EAWR 1989 EBOOK

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These Regulations impose health and safety requirements with respect to electricity at work. Electricity At Work Regulations free download link. by Editor on 27, Thanks for Visiting! You can keep up to date with all new content on this blog. Ensure that your work meets the requirements of the Electricity at Work Regulations BS (IET Wiring Regulations) sets the standards for electrical.


Eawr 1989 Ebook

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EAWR is not pre-emptive but will only come into effect after death, injury, damage Amd.2 – Main Regs.; 16 SPLs; 16 Apdx; OSG; 8 GNs, ebook (). ▫. download The Electricity at Work Regulations by Great Britain: Health and Safety Executive from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your. 2 The Electricity at Work Regulations (SI /) (as amended) (the Act. The Regulations pre-date the risk assessment process brought in with.

The combination of lightweight and battery powered testing, alongside the test and tag printer, gives us the maximum portability, speed and versatility we need to achieve this.

Table of contents

Simple push button testing and easy, intuitive operation of the software provides an integrated system that is helping us to take a more organised approach to safety testing and ensure an electrically safe working environment for all our college users. The Apollo tester and PATGuard3 programme forms part of Seaward s comprehensive range of portable appliance test instrumentation, software, accessories and training packages. To find out more about the Apollo please visit 4 5 Apollo Helps Intersafe Grow Its PAT Business Investment in the latest PAT technology has enabled a leading electrical safety testing company to build long lasting relationships with key customers and respond to their changing workplace safety needs.

The Hampshire-based Intersafe provides essential portable appliance and periodic electrical testing services, as well as thermal imaging, for clients involved in a wide range of business activities.

As part of a commitment to working with the latest technology available, Intersafe recently invested in new Apollo testers for use among its 50 strong team of appliance test engineers. The lightweight Apollo includes all of the electrical safety tests required by the IET Code of Practice including, earth continuity, insulation resistance at V or V, protective conductor current, touch current, IEC lead polarity and RCD trip time.

An important factor in the company s choice of the new tester is the inclusion of an integrated digital camera for the visual inspection of appliances and an expanded internal memory that means all test results can be recorded automatically for downloading to results databases. A feature of the success and growth of the Intersafe business has been its ability to build longstanding relationships with clients large and small and to develop bespoke testing schedules that accurately meet their needs.

Northern English - A Social and Cultural History

Adrian Pendle, Director of Intersafe, explained: Portable appliance testing is an increasingly important part of our electrical testing business and we believe we ve succeeded because of the attention to detail we bring to all jobs. Our test engineers are all fully qualified and we work closely with clients to agree risk assessments and the inspection and testing required before carrying out any work. Using the most up to date PAT technology available is central to this approach and ensures that the work is done efficiently and thoroughly, with the minimum of disruption to a client s workplace.

It also means that we can supply all the necessary reports and test certificates at the touch of a button as part of a fully integrated and streamlined testing service. Intersafe's team of test engineers carry out portable appliance testing for a range of clients including educational establishments, supermarkets, FM companies, hotels, industrial sites and other workplaces.

The field service team carries out electrical inspection and testing at client premises, downloading test results from the tester for transmission to head office where all results are retained in PATGuard software-enabled records.

Intersafe engineers also use the onboard camera in the Apollo to record test failures and this allows the company to create an audit trail for potentially dangerous items that are removed from service. In addition, to maximise the capabilities of the Apollo on client premises, the company is also trialling the use of the tester to inspect and record the condition of other workplace safety features, including emergency lighting systems. The Apollo forms part of a comprehensive range of portable appliance test instrumentation, software and accessories developed by Seaward to ensure the safety of electrical equipment used in the workplace.

To find out more about the Apollo please visit 6 7 Integrated Test Solution Brings PAT Business Benefits The integration of automatic electrical test routines with powerful results management software is enabling a small portable appliance testing business to implement the highest standards of customer service more normally associated with larger companies.

The Leicester-based Smart PAT Testing is living up to its name by utilising a Seaward Apollo PAT tester to complete increasing numbers of appliance safety tests for a wide and expanding range of customers including musicians, events venues, retailers, property companies and private rental landlords.

In all cases, self-employed business owner Steve Hollins uses the Apollo to carry out all of the electrical safety tests required by the IET Code of Practice, with instrument automatically sequencing through earth continuity, insulation resistance at V or V, protective conductor current, touch current, IEC lead polarity and RCD trip time.

The results of testing are recorded in the instrument s internal memory and downloaded to the PATGuard 3 PC software program. In addition, images of visual inspections taken by the Apollo s onboard camera can also be transferred to the test records program.

In this way, once downloaded to PATGuard 3, all test information can easily be managed and organised to provide a totally traceable record keeping and documentation system. In addition, as well as a history of the test carried out, the downloaded data can be used to produce test and inspection reports, provide test certificates and produce client invoices. Forward looking inspection and test schedules can also be produced for clients alongside asset registers allowing the straightforward management and administration of all client documentation.

Smart PAT also provides a repairs service for any damaged cables and plugs that are identified during the inspection and testing process, with the automatic paper trail detailing why equipment may have failed. Steve Hollins, said: As a relatively small PAT operator, the ability to streamline testing, record all results and produce all the necessary documentation as part of an integrated system has considerable benefits.

I can access test histories and records at the touch of a button, produce professional test certificates and reports and generally provide customers with the sort of support and aftercare more usually associated with bigger operators. As a business owner, this has made things much easier, with reduced paperwork and admin work leading to more effective use of my time, which in turn has helped me to gradually take on more customers.

To find out more about the Apollo please visit 8 9 Apollo Technology Extends Range of Safety Services from Technical Testing Company Investment in the latest test technology is helping a leading electrical maintenance company to boost its services for customers by improving the working efficiencies of its nationwide team of PAT engineers. The Essex-based Project Solver Ltd.

The new Apollo tester incorporates all of the electrical tests recommended by the IET Code of Practice for the in service inspection and testing of electrical equipment, and also includes an integral digital camera so that visual images of appliances can be saved against test results for fully traceable records.

Established by a management team with a combined experience of over years in the building services industry, Project Solver is NICEIC registered and provides a range of technical FM services to ensure that customers remain compliant with workplace safety regulations and standards. Included alongside electrical installation inspections, thermal imaging checks, UPS maintenance and other assurance work is a portable appliance testing service that is designed to ensure that all electrical equipment on a client s premises remains completely safe for staff and building users.

Project Solver test engineers carry out around 1 million portable appliance tests each year for clients in a range of sectors including healthcare, financial services, education, public buildings, government offices, distribution centres and commercial outlets.

In addition to PAT work, Project Solver engineers also use the versatility of the Apollo to check and record details of other workplace safety inspections, including the condition of emergency lighting and fixed appliances.

Seaward's PATGuard 3 software enables the test results of individual electrical items to be automatically logged against ID numbers and photos for comprehensive and fully traceable records and safety audits.

The Project Solver regional PAT teams carry out risk assessments and electrical testing at client premises before sending the test results electronically to head office for compilation into full test reports.

The reports and test certificates are held in a secure web-based client portal, allowing remote access for downloading and outputting purposes by client contract managers often responsible for the safety of a number of different sites.

Stephen Laccohee, compliance health and safety manager at Project Solver Ltd. Electrical safety testing is our core service, but the versatility of the Apollo means we have been able to extend the range of safety work we undertake for clients and maintain a central record keeping database for different types of equipment and checks. Working smarter with the new Apollo test technology has significantly enhanced our productivity and means we can provide an all in one solution for many different workplace health, safety and building maintenance tasks.

As a result we enjoy very high customer retention rates which in turn has provided the platform for consistent business growth. To find out more about the Apollo please visit 10 11 Testing in a winter wonderland Advanced portable appliance testing technology is helping the world leaders in artificial snow and winter effects ensure that its equipment is maintained to the highest safety standards.

For over 30 years the Gloucestershire-based Snow Business has supplied specialist artificial snow making equipment that has transformed film sets, advertising locations and other special events into amazing winter wonderland scenery. To make sure that the specialist electrical equipment used to create the spectacular visual backdrops remains safe to operate, the company has turned to the advanced Seaward Apollo portable appliance tester.

The company s in house engineering team uses the advanced tester to carry out regular testing of all of its electrical equipment to ensure that the highest standards of safety and reliability are maintained. Among the wide range of equipment tested are special falling snow machines, snow blower generators and agitators, high pressure pumps and associated extension cables, RCDs and electrical accessories.

As well as providing technicians with artificial snow-making equipment on film sets and locations, Snow Business also makes equipment available on direct hire for special private and corporate events. All equipment is therefore tested thoroughly before it is issued in line with standard best practice and hire industry guidelines. The engineering team at Snow Business carry out regular testing of around individual items of equipment each year and use the expanded internal memory of the tester to store and retrieve test records.

Full use is also made of the accompanying Bluetooth printer that has been set up to produce special test labels with the Snow Business logo. In addition, the automatic inclusion of appliance bar codes on the labels enables the easy identification of appliances and re-test sequences, speeding up the testing process an important factor in tracking and managing the movement of large numbers of equipment through the company s busy engineering workshops.

As such, the company s commitment to effective electrical safety testing plays an important part in maintaining its corporate reputation, image and credibility within the industry. Andy Wilson, head of engineering at Snow Business, explains: We re known as the world leaders in artificial snow and winter effects and ensuring the safe and reliable operation of our equipment is of critical importance to our professional standing in the industry.

Segregation of bus bars, outgoing ways and switchgear itself by barriers or internal enclosures greatly reduce fire and explosion risks. Heavy duty traction locomotives and free steered vehicles use very large D. C batteries to provide power. The hazards from their use are well known and much development has gone into the latest designs to reduce fire risks. However these energy sources cannot be easily controlled and made safe. Fires are notoriously difficult to deal with.

It is therefore vital that a stringent maintenance regime is in place to keep all plugs and sockets in good order and batteries cleaned and maintained daily. A purpose built battery maintenance station is essential. Depending upon the site layout and tunnelling works, it is sometimes possible to provide a dedicated substation with adequate security and protection from moving machinery etc.

Apollo 600 PAT Tester Case Studies

Typical damage would be nipping or puncturing of a cable by a machine or vehicle causing a fault and possibly fire or explosion. Bad positioning of electrical distribution plant could result in physical damage which could cause an internal failure. The result could range from possible electrical shock by exposed live parts, fire or even unexpected movement of plant if the control circuits are affected.

Where this is not the case then plant positioning and secondary protection must be considered very carefully. Whilst enclosures can be specified with rigid frames and covers, they will not be robust enough to withstand an impact from a moving vehicle, hydraulic arm or crane jib. Where mining type machines are in use then associated gate end boxes with flameproof enclosures can be utilised.

These provide a high degree of physical protection and include quite sensitive electrical protection to compliment the installation sensitive earth, leakage, over load, short circuit and pilot core protection are standard. However many installations involve TBM's or other plant within which space is at a premium. It these cases mains distribution units and motor control centres associated with the plant must be positioned with care to prevent collision and accidental damage but still provide accessibility for operation and maintenance.

Even in so called 'dry' tunnels, there will be numerous sources of water which can contaminate and affect plant operation. For example, cooling water from face machines, wash down hoses, grouting operations etc.

The 18th Edition

Wet ground conditions are very common, and more over a dry tunnel today can be a wet tunnel tomorrow. In general, electrical plant should be specified to provide ingress protection to at least EP65 BS, which gives a high degree of dust proofing as well as protection against water ingress. As noted in the previous section, careful location and installation is vital to mitigate the risks from water ingress.

Providing a designated substation or switch-room is ideal.

Even in wet tunnels it can be lined to deflect roof water etc and with good 'through' ventilation can be made fit for purpose. It should be noted that some items of electrical plant are not easily dealt with.

Motors can be specified with high water ingress i otection but other 'heat' generating items, such as power transformers are not so easily dealt with. If a purpose built substation is not available as is the case with large TBM's etc, then the selection and positioning of plant is again important.

Mining type transformer and switchgear units are quite resilient to water, but a flameproof enclosure is not water proof. As noted earlier in the paper, a comprehensive earthing system is vital in tunnels.

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Plant and connections are subject to corrosion and damage. It is therefore recommended that a visible supplementary earthing standard is adopted such that bonding is fitted between and across all electrical plant.

This will go a long way towards ensuring that protection systems operate quickly, minimising the risk or fire and electric shock. Overloading is the main cause of overheating, but lack of ventilation, build up of debris around drive units etc are also significant factors. Most plant arrives on site complete with motor drive units. Care must be taken to ensure that these units are adequately rated for the purpose intended.

Tunnel construction processes can not guarantee to provide a continuous smooth output of consistent material. Therefore the loading, in general, on construction plant can be erratic. This will not only reduce the overheating risk, but also increase the maintenance and durability factor of the machine.

Electrical protection can be applied very well to detect and protect against overloading. On high risk or critical plant, the protection can be enhanced by specifying embedded thermistors within motor windings. Transformers are also vulnerable to overload, overheating and hence fire. The principles noted above equally apply.

The unit must be of an adequate rating to accommodate overload excursions. Poor ventilation is a common factor in transformer fires. Tunnel substations seem to make ideal 'drying rooms' for work clothes, they can often be contaminated with grout, concrete etc.

The consequences and risks from this are high! Tunnel construction loads are not necessarily constant. Repeated loading and unloading can lead to fatigue type failures particularly on transformer internal connections. These type of failures, are difficult to predict and detect from external examination. Thermographic surveying is an ideal method of detecting early signs of failure and indeed acute overheating generally on plant.

This non invasive system involves the use of very sensitive 'heat seeking' thermovision cameras and video. Plant can be scanned whilst under load, and usually the whole site installation can be covered within one or two days without affecting production.

Akin to mining, the risk of serious and sometimes fatal injury to operators and staff from moving machinery is high. Operator training and safety awareness are given high priority to mitigate the risks but the engineer must take account of several critical factors in relation to plant design, to minimise the hazards.

At least one or in some cases two deliberate actions may be desirable to ensure that the operator is conscious of his action. In some cases systems can be backed up by a 'dead man's' handle or tredle to further increase the integrity of control. Reliable mechanisms which return to neutral are essential. These can be backed up by 'enabling' circuits which prevent power being applied if a control is jammed in an 'on' position.

Most plant suppliers are aware of these requirements and standard systems are available. Again, standard control circuit designs are available for this.

Again several methods are available to the designer which can detect cable faults and transducer failures on critical safety circuits. Care is required to ensure that starting is not so frequent so as to cause confusion rather than warning and also that the pre-start period is not taken to be a 'period of grace' by staff before the machine starts.

Pre-start warnings, combined with cutting head dust suppression sprays being activated are a well proven method of effective warning.

A comprehensive risk assessment of the particular plant and construction sequence is of great assistance to the plant engineer. From this critical areas can be identified and in many cases eliminated in the design. If this cannot be achieved, a combination of some or all of the above measures, applied in conjunction with an agreed safe working procedure, should mitigate the risks to an acceptable level eg strategic positioning of emergency stops, pull wires etc.

However it is apparent that many of the selection criteria overlap one another and indeed the plant engineer will not consider each hazard and its associated risks in isolation. It is also essential that equipment selection is co-ordinated with others such that the mechanical, ventilation, pumping and other systems take cognisance of one another to form a complete process. As noted several times the fundamental design and plant selection are not complex, given that experienced engineers who understand the industry are deployed to the task.

It follows that the ongoing operation and maintenance of plant should be dealt with in a similar manner. The site agent or project manager is required to set out his organisation and arrangements for safety and in doing so the arrangements in place for electrical plant should be included. This need not be onerous and indeed in many cases the majority of items to be addressed would be covered within the Project Quality Plan.

The above does not require heavy procedural documents and indeed, to be useful, should be complied as part of a practical safety and quality plan. The key is to be clear in relation to 'who does what'. This applies to all aspects planning, design, operation and maintenance and must be taken into account when appointing staff. Furthermore, electrical staff should have authorisation levels. A person may be competent to work on a low voltage system but not have sufficient knowledge, experience and training to work on the high voltage network.

In general, good tunnel electricians and engineers, are a rare breed.

They are generally multi-skilled with 'hands on' experience in all aspects such as, installation maintenance, and fault finding. They will also be competent to be authorised to operate both high and low voltage networks. This job specification is therefore onerous and on some projects it will be difficult to find sufficient 'all rounders' as described above'.

With this in mind, the authorisations recommended will assist in classifying staff such that they can be employed with an appropriate level of competency.

The main point is to ensure that the manager can demonstrate a controlled, organised and documented management system. Authorisations must be reconciled with this document and staff must be provided with, and sign for, the items they need to carry out the prescribed duties. However it is advisable that the company induction procedure is complimented by a 'teach in', for those staff to be appointed as electricians.

This need not be onerous, but should, as a minimum, cover the local site electrical safety rules, authorisation system, site familiarisation etc. After which, the appointee can be issued with the requisite level of authorisation and personal locks etc. It is quite common and indeed good practice for new starts to be introduced to a 'buddy', i.As testing is carried out, results and equipment information is stored in the large internal memory in the Apollo and transferred to the PATGuard 3 results management software to enable formal records, test certificates and reports to be maintained.

C batteries to provide power.

The origins of Northern English 37 below. The North may be familiar territory to me, but in trying to weave a coherent and plausible narrative of the history of Northern English I have ventured into hitherto unexplored domains. One hundred years ago appeared R. According to Berelson content analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication.

Such a statement is an inheritance of similar sentiments from language study of the early twentieth century. This practical benefit of mains-free testing has had a significant impact on our day to day activities where testing can be undertaken with the freedom and flexibility to move around large industrial and office premises without constantly waiting for the instrument to power-up.

For Tolkien, for example xiv , traditional Huddersfield dialect in the West Riding was part of the North-west region, and also on the boundary between Northern and West Midland: see below. Images of Northern English to 64 3.

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