“Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen”. IS (): Precast Concrete Manhole Cover and Frame -. [CED Cement Matrix Products]. download BIS IS Precast Concrete Manhole Cover And Frame - Specification from SAI Global. Manhole bestthing.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. IS (): Precast Concrete Manhole Cover and Frame [CED
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and revised STI Doc:STI /5 January was kept in Amendment No.1 to IS was circulated vide CMD-III note of. “Licence is granted to use Standard Mark as per IS with the following IS covers different varieties of Precast Concrete Manhole. Designator of Legally Binding Document: IS Title of Legally Binding Document: Precast Concrete Manhole Cover and Frame - Number.
The tip of the wing of another covers its lower part, which is almost completely igure is visible to the right of Athena. An omphalos covered The rounded lower part of the body of the with a white net patern is depicted to the right, calyx-krater is decorated with a tendril with ivy leaves and rosetes in red-igure technique and added white.
I dedicate this article to Prof. The text is translated into English igural decoration. The black glaze of the back- by Tatiana Stefanova. I owe special gratitude to Dimitar ground seems tenuous in places at the contours Nedev, Director of Sozopol Archaeological Museum, for the of the igures.
The outlines are often unclear or opportunity to study the ind and present my observations. I would also like to thank Assoc. Maria Reho, Sasha not very precise. They are painted with a brush. Dobreva and Dr.
Margarit Damyanov for their help and ad- The same goes for some of the details on all vice. The sherd, together with other Late Classical artefacts, was found in in a negative context at the archaeologi- diluted glaze dark to light brown.
Fragment of a red-igure calyx-krater from Fig. Calyx-krater, Apollonia. Proile drawing. Morski Skali site, Apollonia.
Figs 1—5: Photos and drawings: the author. Scene drawing. Detail: Apollo. Detail: Nike.
It is hard to make assumptions on the subject. However, the preserved elements are also present in a scene of Judgment of Paris on a contemporary pelike by the Marsyas Painter Schefold K. There, the seated Athena is depicted on the right-hand side.
Eros and another winged igure, probably Nike, are placed close to the goddess. The eponymous pelike of the Heracles Painter presents an example of a diferent subject and a less dense composition from the same peri- od. The hero is siting next to Athena together Fig. Detail: Athena. In general, the style of the painted decora- The preserved part of the second scene on tion cannot be described as particularly detailed.
The icono- minor elements, such as the omphalos and the bu- graphic scheme representing Apollo riding on crania. The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 20 mm.
IS 12592: Precast Concrete Manhole Cover and Frame -
Concrete shall be tilled to slightlyovertill and compacted by vibration and struck off levelwith a trowel. If steel tibres are used in addition to reinforcement. In case of properiety fibres. The precastconcrete manholecovers and frames shall be of any shape given in 3.
The minimum volume of tibres shall be 0. Mixing shall be continued until there is a uniform distribution of the materials and the mass is uniform in colour and consistency.
A slight film of rust may not be periphery is not more than 5 mm and the top surface regardedas hannful but steel shall not be visiblypitted ofthe frame and cover is in level within a tolerance by rust. The water used shall be free from matter harmful to concrete or reinforcement or matter likely to cause efflorescence in the units and shall conform to the requirementsens Compaction by means ofshutter or form or table vibrators is recommended.
Minor chippings resulting from the customary method of handling and transportation shall not be deemed ground for rejection. For classes HD 20 and HD The period of curing shall be as given in IS I In order to protect the edges of the covers from possible damage at the time of lifting and handling. Exposed surface of mild steel sheet shall be given suitable treatment with anti-corrosive paint or coating.
The lifting device shall be protected from corrosion by hot dip galvanizing or any other suitable means approved by the downloadr or shall be made ofnaturally corrosion resistant metal rods.
In case of extra heavy duty and heavy duty cover and frame. The top surface of the covers shall be given a ehequered finish.
Exposed surface of mild steel flat shall be given suitable treatment with anticorrosive paint or coating. This may be achieved by grinding the contact surface.
Typical arrangements oflifting devices are shown in Fig. Sufficient number ofsteel connectors shall be welded to the inner surface ofthe mild steel flat so as to connect it with the frame reinforcement and these shall be embedded in the concrete during casting. IA and I B. To prevent the top outer edge from possible damages. The lifting arrangement shall be as agreed between the manufacturer and the downloadr.
J The lot shall be considered as conforming to the requirements of the specification conditions mentioned in If the number t'f covers in the lot is 20 or less. In any consignment. The details ofconditions under which a licence for the use ofStandard Mark may be granted to manufacturers or producers may be obtained from the Bureau of Indian Standards. The batch from where the samples are to be drawn shall be divided into a number of convenient portions such that when one sample is drawn from each of these portions.
NOTE '. The cover shall be supported in a frame which may be standard frame or a specially made testing appliance simulating normal conditions of use. Specification for mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard-drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement: The block shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that the load on the cover is uniformly distributed over the full area of the block. The bearing block shall be of the size specified in Table 2 and shall bear centrally on the cover.
The specified load as given in Table 2 shall be applied 6. Jdrophobic Portland cement second revision Part 2: The load on the test specimen is then released. The load shall be applied at the rate ofapproximately 0.
The permanent set shall not exceed times the diameter of the largest circle that can be inscribed in the clear area of the frame as shown in Fig. Cover shall not show cracks in the course of the test. Then take reading at the geometric centre. The permanent set shall then be determined on the difference of the measured readings before the first and the fifth loading. Before the load is applied take an initial reading at the geometric centre ofthe cover.
This procedure shall be carried out five times. Naraina Vihar. Chennai SHR' N. New Delhi hternrt Everest Ltd. Ministry of Commerce and Industry. New Deihl Hmdustan Prefab Ltd. Secunderabad B.
Delhi Mumcipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Lucknow Rural Electnficauon Corporation Ltd. Shrrke Construction Technology Ltd. Mumbai In personal capacity F RAo DR S. New Delhi Hyderabad Industnes Ltd. BIS Continued on page 9 8. Hyderabad Mumcipal Corporation of Deihl.
Ballabgarh Nauonal Test House. Pune Central Building Research Institute. Army Headquarters. Department of Science and Technology. New Delhi [ngllleer-m-Chlefs Branch. Lucknow Fly Ash Mission. Roorkec Central Public Works Department.
Telegraph Department. The data shown are from HTO, but are representative of both materials. The coloured lines show, starting from the white circle, a first light blue , second red and two types of third green and light green nearest neighbour.
The temperature for all curves is fixed at 0. Full size image where r1 is the nearest-neighbour distance, rij is the distance between spins i and j, Si is a classical spin of unit length, and the dipolar constant, D, is of the same order than J. Spin-ice systems belong to the class of geometrically frustrated magnets. Frustration is possible in other ways, but the class of geometrically frustrated materials has the advantage of better experimental control and theoretical description than the case where disorder is needed.
An inherent weakness of geometrical frustration is that it might be relieved by distortions to the lattice 6 , 7 , 8. The spin-ice materials DTO and HTO are fairly robust to distortions; experimentally, the properties of the frustrated state and its low-lying excitations are seen to dominate the intermediate temperature regime 9. However, as we shall see, the effects of small distortions in this system might account for some specific experimental features and determine the presence or absence of an ordered state at low temperatures.
The different limits of the classical s-DSM already contain the most singular and attractive features of spin-ice materials, notably residual entropy, emergent gauge structure, fractionalized monopolar excitations 10 , 11 , 12 , and two-dimensional and three-dimensional Kasteleyn transitions 13 , 14 , The s-DSM also predicts an ordered state at very low temperatures As the field developed, it was soon recognized that additional interaction terms are needed to properly account for the experiments and an effort was made to determine an empirical Hamiltonian from the experimental data 17 , By means of this comparison they put bounds to the values of J1, J2 and J3 and arrive at an empirical Hamiltonian, the generalized dipolar spin-ice model g-DSM.
The g-DSM gives a very good phenomenological description of several of the spin-ice features and reproduces the low temperature neutron scattering pattern of DTO noticeably better than the s-DSM Despite its successes, the g-DSM model does not fully reproduce the low temperature behaviour of the spin-ice materials. In this work we address two instances of these, which were unknown at the time the model was developed: the doubling of the polarization transition with fields in the neighbourhood of refs 26 , 27 and the recent report of an upturn in the specific heat below 0.
Based on our experimental results and those in the literature, we construct a new spin-ice model and show that in addition to reproducing the experimental features, it predicts an intermediate magnetization state for fields near  and the existence of different types of possible order at low temperatures when no field is applied.
Results Magnetic susceptibility We start by discussing the magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures when an external constant field is applied in the neighbourhood of the crystallographic  direction.
IS 12592: Precast Concrete Manhole Cover and Frame -
The a. The change in a. Figure 1c shows field rotations from  towards , while Fig. The usual spin-ice models predict a single transition between the partially frustrated kagome-ice state at low fields and the polarized state at high fields.
In the experiments, this is true when the field is perfectly aligned with , or when it is rotated towards , but the transition splits into two peaks, with an intermediate polarization region, when the field is rotated towards .
This behaviour is seen more clearly in Fig. In this figure, it is also quite noticeable that the angular dependence of the lower transition field is quite small when the field is rotated towards .
Similar behaviour had been previously observed in magnetization experiments in DTO Positive negative angles correspond to a rotation towards  . For both materials the transition widens—eventually resolving into two peaks—as the field is rotated towards .
The effect is more pronounced for HTO. Full size image The failure of the usual spin-ice Hamiltonians to reproduce an experimental feature common to both spin-ice materials suggests that there is an additional physical mechanism that is being neglected in the theoretical treatment. In the following, we argue that a missing ingredient can be the effect of distortions in the magnetic couplings of the pyrochlore lattice.
The role of distortions We analyse how the s-DSM Hamiltonian equation 1 is modified in the presence of distortions. Expanding the variation of up to linear order in ui, one obtains a magnetoelastic Hamiltonian that can be written compactly as: where K is the elastic constant for classical Einstein phonons, N i stands for the neighbours of site i and Fij encodes the quadratic spin interactions between a site i and a neighbour j.
An effective Hamiltonian can be obtained from by integrating out the phononic d. This effective Hamiltonian can be cast into a simple form where the effect of distortions to the lattice is translated into a change in the nearest-neighbour interaction and the emergence of further neighbour interactions. These interactions have their origin in the local changes in the magnetic interaction due to changes in the relative positions of the lattice sites, and are thus strongly dependent on the lattice connectivity between neighbours.
Further neighbours of equal distance but connected to the original site by a different number of lattice sites develop different interaction terms.
In the case of the pyrochlore lattice see Fig. The model While it cannot be expected that this simple analysis based on classical phonons will give accurate values for the effective exchange constants of the real system, which consists of a far more complicated lattice once all the non-magnetic atoms are taken into account, it provides the key observation that, regardless the specific material, further neighbour interactions should be considered and distinction made between differently connected neighbours of the same order, even if these terms or differences were negligible from the exchange integrals.
With this information, we constructed a model to third nearest neighbours that incorporates these distinctions, the distorted dipolar spin-ice model d-DSM , and explored it using Monte Carlo simulations see Methods section and Supplementary Note 1. Unlike the s-DSM or g-DSM, and in keeping with the experiments, the susceptibility calculated in the d-DSM has a flatter angular dependence of the critical field for rotations towards , showing a broad peak that eventually resolves into two peaks, and remains unique when the field is rotated towards , all of which is in correspondence with the behaviour shown in Fig.
Figure 3b shows the best possible fit to the data using the g-DSM: by forcing the parameters towards the higher end of the intervals given in ref. The addition in the d-DSM of different types of J3 is therefore necessary to be able to reproduce the susceptibility experiments close to , even at a qualitative level. Further terms and analysis are required to reproduce in detail the full angular dependence.To prevent the top outer edge from possible damages, it shall be protected by 25 mm x 3 mm mild steel flat as 9.
Beazley ascribes Painter of Athens Kogioumzi D. Chennai SHR' N. Later, J. Similar behaviour had been previously observed in magnetization experiments in DTO Schefold K.
Table 1. A slight film of rust may not be periphery is not more than 5 mm and the top surface regardedas hannful but steel shall not be visiblypitted ofthe frame and cover is in level within a tolerance by rust.
However, as discussed before, it might not be realistic to expect a homogeneous long-range ordered state in a real sample, but rather a wide range of local configurations and a multitude of energetically close excitations. Untersuchungen zu den Kertscher Va- Kertscher Vasen.
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