Joseph Campbell. COMMEMORATIVE. EDITION. THE HERO WITH A. With an Introduction by Clarissa Pinkola Estes, Ph.D. author of Women Who Run With the . Over a span of 12 years, Michael Toms recorded conversations between the late Joseph Campbell and himself, during which they developed a close friendship. to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, the Doubleday editor, whose interest in the ideas of Joseph Campbell was the prime mover in the publication of this book. I am.
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JOSEPH CAMPBELL. THE. MASKS OF GOD: BY JOSEPH CAMPBELL. The author wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the generous support. Joseph Campbell explores the vital link of man to his myths and the way in which they can extend our A. Bantam Book / published by arrangement with. Museum of Natural History. Joseph Campbell was born and raised in White Plains, New . and myth. Many of Campbell's books would be published in this series. OtherWebsites//bestthing.info).  Bruce.
Campbell's conception of myth is closely related to the Jungian method of dream interpretation, which is heavily reliant on symbolic interpretation. Jung's insights into archetypes were heavily influenced by the Bardo Thodol also known as The Tibetan Book of the Dead. For years, ever since it was first published, the Bardo Thodol has been my constant companion, and to it I owe not only many stimulating ideas and discoveries, but also many fundamental insights.
Campbell's concept of monomyth one myth refers to the theory that sees all mythic narratives as variations of a single great story. The theory is based on the observation that a common pattern exists beneath the narrative elements of most great myths, regardless of their origin or time of creation. Campbell often referred to the ideas of Adolf Bastian and his distinction between what he called "folk" and "elementary" ideas, the latter referring to the prime matter of monomyth while the former to the multitude of local forms the myth takes in order to remain an up-to-date carrier of sacred meanings.
The central pattern most studied by Campbell is often referred to as the hero's journey and was first described in The Hero with a Thousand Faces As a strong believer in the psychic unity of mankind and its poetic expression through mythology, Campbell made use of the concept to express the idea that the whole of the human race can be seen as engaged in the effort of making the world "transparent to transcendence" by showing that underneath the world of phenomena lies an eternal source which is constantly pouring its energies into this world of time, suffering, and ultimately death.
To achieve this task one needs to speak about things that existed before and beyond words, a seemingly impossible task, the solution to which lies in the metaphors found in myths. These metaphors are statements that point beyond themselves into the transcendent.
Teaching Joseph Campbell's The Hero's Journey
The Hero's Journey was the story of the man or woman who, through great suffering, reached an experience of the eternal source and returned with gifts powerful enough to set their society free. As this story spread through space and evolved through time, it was broken down into various local forms masks , depending on the social structures and environmental pressures that existed for the culture that interpreted it.
These stages, as well as the symbols one encounters throughout the story, provide the necessary metaphors to express the spiritual truths the story is trying to convey. Metaphor for Campbell, in contrast with comparisons which make use of the word like , pretend to a literal interpretation of what they are referring to, as in the sentence " Jesus is the Son of God" rather than "the relationship of man to God is like that of a son to a father".
In the documentary Joseph Campbell: A Hero's Journey , he explains God in terms of a metaphor:. God is a metaphor for a mystery that absolutely transcends all human categories of thought, even the categories of being and non-being.
Those are categories of thought. I mean it's as simple as that. So it depends on how much you want to think about it. Whether it's doing you any good. Whether it is putting you in touch with the mystery that's the ground of your own being. If it isn't, well, it's a lie. So half the people in the world are religious people who think that their metaphors are facts. Those are what we call theists. The other half are people who know that the metaphors are not facts.
And so, they're lies. Those are the atheists.
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Some scholars have disagreed with the concept of the "monomyth" because of its oversimplification of different cultures. According to Robert Ellwood , "A tendency to think in generic terms of people, races Campbell often described mythology as having a fourfold function within human society.
These appear at the end of his work The Masks of God: Creative Mythology , as well as various lectures. Campbell's view of mythology was by no means static and his books describe in detail how mythologies evolved through time, reflecting the realities in which each society had to adjust.
In brief these are:. Initiatives undertaken by the JCF include: The Collected Works of Joseph Campbell , a series of books and recordings that aims to pull together Campbell's myriad-minded work; the Erdman Campbell Award; the Mythological RoundTables, a network of local groups around the globe that explore the subjects of comparative mythology, psychology, religion and culture; and the collection of Campbell's library and papers housed at the OPUS Archives and Research Center.
George Lucas was the first Hollywood filmmaker to credit Campbell's influence. Lucas stated, following the release of the first Star Wars film in , that its story was shaped, in part, by ideas described in The Hero with a Thousand Faces and other works of Campbell's. The linkage between Star Wars and Campbell was further reinforced when later reprints of Campbell's book used the image of Luke Skywalker on the cover. I came to the conclusion after American Graffiti that what's valuable for me is to set standards, not to show people the world the way it is The Western was possibly the last generically American fairy tale , telling us about our values.
And once the Western disappeared, nothing has ever taken its place.
In literature we were going off into science fiction Before that I hadn't read any of Joe's books It was very eerie because in reading The Hero with a Thousand Faces I began to realize that my first draft of Star Wars was following classic motifs So I modified my next draft [of Star Wars ] according to what I'd been learning about classical motifs and made it a little bit more consistent I went on to read 'The Masks of God' and many other books.
It was not until after the completion of the original Star Wars trilogy in , however, that Lucas met Campbell or heard any of his lectures. Many filmmakers of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have acknowledged the influence of Campbell's work on their own craft. Among films that many viewers have recognized as closely following the pattern of the monomyth are The Matrix series, the Batman series and the Indiana Jones series. According to him, he uses a "story circle" to formulate every story he writes, in a formulation of Campbell's work.
After the explosion of popularity brought on by the Star Wars films and The Power of Myth , creative artists in many media recognized the potential to use Campbell's theories to try to unlock human responses to narrative patterns. The novelist Richard Adams acknowledges a debt to Campbell's work and specifically to the concept of the monomyth.
One of Campbell's most identifiable, most quoted and arguably most misunderstood sayings was his admonition to "follow your bliss". He derived this idea from the Upanishads:. Now, I came to this idea of bliss because in Sanskrit, which is the great spiritual language of the world, there are three terms that represent the brink, the jumping-off place to the ocean of transcendence: The word "Sat" means being.
I thought, "I don't know whether my consciousness is proper consciousness or not; I don't know whether what I know of my being is my proper being or not; but I do know where my rapture is. So let me hang on to rapture, and that will bring me both my consciousness and my being. He saw this not merely as a mantra, but as a helpful guide to the individual along the hero journey that each of us walks through life:.
If you follow your bliss, you put yourself on a kind of track that has been there all the while, waiting for you, and the life that you ought to be living is the one you are living. Wherever you are—if you are following your bliss, you are enjoying that refreshment, that life within you, all the time.
Campbell began sharing this idea with students during his lectures in the s. By the time that The Power of Myth was aired in , six months following Campbell's death, "Follow your bliss" was a philosophy that resonated deeply with the American public—both religious and secular. During his later years, when some students took him to be encouraging hedonism , Campbell is reported to have grumbled, "I should have said, 'Follow your blisters.
Campbell's scholarship and understanding of Sanskrit has been questioned. Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson , a former Sanskrit professor at the University of Toronto , said that he once met Campbell, and that the two "hated each other at sight", commenting that, "When I met Campbell at a public gathering, he was quoting Sanskrit verses.
He had no clue as to what he was talking about; he had the most superficial knowledge of India but he could use it for his own aggrandizement. I remember thinking: I know that he was simply lying about his understanding". However, Buchen adds that Campbell worked closely with three scholars who did translate Sanskrit well.
Ellwood observes that The Masks of God series "impressed literate laity more than specialists"; he quotes Stephen P. Campbell has also been accused of antisemitism by some authors. Brendan Gill , in an article published in The New York Review of Books in , accused Campbell of both antisemitism and prejudice against blacks. However, Robert Ellwood wrote that Gill relied on "scraps of evidence, largely anecdotal" to support his charges against Campbell.
The religious studies scholar Russell T. McCutcheon characterized the "following [of] the bliss of self-realization" in Campbell's work as "spiritual and psychological legitimation" for Reaganomics. The first published work that bore Campbell's name was Where the Two Came to Their Father , an account of a Navajo ceremony that was performed by singer medicine man Jeff King and recorded by artist and ethnologist Maud Oakes , recounting the story of two young heroes who go to the hogan of their father, the Sun, and return with the power to destroy the monsters that are plaguing their people.
Campbell provided a commentary. He would use this tale through the rest of his career to illustrate both the universal symbols and structures of human myths and the particulars "folk ideas" of Native American stories. As noted above, James Joyce was an important influence on Campbell. From his days in college through the s, Joseph Campbell turned his hand to writing fiction. These ideas turned him eventually from fiction to non-fiction.
Originally titled How to Read a Myth , and based on the introductory class on mythology that he had been teaching at Sarah Lawrence College , The Hero with a Thousand Faces was published in as Campbell's first foray as a solo author; it established his name outside of scholarly circles and remains, arguably, his most influential work to this day. The book argues that hero stories such as Krishna , Buddha , Apollonius of Tyana , and Jesus all share a similar mythological basis.
Campbell asserted:. Wherever the poetry of myth is interpreted as biography, history, or science, it is killed. The living images become only remote facts of a distant time or sky.
Furthermore, it is never difficult to demonstrate that as science and history, mythology is absurd. When a civilization begins to reinterpret its mythology in this way, the life goes out of it, temples become museums, and the link between the two perspectives becomes dissolved.
Published between and , Campbell's four-volume work The Masks of God covers mythology from around the world, from ancient to modern. Where The Hero with a Thousand Faces focused on the commonality of mythology the "elementary ideas" , the Masks of God books focus upon historical and cultural variations the monomyth takes on the "folk ideas". In other words, where The Hero with a Thousand Faces draws perhaps more from psychology, the Masks of God books draw more from anthropology and history.
The four volumes of Masks of God are as follows: The book is quoted by proponents of the Christ myth theory. Campbell writes, "It is clear that, whether accurate or not as to biographical detail, the moving legend of the Crucified and Risen Christ was fit to bring a new warmth, immediacy, and humanity, to the old motifs of the beloved Tammuz , Adonis , and Osiris cycles. At the time of his death, Campbell was in the midst of working upon a large-format, lavishly illustrated series entitled Historical Atlas of World Mythology.
This series was to build on Campbell's idea, first presented in The Hero with a Thousand Faces , that myth evolves over time through four stages:. Only the first volume was completed at the time of Campbell's death. Campbell's editor Robert Walter completed the publication of the first three of five parts of the second volume after Campbell's death.
The works are now out of print. As of [update] , Joseph Campbell Foundation is currently undertaking to create a new, ebook edition. Campbell's widest popular recognition followed his collaboration with Bill Moyers on the PBS series The Power of Myth , which was first broadcast in , the year following Campbell's death. The series discusses mythological, religious, and psychological archetypes. A book, The Power of Myth , containing expanded transcripts of their conversations, was released shortly after the original broadcast.
The Collected Works of Joseph Campbell series is a project initiated by the Joseph Campbell Foundation to release new, authoritative editions of Campbell's published and unpublished writing, as well as audio and video recordings of his lectures. The series's executive editor is Robert Walter , and the managing editor is David Kudler.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Joseph Campbell disambiguation. Honolulu , Hawaii , US. Jean Erdman m. George Lucas Alan Watts : Main article: Joseph Campbell Foundation. A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Historical Atlas of World Mythology.
The Power of Myth. Biography portal Literature portal Mythology portal New York portal. D; Larsen, Robin Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind: The Authorized Biography. A Fire in the Mind. American national biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 7, Joseph Campbell Bio. Retrieved on May 2, Office of the President website.
The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved August 13, Citing a conversation between Campbell and Bill Moyers. There was no running water, only here and there a well and a pump. That is where I did most of my basic reading and work. Sitka, Alaska: Sitka WhaleFest. American Scientist. Sigma Xi. Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved September 2, Asian Journals—India and Sake and Satori: The Mythic Dimension: Selected Essays — New World Library.
Archived from the original on Retrieved Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake , A". Archived from the original on July 11, The Hero's Journey, documentary at 0: Creative Mythology New York: Viking, , p.
Interview by Bill Moyers. Episode 3: The Sacrifice. Episode 5: Well Rounded Entertainment. October 22, Retrieved October 10, Her Secret Garden". Rolling Stone.
GDC Radio. CMP Media.
Archived from the original on December 10, Contemporary Review. By the Book". The New York Times. June 20, Doubleday and Co, , p. Doubleday and Co. Napa Valley Register. Retrieved August 2, The Life of Joseph Campbell. Doubleday, , p. Ellipses from source.
Retrieved April 22, The Telegraph. Retrieved October 9, The Masks of God: Transforming Religious Metaphor Spirituality ". National Catholic Register. December 7, January 1, The Mythic Image. Princeton University Press.
Mythic Worlds, Modern Words: On the Art of James Joyce. Selected Essays Asian Journals, India. The Inner Reaches of Outer Space: Metaphor as Myth and as Religion.
Asian Journals, Japan. Myths of Light: Eastern Metaphors of the Eternal. Pathways to Bliss: Mythology and Personal Transformation. Romance of the Grail: The Magic and Mystery of Arthurian Myth.
Adams, Richard . It was The Hero with a Thousand Faces that just took what was about pages and said, Here is the story. It was all right there and had been there for thousands and thousands of years, as Dr. Campbell pointed out. This was already the case in , when Robert Segal wrote the following in the first edition of his Joseph Campbell — an introduction from hereon abbreviated as Introduction: Yet surprisingly little has been writ- ten about him.
There have been no books and only a few articles. Given his popularity, one of the most important reasons to justify studying his ideas is a sociological one: I was talking to Bill Moyers two weeks ago about the success [of The power of myth].
We agreed this book just spoke to a yearning of a spiritual nature on the part of a large number of Americans. Some of his ideas, for example, have hugely influenced scholars work- ing in what has become known as transpersonal psychology, the most well- known ones being Stanislav Grof whom Campbell was friends with during the last decade or so of his life and Ken Wilber.
Although his influence outside the field of transpersonal psychology seems to have been smaller, he has certainly had an impact on thinkers in other fields as well. On top of all this, a large number of primary sources related to his life and ideas exist, which to date go largely unexplored.
These sources have been collected together by the Opus Archive and Research Centre. Among other things, the Joseph Campbell Collection includes all of the books Campbell owned, most of his personal documents, an overwhelming collection of audiotapes of lectures, as well as transcripts of almost every single inter- view with him many of which are impossible to find elsewhere.
It was for these reasons to which personal interest may be added that I began the research project which resulted in the writing of this book. I will devote the next chapter to further clarifying the approach I have taken to studying this topic. For their input and support, I would like to thank Prof. James Cox, Prof. I would also like to thank the following institutions for their fi nancial aid: Joseph Campbell Foundation U.
Betty Sue Flowers New York: Doubleday, Joseph Campbell on his life and work, ed. Pan Macmillan, Garland Pub- lishing, Noel, ed. Joseph Campbell and the study of religion New York: Crossroad, Golden, ed.
Garland Publishing, Ballantine Books, The American scholar Joseph Campbell b. His industry has been remarkable, and he has in fact attempted a total Jungian interpretation of world mythology. Of these, the best known are the works of Joseph Campbell, in particular The hero with a thousand faces. Other scholars who have taken this approach are Mary Henderson4 and Stephen Rauch.
Especially on the internet the confident claim that Campbell is a Jungian is rife, and I have even come across websites which claim that Campbell personally studied under Jung Jung and Campbell met only once, in , and on that occasion appear to have done nothing more than exchange formal- ities6.
Here, for example, is the actor Will Smith, talking about his per- sonal philosophy about film-making: I think with movies I am really connecting to the Joseph Campbell idea of the collective unconscious.
There are things that we all dream. There are things that each one of us has thought, that connect to life, death, and sex. There are things that are beyond language. To me, this is one of those concepts. Very few people actually state the opposite: In the scholarly world I have only come across two authors who hold this position: To be sure, there are a lot of similarities: If one looks more closely, however, these simi- larities soon vanish into the background.
Miller, however, does not really deal with these complexities at all. The only difference between Jung and Campbell that he acknowledges is one of attitude, not of theoretical disposition.
Here I must give praise to Robert Segal, who offers a much more complete analysis of the differences between Jung and Campbell in his Introduction. The final conclusion that Segal draws in this chapter is that Campbell is not a Jungian: Given what he has to say about this topic in other writ- ings, however, I get the impression that he does see this as an important difference between Campbell and Jung.
The author takes for granted that Jung and Campbell espouse a com- mon view of myth. For example, Jung interprets myth almost wholly psychologically. By contrast, Campbell interprets myth metaphysically as well: For this reason I will be referring to his book throughout this book for which end I have made use of the second, revised edition from If we examine the reasons for separating Jung from Campbell that Segal offers, it may seem at first glance that these are indeed valid.
After this date Campbell suddenly became highly positive about Jung, and consistently started to associate him with all of his own key ideas; before this date, however, he was often vague and sometimes even dismissive about Jung. Therefore, though respecting the possibility. In other words, a journey into the unconscious is now neces- sary to find the meanings and comforts that myths once gave us?
Within each person there is what Jung called a collect- ive unconscious [my italics]. We are not only individuals with our unconscious intentions related to a specific social environment. We are also representa- tives of the species homo sapiens. And that universality is in us whether we know it or not. We penetrate to this level by getting in touch with dreams, fantasies and traditional myths; by using active imagination.
In Chapter 6 I will offer many more passages from inter- views, books and lectures in which Campbell makes similar highly positive comments about Jung. After having examined a great deal of sources, I have established that all of these comments were uttered after ; I have come across none from before this date. It is this interpretation of Jung that I believe Campbell came to adopt in the final phase of his career, and which led him to suddenly become so positive about Jung after This, in a nutshell, is the position that I am defending in this book.
I will now give a brief overview of its structure in the next section. I will give a short summary of both of these parts.
Part one: Sketching this development is important, as Jung frequently readjusted his ideas and rewrote the key texts which deal with the concept of the archetype incessantly, sometimes up to six or seven times. This, then, is what I will be doing in Chapter 2. When one writes about Jung, therefore, a second question that will inevitably come up is this: In Chapter 3 I will therefore give an overview of the interpretation that I am using in this book: Points of departure 7 Part two: A close analysis of the most important changes has led me to divide his career in three phases.
As these three phases form the backbone of the structure of this part of the book, I will give a short overview of them here. Phase one: The most important work written in this phase is The hero with a thousand faces from hereon abbreviated as Hero.
Phase two: The most important works written during this phase are the first three volumes in the Masks of God series. Phase three: In this phase which, as I will argue, lasts until his death in Campbell consistently associated Jung with all of his key ideas.
One of the most important suggestions I will make is the fact that Campbell edited The portable Jung, which was published in Chapter 7 In this chapter I will further clarify the most important arguments I am making in this book. They can be summarized as follows: Campbell himself was aware of this, despite often denying that he was a Jungian. At the end of Chapter 7 I will also offer some suggestions as to how my conclusions may be useful for other scholars.
Sources As this book is first and foremost theoretical in nature, books and art- icles — not fieldwork — will be its primary sources. Of these books, 11 books deal with a single, homoge- neous topic;15 the other books are either collections of essays, collections of lectures, or transcriptions of interviews.Other Robert Segal, Joseph Campbell — an introduction: Selected Essays — And so, they're lies. Sometimes, this call is just too strange or dangerous or ethically problematic, so the hero refuses the call.
And if they don't, the magic is not going to work. The "follow your bliss" philosophy attributed to Campbell following the original broadcast of The Power of Myth see below derives from the Hindu Upanishads ; however, Campbell was possibly also influenced by the Sinclair Lewis novel Babbitt. Metaphor for Campbell, in contrast with comparisons which make use of the word like, pretend to a literal interpretation of what they are referring to, as in the sentence " Jesus is the Son of God" rather than "the relationship of man to God is like that of a son to a father".
Larsen, Stephen ; Larsen, Robin