A ferro e fogo - A história e a devastação da Mata Atlântica brasileira book. Warren Dean was a pioneer and he wrote about Atlantic Forest history in a broad . (Download) Days of Wisdom & Encouragement for the New Mum pdf by Xuan W. Lee · (Download) A Choice of A Ferro e bestthing.info baixar Warren Dean. DEAN, W. A ferro e fogo - a história e a devastação da Mata Atlantica Brasileira. pdf - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. WARREN DEAN A FERRO E FOGO A histéria e a devastagao: da Mata Atlantica .
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DB Climate Change Advisors. “Global Climate Change Policy Tracker.” https:// bestthing.info Dean, Warren. A Ferro E Fogo: A História E a Devastação Da Mata Atlântica Brasileira. brazil download a ferro e fogo em portuguese do brasil by warren dean isbn. bestthing.info Description. E não comem senão deste inhame, de que aqui há muito, e dessas sementes e 4 See e.g. Warren Dean, A ferro e fogo: a história e a devastação da Mata.
The latter occurs when an environmental change restricts resources to a level below those necessary to maintain species viability, although populations persist temporarily in the landscape [ 4 , 6 — 7 ]. Such landscapes are important to identify as they must be prioritized in habitat restoration in order to avoid future extinctions. Evaluating the time-lag is difficult because past species composition in a specific location landscape or habitat patches is not usually available, forcing researchers to use indirect inferences of time-lag [ 11 ].
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Additionally, only recently has its importance been realized [ 12 , 15 ]. Moreover, studies on time-lags in species or community responses to landscape changes are biased to non-tropical regions [ 16 ], although it is within the tropics that biodiversity is concentrated and extinction debts the number of species predicted to go extinct even without further habitat changes [ 4 ] are most likely to occur because of more recent habitat alteration [ 17 ].
The time-lag may vary according to the intensity of habitat modification and species characteristics [ 13 , 18 — 19 ]. High levels of disturbance generally provoke immediate loss of many species [ 9 , 12 , 20 ], while low or intermediate disturbance leads to longer delays in species responses.
A longer relaxation period may occur in long-lived species, such as trees, for example [ 10 , 15 ]. Species that are just below the critical threshold for metapopulation maintenance may persist longer in fragmented landscapes because of local population dynamics [ 6 — 7 , 21 ]. In the latter instance, species idiosyncrasies, such as dispersal capacity, home range, tolerance to edge effects, and demand for specific resource types may drive this dynamic and, consequently, may influence time-lag.
Thus, in addition to historic landscape changes, consideration of taxa or species traits is highly relevant [ 13 ]. The Atlantic Forest is one of the most threatened tropical regions in the world [ 22 ].
Most of the deforestation in the region occurred from one century to 50 years ago [ 17 , 24 — 25 ]. This has led to a high ecological debt, which can be inferred from the high number of threatened species [ 5 ] see also Cowlishaw for similar examples from Africa [ 8 ]. It is therefore essential to consider landscape dynamics in risk evaluations of species in this highly diverse forest [ 15 , 26 ].
The Brazil the ants have made
Ignoring the historical changes may be misleading and provoke underestimates of the species threats [ 7 , 10 , 27 ]. We tracked the historical fragmentation of an Atlantic Forest area, quantifying landscape structure in ten-year intervals from the time the area was continuous forest until its contemporary configuration, representing probably the most complete historical landscape mapping of the Atlantic Forest.
We sampled bird communities in 28 areas 21 forest fragments and seven areas within a large forest tract.
From these data, we evaluated when landscape structure best explained the current richness of bird groups based on ecological species traits, allowing us not only to infer time-lag responses but also to exam whether time-lags vary according to bird traits. Librairie Hachette, , p.
At the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, I drew heavily on his expertise in my early attempts of deepening certain stories advanced by Dean.
According to him, this group of social insects comprising the genus Atta and Acromyrmex , both endemic to the Neotropics basically the South and Central Americas plus the Caribbean , severely constrained the Portuguese and neo-Brazilian agricultural settlement in the early centuries, when farmers had no efficient methods for controlling them.
While pioneering and ingenious, Dean devoted only a few pages to this analysis, using s and 80s biological literature.
That meant diving into the world made by leaf-cutting ants in collaboration — and conflict — with human land users.
Although the ants also harvest native plants such as cassava, the Eurasian plants brought by the Portuguese were particularly appetizing to them. Vines, pomegranates, lemon trees, orange trees, sugar cane, among others, were easy prey because they did not produce certain secondary metabolites i.
a ferro e fogo warren dean pdf to word
Last spring, a newspaper reported that bottles filled with ants actually, only the back of their bodies, which are high-fat expanded abdomens were being offered for sale on the Internet. And then and now, this human predation was not able to control the ant population.
Among their methods were the use of natural repellents excreted by certain palm trees and other species of ants, as well as the leafcutters' own waste placed around cultivated plants. The Portuguese and neo-Brazilian agricultural fields were more difficult to protect. They were much larger monocultures of domesticated plants with no chemical defences against leafcutters.
Brought from Madeira, Portugal, in the s, sugarcane soon became the major export staple of Brazil. Like other species brought by the colonizers, this Southeast Asian grass Saccharum officinarum was vulnerable to ant defoliation.
In conditions that enable them to properly install their nests, the ants harvest cane leaves with great tenacity: In general, these conditions were established by the poorly drained soils of river valleys and coastal plains, where the water table constantly threatens ant nests with drowning. As noted by Dean, this helps explain why periodically flooded areas could be cultivated permanently.
But a closer examination of more recent scientific findings reveals even more important ecological relationships. At the same time, and despite some inconveniences — such as the difficulty of crossing the quagmire with oxcarts — it was simply the best Brazilian soil for growing sugarcane. Most other farmers were not so lucky, their crops being vulnerable to leafcutters no matter the soil conditions.
What they could do was to move their fields as soon as infestation started, a few years after the initial clearing. Thus farmers were periodically felling and burning mature or semi-mature forest for growing their crops. The problem is that — unless new or primary forest was incorporated into the system — the faster the clearing cycle, the less developed the vegetation would be, creating an ever more favorable habitat for leafcutters. This was basically what happened in the 18th century, when a gold and diamond rush attracted hundreds of thousands of people, including enslaved Africans, to the interior highlands of the Atlantic Forest biome.
Since individual nests regulate the composition of their populations the proportion of gardeners, nurses, loaders, soldiers, etc.
In any case, it is clear that the increased presence of humans and their agroecosystems has entailed changes in the world of leaf-cutting ants which in turn reverberated back to humans. Comparable to what is seen today in the site basin, anthropogenic deforestation and the formation of increasingly fragmented forest landscapes resulted in habitat expansion for leafcutters in the 18 th century. This outbreak had the effect of reinforcing the itinerant character of colonial agriculture, since ant infestation forced farmers to abandon recently-cleared lands — even though the soil was not yet chemically depleted.
Historical-environmental accounts such as this one show that native Brazilian lands were not lifeless surfaces waiting for the spreading of European settlement.
Rather than the blank background in colonial cadastral maps, they ought to be conceptualized as vibrant life-sites in whose bosom anciently settled and newly arrived species and cultures negotiated their coexistence.
The Journal of Historical Geography awards an annual prize to the author of the best paper published in the journal during the previous 12 months.
The prize is intended to encourage, celebrate and recognize high-quality work published in the field of historical geography. Co-Editor-in-Chief Dr.
And Morgan's paper offers new perspectives on how people understood floods in early modern England by interrogating sources from popular print to the minutes of the sewer commissioners.Although this book was largely directed towards the administration of slaves, he also proposed innovative techniques capable of increasing productivity of rural properties and dealt with the cultivation of numerous crops, such as coffee, sugarcane and plants used in dyeing, as well as teas and other crops.
Help me, please. Coming from a military background, Taunay wrote a Manual for the Brazilian Farmer in Raul Ribeiro. It was not possible to detect a pattern of successional classification among these plants, as the species mentioned as soil indicators by the Baron of Pati do Alferes can occur in both climax and secondary forests.
Der Morgen, an dem sie das Tagebuch fand: Elsevier Connect Contributor Dr. His experience in agricultural affairs was derived from his managing a coffee plantation in the mountains near Rio de Janeiro.