# SIMULATION AND MODELING PDF

Introduction To. Modeling & Simulation. (Part 1). Bilgisayar Mühendisliği Bölümü – Bilkent Üniversitesi – Fall Dr.Çağatay ÜNDEĞER. Öğretim Görevlisi. Please cite this book as: Claudius Ptolemaeus, Editor,. System Design, Modeling, and Simulation using Ptolemy II, bestthing.info, bestthing.info PDF | Introduction to M&S for Engineering Managers.

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In Modelling & Simulation, Modelling is the process of representing a model which It will help them understand the basic concepts related to Modelling. area of modeling and simulation. . Q.5 What is Modeling & Simulation? function (pdf) or its discrete counterpart, the probability mass function (pmf). It is also. Components of a System. ▫ Discrete and Continuous Systems. ▫ Model of a System. ▫ Types of Models. ▫ Discrete-Event System Simulation. ▫ Steps in a.

The ability to analyze the model as it runs sets simulation modeling apart from other methods, such as those using Excel or linear programming. By being able to inspect processes and interact with a simulation model in action, both understanding and trust are quickly built.

## Why use simulation modeling?

The effect of changing staffing levels in a plant may be seen without putting production at risk. Make the right decision before making real-world changes. Marketing campaigns can be tested without alerting the competition or unnecessarily spending money. Analysts and engineers gain trust in a model by seeing it in action and can clearly demonstrate findings to management. For example, checking warehouse storage space utilization on any given date.

Mining companies can significantly cut costs by optimizing asset usage and knowing their future equipment needs. In logistics, a realistic picture can be produced using simulation, including unpredictable data, such as shipment lead times. The Use of Simulation with an Example: Simulation Modeling for Efficient Customer Service This specific example may also be applicable to the more general problem of human and technical resource management, where companies naturally seek to lower the cost of underutilized resources, technical experts, or equipment, for example.

Finding the optimum number of staff to deliver a predefined quality of service to customers visiting a bank. Firstly, for the bank, the level of service was defined as the average queue size. Relevant system measures were then selected to set the parameters of the simulation model - the number and frequency of customer arrivals, the time a teller takes to attend a customer, and the natural variations which can occur in all of these, in particular, lunch hour rushes and complex requests.

A flowchart corresponding to the structure and processes of the department was then created.

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Simulation models only need to consider those factors which impact the problem being analyzed. E t Fig.

## Models in simulation

Thus same mathematical model, by using different constants can give solution for hanging wheel as well as electrical circuit. Most of the systems can in general be transformed into mathematical equations.

These equations are called the mathematical model of that system. Since beginning, scientists have been trying to solve the mysteries of nature by observations and also with the help of Mathematics. Equations of fluid flow represent fluid model which is dynamic.

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A static model gives relationships between the system attributes when the system is in equilibrium. Mathematical model of a system, in equilibrium is called a Static Mathematical Model.

Model of a stationary hanging wheel equation 1.

This equation can be solved numerically with the help of Runge-Kutta method. It is not possible to find analytic solution of this equation and one has to adopt the numerical methods. We divide equation 1. Details of the solution of this equation will be given in chapter five on continuous models.

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Modeling and Simulation 13 We can integrate equation 1. If mathematical model does not involve time i. In this section, we will discuss few static mathematical models.

First of the model is for evaluating the total cost of an aircraft sortie, for accomplishing a mission.

Costing is one of the important exercise in System Analysis, and is often required for accomplishing some operations. Second case has been taken from the market. A company wants to optimize the cost of its product by balancing the supply and demand.

In a later section, this static model will be made dynamic by involving time factor in it. A student training model, in which marks allotted to students are optimized, is also presented. But since this problem falls under static modeling, it is given here.

Students of engineering can skip this section if they like.

In this model we assume that a sortie of fighter aircraft flies to an enemy territory to destroy a target by dropping the bombs. Now we will construct a mathematical model to evaluate the total cost of attack by aircraft sortie to inflict a stipulated level of damage to a specified target. Here surviving aircraft mean, the number of aircraft which return safely after attacking the enemy territory.O Since Zk is obtained as the remainder of a division by m, there are only m remainders possible.

Dynamical systems are characterized by their system state and are often described by a set of differential equations. Thus, if the function f is sufficiently smooth, large steps are taken.

## system modeling and simulation.pdf

Exercises Thus, derive Taylor's third-order formula, which is analogous to Equation 2. Even though one cannot precisely predict a next event, one can predict how next events will be distributed.

But since this problem falls under static modeling, it is given here.

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