
Such functions are called Boolean functions, after the British logician George Boole Passing by Reference So far, the parameters we have seen in functions have been passed by value. The expression used in the function call is evaluated first and the resulting value is assigned to the corresponding parameter in the parameter list before function execution. For example, in cube x , if x is 4, then the value 4 is passed to the local variable n before the function executes.
Since the value 4 is used locally inside the function, x is unaffected by the function. Thus, x is a read-only parameter. The pass-by-value mechanism allows expressions to be passed to the function. In each case, the expression is evaluated to a single value that is passed to the function. Read-only, pass-by-value communication is usually what we want. It makes the function self-contained, protecting against accidental side effects. There are situations where a function must change the value of the parameter passed to it.
This is done by passing it by reference. This makes the local variable a reference to the actual parameter passed to it. Therefore, the actual parameter is readwrite, not read-only. Any change to the local variable inside the function will cause the same change to the actual parameter. Parameters passed by value are called value parameters, and those passed by reference are called reference parameters. This is accomplished by declaring the formal parameters x and y as reference variables: When a call swap a,b executes, the function creates its local references x and y so that x is an alias for a, and y is an alias for b.
Then the local variable temp is declared and initialized with the value of a, a is assigned the value of b, and b is assigned the value of temp. It's a matter of taste. Formal parameter x is local reference. A duplicate of the actual parameter.
A synonym for actual parameter. Cannot change the actual parameter. Can change the actual parameter. Actual parameter may be constant, variable, or expression. Actual parameter must be variable. Actual parameter is read-only. Actual parameter is read-write. It can only return one value directly with a return statement.
So if more than one value must be returned, reference parameters can do the job. Passing by Constant Reference There are two good reasons for passing a parameter by reference. If the function has to change the value of the actual parameter, as the swap function did, then it must be passed by reference. If the actual parameter takes up a lot of storage space e. However, this also allows the function to change the value of the actual parameter.
It works the same way as passing by reference, except that the function cannot change the parameter value. The effect is that the function has access to the actual parameter by means of its alias, but the value of parameter may not be changed during the execution of the function.
A parameter that is passed by value is called "read-only" because it cannot change the contents of that parameter. Consider the function: Passing parameters by constant reference is used to process large objects, such as arrays and class instances that are described in later chapters.
Objects of fundamental types int, float, etc. It begins where the name is declared. If that declaration is inside a function including main , then the scope extends to the end of the innermost block that contains the declaration. A program may have several objects with the same name as long as their scopes are nested or disjoint. This is illustrated below.
Data Structures With C – by Schaum Series PDF
This is called file scope. The second x is declared inside main so it has local scope; i. The third x is declared inside an internal block, so its scope is restricted to that internal block. The only place where the scope of the first x is not overridden is within the function g.
As long as they have different parameter type lists, the compiler regards them as different functions. To be distinguished, the parameter lists must either contain a different number of parameters, or at least one position in their parameter lists must have different types.
The compiler checks their parameter lists to determine which one to use on each call. For example, the first call passes two ints, so the version that has two ints in its parameter list is called.
If that version had been omitted, then the system would promote the ints to doubles and pass them to the version that has two doubles in its parameter list. In fact, we can think of the complete program itself as being made up of the main function together with all the other functions that are called either directly or indirectly from it.
Since this is the default return type for any function, it need not be specified. So we usually just write main instead of int main. If you want to terminate the program from within a function other than the main function, you cannot use a return statement. The return statement will only terminate the current function and return control to the invoking function.
The exit function that is defined in the header file takes an integer argument that is returned to the operating system as the "value" of the program execution.
This value is usually ignored by the operating system unless the user is executing the program as part of a script. Providing default values for the optional arguments does this. Consider a function p with 4 double parameters.
The first is required and the last three are optional: So the effect of allowing default parameter values is really to allow a variable number of actual parameters passed to the function. If a function has default parameter values, then the function's parameter list must show all the parameters with default values to the right of all the parameters that have no default values, like this: The objects, called elements, are numbered consecutively starting with 0.
These numbers are called index values, or subscripts of the array. Subscripts locate element positions and allow direct access into the array. If the name of an array is a then a  is the name of the first element that element in position 0. Here is an array of 6 integers: The index is the distance from the start of the array. Processing the Elements of an Array Processing arrays allows us to manipulate a list of objects without having to name each object differently.
This example reads in a list of 4 data values and displays then in reverse order. Example 5. If we omitted the initializer list entirely, the results would be four ''garbage" values of whatever happened to be in the memory used for the array. Some programming languages make the number of array elements available at execution time. The program in Ex. If the reference reads data, it will probably reference a meaningless data item or program code. A write operation will overwrite some other data item or program instructions.
If the reference is outside the space owned by the executing program a segmentation fault memory access violation will occur and your program will terminate abnormally. Multi-Dimensional Arrays So far, we have looked only at one-dimensional arrays. Since the element type of an array may be any type, it can be an array type.
An array of arrays is called a multi-dimensional array. A one-dimensional array of onedimensional arrays is called a two-dimensional array; a one-dimensional array of two-dimensional arrays is called a three-dimensional array; etc.
The simplest way to declare a multi-dimensional array is like this: Notice how the array is initialized: They are naturally processed with arrays. The following program fragment defines an array of seven real numbers, representing the high temperature for each of the seven days of a week: Using enumeration in this way makes your code more readable.
Type Definitions As shown in the last section, enumeration is one way to define your own types. The keyword typedef declares a new name i. A typedef does not define a new type; it only provides a synonym for an existing type. For example, the declaration int n; associates the name n, the type int, and the address of some location in memory where the value of n is to be stored.
The value of a variable is accessed by means of its name. For example, we can print the value of n with the statement: This address is equal to the decimal number 67,, Displaying a variable's address this way is not very useful. We saw one use in Chapter 4: That use is closely tied to another: References A reference is an alias, a synonym for another variable.
Example 6. Decrementing n changes both n and r to Doubling r increases both n and r to The last line shows that r and n are aliases.
The identifiers n and r are both symbolic names for the same memory location 0x3fffd Like a const, a reference must be initialized when it is declared. That should seem reasonable: Every reference must have a referent. Reference parameters were defined for functions in Chapter 4.
We see that they work the same way as reference variables: A reference parameter for a function is just a reference variable whose scope is limited to the function. It can be used as a prefix to a variable name when it returns the address of that variable. When used as a suffix to a type in a variable declaration, it declares the variable to be a synonym for the variable to which it is initialized. When used as a suffix to a type in a function's parameter declaration, it declares the parameter to be a reference parameter for the variable that is passed to it.
All of these uses are variations on the same theme: We used this in Ex. We can also store the address in another variable.
The type of the variable that stores an address is called a pointer. The value of a pointer is an address that depends upon the state of the individual computer on which the program is running. In most cases, the actual value of that address is not relevant to the issues that concern the programmer.
A pointer can be thought of as a ''locator": Often we will need to use the pointer p alone to obtain the value to which it points. So p references n and r dereferences p. Therefore, r is also an alias for n. Derived Types In Ex. These types are derived from the int type. Like arrays, constants, and functions, these are derived types. Here are some declarations of derived types: The fundamental types include enumeration types and all the number types.
Each derived type is based upon some other type. A variable declared to have any of the derived types illustrated above constant, array, pointer, reference, and function is based upon a single fundamental type. You Need to Know A derived type that is based upon more than one fundamental type is called a structure type. These include structures, unions, and classes.
Objects and lvalues An object is a region of storage. An lvalue is an expression referring to an object or function. Originally, the terms ''lvalue" and "rvalue" referred to things that appeared on the left and right sides of assignments. But now "lvalue" is more general. The simplest examples of lvalues are names of objects, i. Variables are mutable lvalues and constants are immutable lvalues. Other mutable lvalues include subscripted variables and dereferenced pointers: In general, an lvalue is anything whose address is accessible.
Returning a Reference A function's return type may be a reference if the value returned is an lvalue which is not local to the function. This restriction means that the returned value is actually a reference to an lvalue that exists after the function terminates. Consequently, that returned lvalue may be used like any other lvalue; for example, on the left side of an assignment: Since the return value is a reference, the expression max m, n acts like a reference to m since m is larger than n.
So assigning 55 to the expression max m, n is equivalent to assigning it to m itself. The affect of this arithmetic is to cause the pointer to point to another memory location. The actual change in address depends upon the size of the fundamental type to which the pointer points. Pointers can be incremented and decremented like integers.
However, the increase or decrease in the pointer's value is equal to the size of the object to which it points. Since p is a pointer to short, each time it is incremented it advances 2 bytes to the next short integer in the array. If p were a pointer to double and sizeof double were 8 bytes, then each time p is incremented it would advance 8 bytes.
Schaum's Easy Outline: Programming with C
This is how an array can be traversed: Each increment moves the pointer to the next element of the array. We can also use a pointer for direct access into the array. We can access a by initializing the pointer to a and then adding 5 to it: It is possible to access and modify unallocated memory locations. The next example shows an even tighter connection between arrays and pointers: It also shows that pointers can be compared.
The loop continues as long as p references an a not located past the last element. They provide direct access into the array the same way: So the array a could be traversed like this: Another way to avoid the problem of a dangling pointer is to allocate memory explicitly. This is done with the new operator: Typically, sizeof float is 4 bytes.
It is possible to do both in the same statement that declares the pointer: A deallocated pointer, also called a dangling pointer, is like an uninitialized pointer: A pointer to a constant cannot be deleted: Using the delete operator for fundamental types char, int, float, double, etc. Dynamic Arrays An array name is just a constant pointer allocated at compile time: The declaration of a is called static binding because it is allocated at compile time; the symbol is bound to the allocated memory even if the array is never used while the program is running.
In contrast, we can use a non-constant pointer to postpone the allocation of memory until the program is running. This is generally called run-time binding or dynamic binding. An array that is declared this way is called a dynamic array. Compare the two ways of defining an array: The dynamic array p is created at run time; its memory allocated only when its declaration executes. Furthermore, the memory allocated to the array p is deallocated as soon as the delete operator is invoked on it: So the array is created "on the fly" while the program is running.
Before get is used to create another array for a, the current array has to be deallocated with the delete operator. Note that the subscript operator  must be specified when deleting an array.
Note that the a is a pointer that is passed by reference: Using const with Pointers A pointer to a constant is different from a constant pointer.
This distinction is illustrated in the following example. This fragment declares four variables: Here is an array of 4 pointers to type double: It shows how to sort a list indirectly by changing the pointers to the elements instead of moving the elements themselves.
Nevertheless, this symbol can be assigned to all the fundamental types. In each case, the object is initialized to the number 0. The values of pointers are memory addresses. These addresses must remain within that part of memory allocated to the executing process, with the exception of the address 0x0.
This is called the NULL pointer. The same constant applies to pointers derived from any type. All of the following initialize the pointers to NULL: This is a common fatal error: The name void denotes a special fundamental type.
Unlike all the other fundamental types, void can only be used in a derived type: For example, the call strlen s will return the number of characters in the string s, not counting its terminating NUL character.
These functions all declare their string parameters as pointers to char. So before we study these string operations, we need to review pointers. The following declarations define x to be a float containing the value The rectangles represent storage locations in memory.
The variable p points to the variable x. We can also have several pointers referencing the same object. This means that the number of characters in the array is always 1 more than the string length. The string may be initialized with a string literal like this: The user must ensure that buffer is defined long enough to hold the input.
These include the string length function strlen , the string copying functions strcpy and strncpy , the string concatenating functions strcat and strncat , the string comparing functions strcmp and strncmp , and the token extracting function strtok. The best way is by means of string class operators as described in Chapter Since straightforward methods are useful to understanding how strings are represented and manipulated we describe these techniques in this chapter.
Example 7. The do loop in Ex. The call cin. The call getline str, n, ch reads input to the first occurrence of the delimiting character ch into str.
This is illustrated in the next example where the delimiting character is the comma. The call get ch copies the next character from the input stream cin into the variable ch and returns 1, unless the end of file is detected in which case it returns 0. The opposite of get is put. The ignore function reads past one or more characters in the input stream cin without processing them.
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In this run, that digit is 3. The following code shows how peek can be used in place of the get and putback functions.
Then if ch is a digit, the complete integer is read into n and returned. Otherwise, the character is removed from cin and the loop continues.
Character Functions Defined in Many character manipulation functions are defined in ; see Table 7. Table 7. Note that these functions receive an int parameter c and they return an int. This works because char is an integer type. Normally, a char is passed to the function and the return value is assigned to a char, so we regard these as character-modifying functions. Arrays of Strings Recall that a two-dimensional array is really a one-dimensional array whose components themselves are onedimensional arrays.
When those component arrays are strings, we have an array of strings. The declaration char name  would allocate bytes logically arranged in 5 rows of 40 characters each.
We could use this to enter 5 names with the following code fragment: The simplest of these functions is the string length function strlen. Strings are structured objects, composed of characters. Functions in the C-String Library simulate these operations.
The next example illustrates three other string functions. These are used to locate characters and substrings within a given string. The expression p-s computes the index 3 of this character within the string. Remember the initial character 'T' has index 0.
The character 's' first appears at index 6 in s. The call strstr s, "is" returns a pointer to the first occurrence of the substring "is" within s; this is at s . The call strstr s, "isi" returns NULL because "isi" does not occur within s. The functions that simulate string assignment are: Both return s1.
Consider the following program fragment which illustrates the use of strcpy and strncpy: Note that strcpy s1, s2 creates a duplicate of string s2. Programming with C is good for both beginners and intermediate C programmers. The practice problems in the books are with full explanations that reinforce your knowledge and provide coverage of the most up-to-date facts in a particular topic.
The in-depth review of practices and applications along with the practice questions will help you test your skills in C. You can find more C programming books here. Tuesday, April 16, Code with C.
Books C Books.Since the overloaded arithmetic operators cannot be member functions, they cannot access the private member data num and den.
In objects of that class, the relevant data member holds only a pointer to the actual string, so a bit-by-bit copy would only duplicate the pointer, not the string itself. Starting with introductory concepts, the book dives into C fundamentals, operators and expressions, data input and output, and preparing and running a complete C program. It simply calls fail and returns its return value, which will be nonzero unless both the failbit and the badbit are clear.
If you do not include a copy constructor in your class definition, then the "default" copy constructor will simply copy objects bit-by-bit. The bytes flow into the running program through the cin object, and they flow out through the cout object. They are local variables that exist only during the execution of the function. July 10, Sex: Example