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Multipl skleroz (MS) santral sinir sistemini etkileyen kronik, .. pdf. Trojano M, Paolicelli D. The differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. bestthing.info S REVIEW/DERLEME. Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite. Multipl Skleroz Fonksiyonel Kompozit. Serkan DEMİR. Return to Article Details Aspartam ve multipl skleroz Download Download PDF. Thumbnails Document Outline Attachments. Previous. Next. Highlight all.
Neurotherapeutics doi: Treatment effects of immunomodulatory therapies at different stages of multiple sclerosis in short-term trials.
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Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
Drug Des Devel Ther. Patient and community preferences for treatments and health states in multiple sclerosis.
Conventional therapies for MS are based on the use of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs, but these treatments are not able to stop the destruction of nerve tissue.
Thus, other strategies such as stem cell transplantation have been proposed for the treatment of MS.
Overall, it is important that neurologists be aware of current information regarding the pathogenesis, etiology, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of MS. Thus, this issue has been discussed according to recent available information. Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Cell Therapy, Etiology, Demyelination Introduction Multiple sclerosis MS , the most prevalent neurological disability, is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects the central nervous system CNS and often leads to severe physical or cognitive incapacitation as well as neurological problems in young adults 1.
Multifocal zones of inflammation due to focal T-lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrations, and oligodendrocyte death are the primary causes of myelin sheath de- struction 2 that result in the formation of CNS plaques composed of inflammatory cells and their products, demyelinated and transected axons, and astrogliosis in both white and gray matter. These lesions can cross-talk with the correct transmission of nerve impulses and lead to neuronal dysfunction such as autonomic and sensorimotor defects, visual disturbances, ataxia, fatigue, difficulties in thinking, and emotional problems 1.
During RRMS, inflammatory attacks on myelin and nerve fibers occur. Activated immune cells cause lesions in the CNS which generate symptoms of visual impairments, tingling and numbness, episodic bouts of fatigue, intestinal and urinary system disorders, spasticity, and learning and memory impairment.
PPMS patients tend to have fewer brain lesions.
The T cells recognize myelin as foreign and attack it, explaining why these cells are also called "autoreactive lymphocytes". A further breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, in turn, causes a number of other damaging effects such as swelling , activation of macrophages , and more activation of cytokines and other destructive proteins. These factors could lead to or enhance the loss of myelin, or they may cause the axon to break down completely. It may become permeable to these types of cells secondary to an infection by a virus or bacteria.
After it repairs itself, typically once the infection has cleared, T cells may remain trapped inside the brain.
The most commonly used diagnostic tools are neuroimaging , analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and evoked potentials. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine may show areas of demyelination lesions or plaques.
Gadolinium can be administered intravenously as a contrast agent to highlight active plaques and, by elimination, demonstrate the existence of historical lesions not associated with symptoms at the moment of the evaluation.
These brain responses can be examined using visual - and sensory- evoked potentials. Phenotypes use the past course of the disease in an attempt to predict the future course.
They are important not only for prognosis but also for treatment decisions.Eighteen percent of alemtuzumab-treated patients experienced an autoimmune, thyroid-related AE, and 0. Currently, a stem cell-based regenerative medicine paradigm has been proposed for the treatment of MS 11 - Patient Prefer Adher ;4: 1—9.
Oral teriflunomide for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis TOWER : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
There is debate on whether they are MS variants or different diseases. Overall, it is important that neurologists be aware of current information regarding the pathogenesis, etiology, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of MS.
Aubagio EU summary of product characteristics. Eur Neurol. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.
Additional analyses are ongoing.
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