Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior,. Eleventh Edition. Dennis Coon / John O. Mitterer. Senior Psychology Editor: Marianne Taflinger. like your authors, the odds are you are curious about human behavior. Gateway QUESTIONS . Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods. Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior 13 th ed. Introduction : The Psychology of Studying—Reflective Learning. Gateway QUESTIONS.
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Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior, Eleventh Edition Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind, Third Edition. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Dennis Coon is a publishing phenomenon and one of the best-selling authors in the field of psychology. His innovative. bestthing.info: Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior ( ): Dennis Coon, John O. Mitterer: Books.
Your motivations for engaging in the behavior arise entirely from within rather than out of a desire to gain some type of external rewards such as prizes, money, or acclaim.
Of course, that isn't to say that intrinsically motivated behaviors do not come with their own rewards. These rewards involve creating positive emotions within the individual. Activities can generate such feelings when they give people a sense of meaning like participating in volunteer or church events. They may also give you a sense of progress when you see that your work is accomplishing something positive or competence when you learn something new or become more skilled at a task.
Intrinsic Rewards and Motivation Researchers have discovered that offering external rewards or reinforcements for an already internally rewarding activity can actually make the activity less intrinsically rewarding. This phenomenon is known as the overjustification effect.
Griggs in his book "Psychology: A Concise Introduction.
In work settings, for instance, productivity can be increased by using extrinsic rewards such as a bonus. However, the actual quality of the work performed is influenced by intrinsic factors. If you are doing something that you find rewarding, interesting, and challenging, you are more likely to come up with novel ideas and creative solutions.
Motivation to Learn Intrinsic motivation is an important topic in education. Teachers and instructional designers strive to develop learning environments that are intrinsically rewarding. Unfortunately, many traditional paradigms suggest that most students find learning boring so they must be extrinsically goaded into educational activities. They identify several different ways to make learning environments that are intrinsically rewarding.
The authors define activities as intrinsically motivating if "people engage in it for its own sake, rather than in order to receive some external reward or avoid some external punishment. We use the words fun, interesting, captivating, enjoyable, and intrinsically motivating all more or less interchangeably to describe such activities.
These goals may also relate to their self-esteem when performance feedback is available. Curiosity: Internal motivation is increased when something in the physical environment grabs the individual's attention sensory curiosity. It also occurs when something about the activity stimulates the person to want to learn more cognitive curiosity. Control: People want control over themselves and their environments and want to determine what they pursue.
Cooperation and competition: Intrinsic motivation can be increased in situations where people gain satisfaction from helping others.
It also applies to cases where they are able to compare their own performance favorably to that of others. Recognition: People enjoy having their accomplishment recognized by others, which can increase internal motivation. Our Perspective on Rewards Differs Experts have noted that offering unnecessary rewards can have unexpected costs. While we like to think that offering a reward will improve a person's motivation , interest, and performance, this isn't always the case. For example, when children are rewarded for playing with toys that they already enjoy playing with, their motivation and enjoyment of those toys actually decreases.
Psychiatrists differ from psychologists because psychiatrists a.
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Simon has a bipolar disorder and requires medication to control his extreme mood swings. For some time now, Rosetta has been deeply depressed. She should probably seek the aid of a a. Which of the following psychological professionals is allowed to prescribe drugs in all 50 states of the United States?
Which of the following pairs of states now allows psychologists to legally prescribe drugs to their clients? California and New York b. Florida and West Virginia c. Mississippi and Illinois d. Before one can receive specialized training in Freudian psychoanalysis and become a psychoanalyst, one must first a. A practitioner with an M.
This mental health professional described is a a. Jessica is most likely a a. Miranda is most likely which type of mental health professional?
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A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis about the cause of behavior is called a n a. Which of the following is NOT a step in a psychological experiment? When a researcher creates two groups, varies a condition, and records whether varying the condition had any effect on behavior, the researcher is conducting a n a. You have discovered a new vitamin that you believe will improve memory in the elderly.
Your best bet for accurately testing the effectiveness of the vitamin would be to use a. If you want to determine whether there is a casual relationship between using the SQ4R study method and final grades in a psychology course, you should use a.
Suppose you want to find out if using cell phones while driving a car affects the likelihood of having an accident. First, you form two groups of people, and you give members of one group a test of driving ability while they are using a cell phone with the second group taking the driving test without using a cell phone.
To determine how cell phone use affects driving, you used a. In an experiment, the people whose behavior is investigated a. The control group and the experimental group are treated exactly alike except for the condition you intentionally vary. The condition that the experimenter intentionally varies is called the dependent variable. The animals or people whose behavior is investigated are referred to as experimental subjects.
Human subjects whose behavior is investigated are also called the participants. A simple experiment has two groups of subjects called the a. The best definition of a variable is that it is the part of an experiment that a. Any condition that can change and that might affect the outcome of the experiment is called a n a.
According to the text, which of the following is NOT an essential variable found in a psychological experiment? The independent variable in an experiment is a. The experimenter usually sets the value of a. The dependent variable in an experiment a. The dependent variable is the one that is a. The conditions that a researcher wishes to prevent from affecting the outcome of the experiment are the variables. Cell phone use would be the variable.
Driving ability as defined by the scores achieved on a test of driving ability would be the variable. The number of hours that each participant slept the night before the driving test would be a n variable.
In an experiment to study the effects of fertilizer on plants, the fertilizer used on each plant would be the variable. In an experiment to study the effects of fertilizer on plants, the growth rate of the plants would be the variable.
An experiment is performed to see if background music improves learning. Two groups study the same material, one while listening to music and another without music. The independent variable is a. We wish to test the hypothesis that music improves learning. We compare test scores of students who study to music with those who study in silence.
Which of the following is an extraneous variable in this experiment? The independent variable would be the a.
The dependent variable would be the a. An experiment is performed to test the effects of sleep deprivation on rote memory. In this experiment, the dependent variable is the a.
In an experiment to study the effects of study skills training on academic achievement, the study skills training would be the variable. A researcher wants to find out if taking a new antidepressant drug will decrease the symptoms of subjects suffering from social anxiety.
The number of symptoms exhibited by the subjects would be the variable. A social psychologist measures aggressive responses made by people exposed to violent and nonviolent movies. All of the subjects are tested in rooms having identical room temperature. In this experiment, the room temperature is a n variable. A teacher wants to find out if a problem-based history program is superior to the regular history curriculum being used.
The motivation and intelligence of the students participating in the new and the regular history programs would be considered the variables.
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The chief function of the control group in an experiment is that it a. Which of the following groups serves as a point of reference for a comparison of results in an experiment? Which type of variable is measured in both the experimental and control groups of an experiment? Tina is assigned to the group that receives the independent variable.
Tina is in the group. Nadine is in the group that does not receive the independent variable. Nadine is in the group. In an experiment to determine if meditation increases mental concentration, the group of subjects who would be required to meditate would be the group.
In an experiment to determine if meditation increases mental concentration, the group who would NOT meditate would be the group. The group that would take the driving test while talking on a cell phone would be the group. The group that would NOT be talking on a cell phone while taking the driving test would be the group.
Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior (Non-InfoTrac Version)
A teacher wants to find out if a new problem-based history program will increase history achievement scores. The students who will NOT be exposed to this problem-based history program but will be taught the specific material in the traditional manner are part of which group? In a study of effects of alcohol on driving ability, the control group should be given a.
A researcher wants to determine the effect of sleep loss on human problem-solving. Subjects in an appropriate control group for such an experiment would be described as having a.
When subjects in an experiment are chosen so that each has an equal chance of being in either the experimental group or the control group, we say that the subjects have been assigned a. Subjects are said to be assigned randomly when a. To equalize the intelligence of members of the experimental and control group in an experiment, you could use a.
A variable, such as the personality of a subject, that might affect the outcome of an experiment would be controlled by a. In an experiment to test whether teaching a new memory strategy will improve students' test scores, student characteristics, such as motivation, are controlled by a.
Random assignment into two groups, one that listens to music and one that studies in silence, controls for a.
Random assignment of subjects to groups in an experiment is used to reduce the effects of a. One way to randomly assign students to experimental and control groups for a study of academic behaviors is to a.
In an experiment, control over extraneous variables, such as the time of day or the temperature of the room, can be obtained by a.
A researcher is testing the effectiveness of a new math program. The extraneous variables, such as temperature and lighting, will best be controlled by a. One of the advantages of the experimental method is that a. Experiments can determine cause-and-effect relationships with the effects being measured by the variable. In a carefully controlled experiment, the only possible cause for any effect noted in the dependent variable is the a.
You are conducting an experiment to determine if listening to music improves learning. If the average test score of the experimental group is higher than the average of the control group, then we can conclude that a. If there was no difference between the test performance of the experimental and control groups, then we can conclude that a. An experimenter conducts an experiment on the effects of a drug to control hallucinations.
In an experiment if the obtained results would occur by chance in less than five experiments out of , the results a. Research findings become more convincing when the results are statistically significant and when the findings a.
To replicate an experiment means to a. Which of the following has been used to summarize and synthesize large amounts of psychological research and allows researchers to draw conclusions that might be missed in a single, small-scale study?
A statistical technique that can be used to combine the results of many studies, as if they were all part of one large study is referred to as a. You are investigating the topic of gender differences in which extensive previous research has already been conducted with the findings of these previous studies not always in agreement.
Your best approach to conducting research would be to a. You are conducting an experiment to determine whether teaching students the SQ4R method will increase their test scores. So, you explain your hypothesis to your participants and then conduct the experiment.
Informing the participants about your hypothesis a. Giving placebos in drug experiments is necessary to a. Responding to a substance, such as a sugar pill or a saline injection, as if it were the real drug is referred to as a. In a drug study, the participants in the experimental group get the placebo and those in the control group get the real drug.
Doctors sometimes prescribe placebos, especially for complaints that seem to have no physical basis. If a placebo has any effect, it must be based on suggestion, rather than chemistry. Placebos have been shown to affect pain, anxiety, depression, alertness, tension, sexual arousal, cravings for alcohol.
In a weight-reduction experiment, an overweight individual was given what the researcher called a new type of diet pill that would help curb the desire to eat.
In fact, the pill really contained powdered milk, but ever since the individual started taking the diet pill, he has reported that his desire to eat has decreased.
This illustrates the a. Placebos have such a strong effect on people because a. After a person takes a placebo, there is a. In one study, a saline injection was shown to be 70 percent as effective as morphine in reducing pain. This is an example of a. In an experiment to test the effects of a new flu drug, two groups are used.
One group is given the drug, the other group is given a placebo. The group that receives the placebo is called the group. In a study of the effects of antidepressant drug on depressive symptoms, the experimental group is given the antidepressant drug, while the control group is given a a. Sometimes in a drug study, the experimental group given the actual drug and the control group given the inactive substance both initially show improvement.
This is due to a. A single-blind experiment would most likely be used to minimize the a. In a research study, when the subjects do not know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group, but the experimenters do know, the study is called a n experiment. In a drug study if your participants are blind as to the hypothesis under investigation and whether they received the real drug or the placebo, then the participants a.
The subjects in the experimental group receive the experimental drug, while the subjects in the control group receive a placebo. Although the experimenter knows which subjects are in the experimental group and which are in the control group, the subjects themselves do not know who is in which group or who received the real drug and who the placebo. This experimenter is using a.
You want to test people's reactions to a new artificial sweetener, and so you give them coffee with two different kinds of sweetener. Although you know which sweetener is which, you don't let them know which sweetener is the one they're getting. This type of experiment is called a experiment.
Enor unintentionally influences his subjects so that they react in ways consistent with his experimental hypothesis.Salience or the significance of the event itself often plays a critical role. Using for school. site Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life.
Psychodynamic psychology and depth psychology do things like interpreting people's dreams to understand the unconscious mind, as in older approaches to psychology begun by Carl Jung who was particularly interested in finding methods for measuring what kind of personality people have. Much of the research in this area began with tests on mammals, based on the idea that humans exhibit similar fundamental tendencies.
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