PARADOJA Y CONTRAPARADOJA EBOOK

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Paradoja Y Contraparadoja Ebook

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Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. Romanian Literary Perspectives and European Referate la orice materie ; Mesterul Manole - povestirea pe momentele subiectului In poezia "Soica" reiese cu putere ideea de epu The reader later finds out that this is not so, he instead leaves the house in order to watch to see if she Your job: out-monster the monster then get home at the end of the night. Out here there is no good, there is no bad.

To survive out here you gotta out-monster the monster. Can you do that? Instead of liberalisms dream of law and order, in this rendering, policing is simply a project of superior violence and firepower. Here beyond good and evil, the bigger mon- ster wins see Anker, So while we might agree with Rafters assertions regarding the critical potential of some cop films, the always already together unity of monster and police marks a rupture in the police imaginary not adequately addressed by the strictures of genre and convention.

After all, as David Russell suggests, the basic definition of any horror film may be centered around its monster character, and the conflict arising in the fantastical and unreal monsters relationship with normality. Likewise, as Thacker b suggests, textual encounters with the monstrous invite a competition between two poles of radical uncertainty, thereby opening up particularly fertile avenues for critique.

The fork in the road is not simply between something existing on not existing, it is a wavering between two types of radical uncertainty: either demons do not exist, but then my own senses are unreliable, or demons do exist, but then the world is not as I thought it was.

With the fantasticas with the horror genre itselfone is caught between two abysses, neither of which are comforting or particularly reassuring. Either I do not know the world, or I do not know myself.

Thacker, b: 6 Thackers point is that horror lies not in the suspicion that one is insane, but rather in the realization that one is not insane.

Fit to the question of the police, it is not necessarily the abhorrent acts of the rogue cop which are horrific, but rather, the sober recognition that violence, coercion and murder are routine police practices. The horror then, emerges from the realization that you saw what you saw, the face of the monster is in fact the face of the police.

On the street and in the imagination, liberal subjects encounter agents empowered to act on their own volition and discretion and to employ violence and coer- cion, with impunity.

Whether justified or admitted, the violence of police is often 8 Theoretical Criminology 00 0 understood as an unavoidable consequence of the present social order Weber, Entwined and inseparable, sanctified victims and avenging cops signify the worrisome reminder that police rarely prevent crime, appear only after the damage is done and often inflict damage of their own Dubber, Implicit here is the admission that the police cannot keep you safe, are in fact under no obligation to do so Greenhouse, and quite often, view you and your kind as threats or worse, enemies Neocleous, These facts, with which most liberal subjects, particularly racial minorities and the poor, are quite familiar, mirror what Steve Hall and Simon Winlow have called the abject concrete universal, the grim individual experiences that represent the totality of the liberal-capitalist system.

Yet, as Benjamin recognized, police violence reveals the precise moment at which the liberal capitalist fantasy of law and order begins to unravel. Accordingly, this unraveling marks a gap in the symbolic order and offers a glimpse of the realthe horror of police.

The horrifying recognition that liberal capitalist order is unthinkable apart from the violence and coercion of police, shares obvious conceptual terrain with Mark Fishers capitalist realism.

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Drawing inspiration from Fredrick Jamesons well-known sug- gestion, that it is for some, easier to imagine the end of the world than the end of capital- ism, Fisher 2 diagnosed the pervasive sense that not only is capitalism the only viable political and economic system, but also that it is now impossible to even imagine a coherent alternative to it. To elaborate his position, Fisher looks to dystopian fictions, which were once sites to imagine avoidable futures Yar, and instead finds in films like Children of Men an extrapolation or exacerbation of our present.

In this world, as in ours, he writes, ultra-authoritarianism and capital have fashioned circum- stances where internment camps and franchise coffee bars exist alongside one another, where public space has been abandoned to garbage and stalking animals and much to the chagrin of [n]eoliberals, the capitalist realists par excellence the state soldiers on, stripped bare to reveal its core military and police functions Fisher, 4.

Allison Shonkwiler and Leigh Claire La Berge suggest that capitalist realisms strength lies in its ability to articulate the violence produced by capitalism, the lived economic, social and affective instabilities of a world governed by ruthless self-interest and special liberties Hall, b and how these forces align to disclose imagined alternatives Shonkwiler and La Berge, 6.

While capitalist realism usefully marks the bounda- ries of the thinkable, the pair argue, as does Fisher, that it can also operate theoretically and critically, demonstrating the ways that representation can be a potential site for polit- ical transformation Shonkwiler and La Berge, 7. Following these insights the aim is to adopt a parallax view iek, of the contemporary police story, in order to more fully apprehend a dystopian present conditioned by the horror of police.

While at its core True Detective is a boilerplate buddy-cop, police procedural,12 there are a number of distinct aesthetic and narrative elements that make it a useful case for analysis. The weird, as Lovecraft 6 defined, invokes a certain atmosphere of breathless and unexplainable dread of outer, unknown forces. Animating the dread of the unknown and unexplainable, are bleak southern Gothic landscapes upon which, as Cohle observed, nothing grows in the right direction.

Not simply a scenographic backdrop, from Pizzolattos imagination sprung a world where the weak are lost, ground under by per- fidious wheels that lie somewhere behind the visible Madrigal, Disembodied aerial shots of Cohle and Harts car knifing through endless stretches of swamps and bayous abandoned to the petroleum industry and encroaching sea call forth the sense that the inhabitants of this world, in Cohles words, dont even know the outside world exists and might as well be living on the fucking moon.

In other words, Cohle and Harts preserve is not the familiar city of crime fiction Schmid, , or even the balmy south of In the Heat of the Night , but a strange world-in-itselfa world that that bites back Thacker, b: 4. Distinguishing the series further still, Cohles Lovecraftian nihilism and pessimistic view of humanity as a tragic misstep in evolution presents a fundamental contradiction to the aim of liberal order and renders the act of detection a patently futile endeavor.

While the weird the out of place and eerie the absent Fisher, might set it apart from the typical cop drama, like all police stories, True Detective turns on the figure of an enemy.

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In the opening minutes of its first episode, Cohle and Hart catch a glimpse of their illusory, faceless adversary. Called by local police to an impenetrable cane field punctured by a single tree, the pair find a murdered woman Dora Lange kneeling beneath it as if at a prie dieu, a crude crown of deer antlers and roots fixed atop her head.

Reciting the profilers monologue, Cohles on scene analysis begins to sketch the killers outline: This is gonna happen again, or its happened before. Its fantasy enactment. This is his vision. Her body is a paraphilic lovemap. An attachment of physical lust to fantasy and practices forbidden by society.

Her knees are abraded. Rug burns on her back. Cold sores, gumline recession, bad teeth, theres decent odds she was a prost. He might not have known her, but this idea goes way back with him. This kind of thing does not happen in a vacuum. I guarantee this wasnt his first. Its too specific.

Cohle, TD, Authoring this particular killer, True Detective advances a well-worn narrative pitting policepatrolman or profileragainst a spectral, sometimes-supernatural adversary. Despite failing to substantiate any such conspiracy, fears of Ritual Satanic Abuse nevertheless resulted in numerous criminal trialsthe most notable being those of the McMartin Pre- school caseand in some instances, lengthy prison sentences for the wrongly accused Ofshe and Watters, While the panic was by definition misplaced, we should not dismiss True Detectives satanic adversary as simply clichd fantasy.

In Joseph Laycocks view, tales such as this provide plausibility structures that bolster a decidedly Manichean ontology.

Indeed, as the history of the panic shows, a pastiche of innocuous youth fadsrole-playing games, tarot cards, Ouija boards, heavy metal musicwere important theatrical props for this particular iteration of a longstanding battle with evil DeYoung, Much like the Necronomicon, a fic- tional grimoire which escaped Lovecrafts imagination to become, according to some police and occult specialists, a real book used in Satanic rituals, Murrays largely discredited The Witch Cult in Western Europe and the weird tales and horror fic- tion it inspired, initiated according to Jenkins , a cultural vocabulary and a body of memories which have been put to work by police and prosecutors at various times over the last century.

While True Detective is certainly part of a longer cultural and liter- ary lineage, the roots of its satanic adversary run far deeper than episodic panics, dubious scholarship and pulp fiction kitsch. In his writing on the 15th-century French child killer, Gilles de Rais, Bataille suggested that the serial killers decadence actually springs forth from the Christian duties of confession and forgiveness. As with the master and slave, Bataille 15 famously suggested that Christianity relies upon its transgressors and must be recognized for the demand for the horror that in a sense it needs in order to forgive.

Paul OBrien similarly suggests that various cultural forms including the satanic killer emerge from a mutually reinforcing doctrine which positions altruism, reciprocity and mutual concern, alongside a belief in Gods Satanic adversary and the righteousness of eternal damnation for those who run afoul of Christian law. Much like Morettis dia- lectic of fear, Hart and Cohles battle with a satanic adversary invokes a dialectic of Christianity that draws upon and reinforces decidedly western Christian understandings of social order and of course, the police power OBrien, As Mark Neocleous has also recently shown, the theology of evil and particularly Christian notions of the Devil have long been integral to western political power.

In the realm of security, leaders of the earliest state formations in Europe quickly learned that their legitimacy was dramatically enhanced by claims co-ordinating the war on the Devil as the Enemy of All Mankind as well as the Enemy of God Neocleous, True Detective represents the war on the Devil similarly, when in the first episode, Reverend Billy Tuttle, a powerful politically connected church leader who had pressured the police into launching a taskforce investigating crimes with an anti-Christian connotation, warns Hart and Cohle of a war happening behind things TD, As Carl Schmitt proposed, political theology holds that the theories of mod- ern state formations are in essence secularized theology, both in their historical develop- ment and contemporary practice Kotsko, So as Schmitt 36 famously put it, political power transferred from theology to the theory of the state, whereby, for example, the omnipotent God became the omnipotent lawgiver, the most immediately recognizable of which, is of course, the police.

The political theology of the thin blue line extends beyond cinematic representations to the theatrics of actual police who see them- selves as holy warriors locked in a spiritual battle for civilizations salvation. Echoing Benjamin, in his reimagining of the police power as cynegetic or hunting power, philoso- pher Grgoire Chamayou seemingly concurs, suggesting that to be an efficient hunter, one must pursue the prey despite the law, and even against it.

But this antimony was not born in the imaginations of scriptwriters. In passing from the law to the police, we pass from one sphere of sovereignty to another, from the theology of the statethe legal systemto its material formthe police. From its spiritual existence to secular arm. Chamayou, 55 Through its imagined battles with Satanic evil, the police story positions police as both the omnipotent lawgiver and adjunct of a decidedly western Christian understanding of God.

Cohle: Exact same thing they do now. Just out in the open. Itd be a fucking freak show of murder and debauchery and you know it.

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TD, Following Schmitts political theology, we can surmise that Hart sees himself and his kind fashioning a thin blue line, which like belief in God, holds back the swell- ing tide of murder and debauchery.

In True Detective and the everyday, this murder- ous tide is distilled down to its terrifying core, the serial killer, a figure that projects societies blackest desires and enacts its most righteous vengeance simultaneously Seltzer, ; Tithecott, Introduced in the first scenes, yet not revealed until the final episode, Cohle and Harts adversary stalks the otherworldly Louisiana bayous hiding, in Pizzolattos words, like a creature out in the tall grass that you cant see BTS, What this demonstrates then, is that in order for the police story to deliver on its powerful ideological message, it is not necessary to bring the killer to justice, the police power must simply invoke the 12 Theoretical Criminology 00 0 imagination of an enemy.

Hart and Cohles foe and the criminal more generally then, powerfully demonstrate how the politics of enmity are not a matter of simple binary opposition. Indeed as Slavoj iek suggests, because the enemy is by defi- nition, alwaysup to a point, at leastinvisible, he looks like one of us a crucial task for the police political power is to make the monster knownto give it a name.

This is perhaps why Pizzolatto says that he always meant for True Detective to take the form of a manhunt [] than any kind of a whodunit BTS, As Chamayou 2 similarly sug- gests, this understanding of the police power breaks with conventional understandings of linear and face-to-face oppositions and instead is accomplished by means of slow detec- tion work where hunter-analysts piece together a cartography of social networks, in order to trace the enemy to its hideout.

Yet, as it does in True Detective, the slow work of detection always leaves some questions unanswered, just as it creates or uncovers alto- gether new questions. What were the killers motivations? Did he have help? Are there more like him? That policingreal and imaginedalways manages to create more questions than it answers and identify more suspects than it apprehends, is at once one of its most deeply held secrets and repugnant horrors. For policing to endure, it must have a monster to oppose Neocleous, Despite persistent allusions to the weird and eerie, in the end, True Detective failed to deliver the supernatural.

Through this particular enemy, True Detective lazily draws upon and reaffirms a clichd and deceptively conservative narrative built upon the supposed biological inferiority of the rural poor and the overstated, but tidy causality of interfamily sexual abuse and violence found elsewhere in films like Deliverance Creadick, and enshrined in the socio- biology family studies of early US eugenics Rafter, In one scene for instance, Marty, having committed yet another offense against his wife and family, self-loathingly asks Cohle, Do you wonder ever if youre a bad man?

I dont wonder, Marty. The world needs bad men. We keep the other bad men from the door TD, , emphasis added. Contradicting his pessimistic, nihilistic facade, Cohle endorses the rogues notion of breaking the law to uphold the law, advancing a fundamentally Hobbesian view of social order. With Cohle beating information out of suspects and Hart donning black sap gloves to merci- lessly beat two boys caught in congress with his underage daughtersay nothing of their cold-blooded execution of two drug-dealing child molestersrepresentations of the brutal lawlessness of police appear throughout the series.

In fact, one analysis went so far as to record 57 individual crimes committed by Cohle alone and to estimate a cumulative sentence of years under the Louisiana criminal code Cimino, In another scene, where Cohle rousts Lucy, a truck-stop sex worker, he even more plainly admits the monstrosity of the police power and the bad of his own character: Lucy: I thought you were gonna bust me.

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Cohle: I told you, Im not interested. Lucy: Yeah, I know. Youre kinda strange, like you might be dangerous. Im police. I can do terrible things to people with impunity. Yet the horror of police is not simply a matter of denial, as plainly depicted in myriad culture texts, police are the monsters preferred over others, the Leviathan over Behemoth, the bad men who guard the door.

This is the solici- tation of the trap, the active production of subjectivity, whereby liberal subjects renatu- ralize the gap in the symbolic order with the reaffirmation of the inevitable necessity of the superior violence of police Hall and Winlow, In the end, as Laycock notes, True Detective was not the Nietzschean fantasy of men who hunt monsters becoming monsters themselves but instead, another itera- tion of the intoxicating, yet dangerous mythology of the police storythe macho non- sense of Cohle and Hart, their violence and crimes, all justified by a Manichean ontology which positions the police as the thin blue line between goodness and evil Nussbaum, The unthinkable world If we stopped here, True Detective would still be a useful but not necessarily unique jour- ney into the noxious ideology of the police story.

Yet, it is Cohles philosophical pessimism and the paradox of a nihilist policeman, which provide one final and particularly powerful avenue for critique. The obvious task here is how to square the disjuncture between Cohles philosophical positions and his chosen profession. Why would a nihilist endeavor to solve crimes, avenge the wronged, punish the violator? Early on, when Hart and Cohle are get- ting to know each other, we are given a direct answer to these questions: Hart: Can I ask you something?

Youre a Christian, yeah? But in philosophical terms Im whats called a pessimist I think human consciousness is a tragic misstep in evolution. We became too self-aware. Nature created an aspect of nature separate from itself, we are creatures that should not exist by natural law We are things that labor under the illusion of having a self, this accretion of sensory experience and feelings, programmed with total assurance that we are each somebody, when in fact everybodys nobody I think the honorable thing for our species to do is to deny our programming.

Stop reproducing, walk hand in hand into extinctionone last midnight, brothers and sisters opting out of a raw deal. TD, Here Cohle admits that even he, a man who sees humankind as a tragic misstep in evolution, openly decries the futility of existence and advocates planned extinction, cannot deny his programming and the inescapable solicitation of the symbolic order Hall, a.

Despite all his blustering nihilism, Cohle himself labors under the illu- sion of having a self, is programmed with total assurance that he is in fact some- bodya subject of liberal capitalist social order. As a representative of that order, Cohle cannot escape the Cartesian world-for-us and its Manichean ontology of police.

The oldest. Hart: Whats that? Cohle: Light versus dark. Cohle: Yeah, youre right about that. Youre looking at it wrong, the sky thing. Hart: Hows that? Cohle: Well, once there was only dark. You ask me, the lights winning. TD, In her critique of the series, Erin K Stapleton suggests that Cohle has sof- tened his horror for the uselessness of life and the spirituality of his near-death experi- ence has reawakened a latent nostalgia for the monotheistic dialectic between good and evil.

Yet, as we have seen, this is hardly nostalgia and Cohles is no conversion. Rather, he simply reaffirms the position of the police within the oldest story, the story of light versus dark, good versus evil, a story that he and Marty, as always already sub- jects and servants of liberal capitalist order, were doomed to play out.

Just as Hart and Cohle are programmed in service of a particular type of order, so too are liberal subjects who fetishistically disavow the inherent violence of police and actively solicit the trap of a coherent symbolic order Hall and Winlow, and the place of police within the ontologies of world and earth Thacker, In regards to the former, as those who enforce the wage, protect private property Neocleous, and fabricate the color line Brucato, , the police are vital to the creation and continuation of the late-capitalist world, one that is always imagined as being for some of us.

That police are inseparable from the ontology of liberal capitalist order is all the more apparent in attempts to imagine the objective earth. As Thacker b: 5 is clear to point out, while we might be able to imagine the objective thing in itself, the paradox is that the moment we think it and attempt to act on it, it ceases to be the world-in-itself Linnemann 15 and becomes the world for us.

Again, this paradox is neatly illustrated by the place of the police within the dystopian imaginary. While texts like The Road McCarthy, portend the lawlessness of a world absent the state and its police, others such as Children of Men conversely warn of a world beset by far too many, or perhaps the wrong kind of police i.

Even more subtly, films that employ an asteroid strike or earthquake to invoke the apocalyptic, powerfully illustrate the horror of policings impotence through the singular warning that there are some, in fact many things, for which they are simply of no use.

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In the zombie film World War Z for instance, when in the midst of panic and looting, the films protagonist Brad Pitt kills two men who were attacking his wife and immediately submits to a responding police agent, he quickly learns that the agent is also looting and offers no protection. The representation of policings human fallibility and impotence again illustrates the many ways that polic- ing is tied to the collapse or continuation of the symbolic order. Together, the abject concrete universal found here is that the police are often not there when you need them, around when you do not and ultimately of no use either way Hall and Winlow, Capitalism, as Fisher 8 reminds, seamlessly occupies the horizons of the think- able.

The challenge for those who hope for a world free of the violence of capital and police is how to escape this ontological trap Hall, c. The Lovecraftian weird, which has been touted by Thacker , a, b and others, for its ability to help contemplate the unthinkable, offers a clue. Despite its odious racism, Lovecrafts oeuvre offers a heuristic to those working within the varied fields of critical animal studies, posthumanism, new materialism, speculative realism and object-oriented ontology Sederholm and Weinstock, 4.

Most promi- nently, the philosopher Graham Harman advances a weird realism and object-ori- ented ontology intent on challenging the correlation between thinking and being and the assumption that if things exist, they do so only for us Bogost, 4, emphasis in original. As hinted by Pizzolatto in True Detective, Harman sees the Lovecraftian weird, inhabited by indescribable monsters and otherworldly forces that defy human com- prehension, as productive of the gaps between objects and their unknowable qualities.

This sort of speculative realism, does not mean that we are able to state correct proposi- tions about the real world and instead concedes that noumenal reality is too real to be translated without remainder into any sentence, perception, practical action, or anything else Harman, For Harman then, the promise of this sort of speculative thought lies in its ability to undermine anthropocentric, human exceptionalism and offer a starting point for a more munificent engagement with the world that each of us inhabits Sederholm and Weinstock, 6.

Steve Hall and Simon Winlow insist that crimino- logical theory may benefit from such a speculative position, which could dispassionately and without optimism apprehend the present and its consequences as contingent realities in the cold world, and reflect on our role in their causation, and speculate freely on how things might have turned out differently and might turn out differently, should we choose to change our way of doing things. Hall and Winlow, Elsewhere, Winlow following iek, calls for an enlightened catastrophism, which abandons the myth of reform, incremental progress and easy solutions, for the clarity of a grim realism better equipped to imagine the dystopian future, or perhaps reckon the dystopian present Winlow, If the contemporary police story helps reaffirm the Hobbesian view that the police are always redeemable, perhaps then, what is offered by the horror of police is the pessimistic view that the police are in fact irredeemable.

Here in the cold light of day Hall and Winlow, we better apprehend how and why liberal subjectsbeset by an objectless anxiety and fear of the monstrouscling to and actively solicit the solipsistic Cartesian ontology of the world- for-us and its intractable violence and inequality Hall, c.

Because the gap between appearance and essence is irreducible, as iek argues, the best way forward is to formulate the antagonisms necessary to better under- stand a certain social order. The antagonisms offered by the police story powerfully illustrate the fantasies that reproduce the dystopian present.

The challenge then, as I see it, is to think outside the subject in order to imagine the unthinkable, a world-without- police.In Joseph Laycocks view, tales such as this provide plausibility structures that bolster a decidedly Manichean ontology.

London: Verso. Lucy: Yeah, I know. Brucato B Fabricating the color line in a white democracy: From slave catchers to petty sovereigns. Her body is a paraphilic lovemap. El test de matrices progresivas, fue creado en por J. The face is an important source of information in multimodal communication.

In the realm of security, leaders of the earliest state formations in Europe quickly learned that their legitimacy was dramatically enhanced by claims co-ordinating the war on the Devil as the Enemy of All Mankind as well as the Enemy of God Neocleous, Connect to download.

Where the police concept is vital to sustaining the Cartesian world-for-us, a world of mass-consumption and brutal privation, the limitations, failures or absence of police might also reveal horizons of disorder primitivism, anarchismthe world-in-itself.

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