HUGH KENNER. Ulysses. Winchester, Massachusetts: Allen and Unwin, Pp. $ About fifteen book-length studies of Ulysses have appeared in. Frank Budgen, James Joyce and the Making of Ulysses (New York,. ). Butcher an Hugh Kenner, Dublin's Joyce (Bloomington, Ind., ). Dublin's. Joyce. The Pound By HUGH KENNER UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY .. A decade later Hugh Selwyn Mauberley was an attempt to condense the And on the first page of Ulysses, Stephen Dedalus, the Telemachus of Joyce.
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Throughout Ulysses, the wandering Leopold Bloom faces his role as an In his Ulysses, Hugh Kenner addresses this as "The Search for a Father [that] has. Get this from a library! Ulysses. [Hugh Kenner]. Inspire a love of reading with Prime Book Box for Kids Discover delightful children's books with Prime Book Box, a subscription that delivers new books every 1.
The Self-Reflexive Arranger in the Initial Style of Joyce's "Ulysses"
He was the eldest of ten surviving siblings; two died of typhoid. John O'Mulloy. Joyce's godparents were Philip and Ellen McCann. John Stanislaus Joyce's family came from Fermoy in County Cork , and had owned a small salt and lime works. Around this time Joyce was attacked by a dog, leading to his lifelong cynophobia. He suffered from astraphobia ; a superstitious aunt had described thunderstorms as a sign of God's wrath.
The Irish Party had dropped Parnell from leadership. But the Vatican's role in allying with the British Conservative Party to prevent Home Rule left a lasting impression on the young Joyce.
In November, John Joyce was entered in Stubbs' Gazette a publisher of bankruptcies and suspended from work. In , John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty caused mainly by his drinking and financial mismanagement.
This came about because of a chance meeting his father had with a Jesuit priest called John Conmee who knew the family and Joyce was given a reduction in fees to attend Belvedere.
He became active in theatrical and literary circles in the city. In his laudatory review of Henrik Ibsen 's When We Dead Awaken was published in The Fortnightly Review ; it was his first publication and, after learning basic Norwegian to send a fan letter to Ibsen, he received a letter of thanks from the dramatist.
Joyce wrote a number of other articles and at least two plays since lost during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin appeared as characters in Joyce's works.
His closest colleagues included leading figures of the generation, most notably, Tom Kettle , Francis Sheehy-Skeffington and Oliver St. John Gogarty. Joyce was first introduced to the Irish public by Arthur Griffith in his newspaper, United Irishman , in November Joyce had written an article on the Irish Literary Theatre and his college magazine refused to print it.
Joyce had it printed and distributed locally. Griffith himself wrote a piece decrying the censorship of the student James Joyce.
Richard Ellmann suggests that this may have been because he found the technical lectures in French too difficult. Joyce had already failed to pass chemistry in English in Dublin. But Joyce claimed ill health as the problem and wrote home that he was unwell and complained about the cold weather.
Fearing for her son's impiety, his mother tried unsuccessfully to get Joyce to make his confession and to take communion. She finally passed into a coma and died on 13 August, James and his brother Stanislaus having refused to kneel with other members of the family praying at her bedside.
He scraped together a living reviewing books, teaching, and singing—he was an accomplished tenor , and won the bronze medal in the Feis Ceoil. He decided, on his twenty-second birthday, to revise the story into a novel he called Stephen Hero. It was a fictional rendering of Joyce's youth, but he eventually grew frustrated with its direction and abandoned this work.
It was never published in this form, but years later, in Trieste, Joyce completely rewrote it as A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
The unfinished Stephen Hero was published after his death. On 16 June they had their first outing together, they walked to the Dublin suburb of Ringsend , where Nora masturbated him. This event was commemorated by providing the date for the action of Ulysses as " Bloomsday ".
After one of his drinking binges, he got into a fight over a misunderstanding with a man in St Stephen's Green ;  he was picked up and dusted off by a minor acquaintance of his father, Alfred H. Hunter, who took him into his home to tend to his injuries.
John Gogarty, who informed the character for Buck Mulligan in Ulysses. After six nights in the Martello Tower that Gogarty was renting in Sandycove, he left in the middle of the night following an altercation which involved another student he lived with, the unstable Dermot Chenevix Trench Haines in Ulysses , who fired a pistol at some pans hanging directly over Joyce's bed.
Shortly after, the couple left Ireland to live on the continent. It later became evident that the agent had been swindled; the director of the school sent Joyce on to Trieste , which was then part of Austria-Hungary until the First World War , and is today part of Italy. Once again, he found there was no position for him, but with the help of Almidano Artifoni, director of the Trieste Berlitz School, he finally secured a teaching position in Pola , then also part of Austria-Hungary today part of Croatia.
He stayed there, teaching English mainly to Austro-Hungarian naval officers stationed at the Pola base, from October until March , when the Austrians—having discovered an espionage ring in the city—expelled all aliens.
With Artifoni's help, he moved back to Trieste and began teaching English there. He remained in Trieste for most of the next ten years. Joyce persuaded his brother, Stanislaus, to join him in Trieste, and secured a teaching position for him at the school.
George Moore Well-known Irish novelist.
Buck Mulligan The complex alter ego of Stephen; he is witty, cynical, and blasphemous, but he is also courageous. At the end of Ulysses, Mulligan and Haines return to the Martello Tower, and the now homeless Stephen finds that his place has been irrevocably usurped by this Dublin medical student.
He died in Mina Purefoy Mrs. Sceptre The horse which Boylan bets on that loses the Gold Cup race. See Throwaway. The Shan Van Vocht The Poor Old Woman who personifies downtrodden Ireland, but who will become a beautiful queen when the country takes its rightful place in the world.
John F. See Bantam Lyons. Twigg was an actual poetess and an associate of George Russell A. He is living in the Tower which he rented from the government with Buck Mulligan, a Dublin medical student, and with Haines, an Oxonian, who is residing in Ireland while studying Irish folklore. In the Odyssey, Telemachus decides to leave Ithaca to seek his long-lost father so that he and Odysseus Ulysses might return to drive away the suitors who are despoiling the kingdom while courting Penelope.
Stephen does not leave the Martello Tower with the intention of searching for a father, even though his thoughts are about paternity, both physical and spiritual, and he voluntarily surrenders the key to the Tower to Mulligan. Also, his purpose is less firm than is that of Telemachus; when Stephen leaves Sandycove at the end of the episode, he has decided not to return to the Tower, but it is only after an argument late that night with Mulligan at the Westland Row Station, in which he almost certainly came to blows, that Stephen realizes the impossibility of going back.
When Mulligan deserts him, Stephen ends up in the brothel district at midnight, shepherded by Bloom. Central to this chapter is the contrast between Mulligan and Stephen: the cynic vs. Buck offers Ulysses 21 Stephen the temptation of an enjoyably physical but conventional existence, but Stephen treads deftly between such a life and its opposite, a labyrinthine maze of self-doubt, self-examination, and unhappiness.
To do this, we should be aware of several motifs that are developed throughout Ulysses. Some of the more important of these are religious symbols: the lost and also the false father theme, the image of Ireland as a desiccated wasteland, seen in the visit of the old milk woman, and the image of the key.
These motifs are often blended, and one must never forget that Ulysses is a vast symphony of symbols and recurring images. Most of the religious symbols are clearly and easily discernible. The religious imagery surrounding Mulligan suggests, also, that even this liberated medical student, for all his profanity, cannot rid himself of his theological training. Ulysses 23 Other religious allusions, however, are more subtle.
Religious allusions are used, as well, to express the false father theme of Ulysses. In a similar vein, the heretics Arius and Sabellius long ago debated the procession, or order, of the members of the Trinity.
Stephen is clearly alienated from Mulligan; he is also condemned to remain apart from Haines, whom he dislikes. Haines has been to a good school, Oxford; Joyce if we read Ulysses autobiographically resented the fact that he was forced to attend University College, Dublin, which he considered inferior to Trinity College Dublin , which has reciprocity with Oxford and Cambridge.
Haines has money; the Dedalus family lives in dire poverty. Haines is part of the British tennis set. Symbolically, the top of the Martello Tower becomes the heights of Elsinor, and both overlook abysses of figurative madness that both Hamlet and Stephen are facing.
Stephen, half in pique and half in despair, has surrendered the key to the Tower to the usurper Mulligan, and Stephen is now both symbolically and literally homeless. The old lady is a parody of the Shan van Vocht, the Poor Old Lady of Irish lore, who will turn into a beautiful young queen when Ireland begins to take her place among the nations of the world.
She delivers milk but, in her, the milk of life has dried up; she arrives late; she prefers the loud, posturing medicine man, Mulligan, to the withdrawn intellectual, Stephen. Joyce, who looked to Europe for artistic inspiration, thought such renderings to be empty exercises, products of senile minds, inventing a false past to evade present responsibilities.
This escapism is seen in the wretched life of Mary Dedalus, another victim of rote acceptance of the status quo, and Stephen cannot help but see the similarities between the old crone and his own mother.
Is the key to Ulysses to be found in the brash physicality of Mulligan, the solipsistic intellectuality of Stephen, or the passivity and humanitarianism of Bloom? Although Joyce never does answer these questions, the novel depicts and suggests many possibilities. His conversation with Mr. Deasy ends just before a. The time of the Nestor Episode is traditionally set at a.
The Arranger in Ulysses
The lesson is about the Greek hero Pyrrhus, another victim of a usurper, who, like the archetypal Irish prophet, remained faithful to a lost cause to the end. A short time later, in Mr.
Deasy also gives Stephen a letter which he has written about the foot and mouth disease of livestock, cattle in particular. In terms of the Odyssey, Mr. Deasy, the stuffy, Polonius-like administrator, represents Nestor, the aged Greek soldier and rhetorician who helped to keep order among the military principals during the ten-year siege of Troy described in the Iliad and who was the first friend of Odysseus that Telemachus visited after he left Ithaca in search of information about his father.
In this chapter, several parallels between the two men are found. Nestor, though often useful at Troy, is frequently satirized by Homer because of his ponderous verbiage; and it is significant that Telemachus does not gain any valuable information about him. Deasy, too, may have some sense of national and civic pride, as seen in his concern for sick cattle, but his virtue is outweighed by his militant anti-Semitism, his veneration of money, and his bland interpretation of the place of Protestantism Ulysses 27 in Irish history.
Dedalus, and a religious interpretation of the riddle finds support in the next chapter when Stephen wonders if the dog on the beach, Tatters, is digging in the sand for his grandmother. In Cyril, Stephen sees himself as he was at Clongowes: weak-eyed, insecure, misunderstood, trembling, and put upon by the school disciplinarian.
Mired in guilt and sorrow, Stephen cannot enjoy life. However, the allusions to Helen, Julius Caesar, and Pyrrhus, while they are significant in a mock heroic novel based upon ancient prototypes, are less important than the Ulysses 29 references to the more contemporary betrayal and imprisonment of Ireland by England.
And the spokesman for the Establishment is Garrett Deasy, who is a true West Briton—that is, he is an Irishman who imitates English manners and takes the British position on all matters.
Joyce also gains an excellent structural framework for this chapter by placing Deasy at the center of the stage. Helen is humorously appropriate in the mock heroic Ulysses since Nestor, in the Odyssey, sent Telemachus to Menelaus and Helen when he was unable to tell Telemachus much about his father. Of greatest importance about the stories of these three faithless wives, however, is that all three are different versions of Molly Bloom, who, on June 16, , with Blazes Boylan, will enjoy an act of adultery.
Deasy feels that England is decaying because Jews are controlling the finances and the press. Deasy, then, is the spokesman for the world-as-finance. To Deasy, virtue means never having to say you borrowed. Stephen wanders along the beach to spend time before he meets Mulligan at The Ship pub at p. Thus the lengthy description of his visit to the Gouldings concerns only an imagined event.
Stephen is a well-read young man, conversant in philosophy as well as in literary theory, and the first two paragraphs mirror his preoccupation with the processes of knowing and being.
Aristotle taught that we are first aware of bodies through their translucence or transparency diaphane , then through their colors. The latter deals with visual appearances; the former, with auditory ones. In Ulysses, Stephen must disentangle the reality of his past in Paris as well as in Dublin from obfuscating memories; he must discover who he really is, as opposed to the person that others, such as Mulligan, perceive him to be.
The parallels in this chapter with Homer are very general. In the Odyssey, Menelaus tells Telemachus how he had to deal with Proteus, the god of the sea who could change forms at will. Does an object exist if no one sees it? Does a sound exist if no creature hears it?
Walking along the beach, wearing boots borrowed from Mulligan, Stephen thinks of the many philosophers whom he has read who treated this problem of permanence and change. Thus, Stephen, by implication, shares symbolically the nebulous parentage of Christ and of many epic heroes. He is a Telemachus who wonders at this point not where his father is, but who his true father is.
He remembers the lies that he told about his ancestors at school at Clongowes. He recalls that, while others predicted a fine future for him as a religious man Stephen was ostensibly a saintly lad , he was really thinking about naked women. He also remembers his ostentatious displays of erudition and his wish to send copies of his early, short prose poems, his epiphanies, to all the major libraries of the world. The present offers little solace for Stephen.
The original of Kevin Egan, one should note, was Joseph Casey, an Irish Nationalist, who, in , was involved in a tragic attempt to free several Fenians from Clerkenwell Prison in London by using gunpowder.
Stephen thinks of Egan whom he met in Paris several times in the episode, and Egan fits into several major motifs of Ulysses. He is an example of a leader who is abandoned and forgotten by the Irish people. Finally, Kevin Egan fits into the father theme of Ulysses, when he tells Stephen to find Patrice, his son, and let him know that Stephen saw him Kevin Egan.
Change, to Stephen, is a crucifixion, for he must learn to become mature or be drowned by life, to balance the conflicting forces that define him. Now, after living in Paris, a sojourn that accentuated tendencies towards blasphemy and skepticism which had been present in his personality for a long Ulysses 35 time, he feels lost. Still, however, the chapter is also about hope, and the prognosis for Stephen is not as bleak as some critics have maintained.
In the second, he urinates, an action that in much of Ulysses is associated with creativity. With Stephen teetering between solvency—both emotional and monetary—and insolvency, hope and despair, sanity and madness, creativity and waste, the first part of Ulysses comes to an end.
Stephen, even at the start of his own section, needs the gruff masculinity of Buck, and Bloom and Molly heavily and perhaps ultimately depend upon one another. Ulysses 36 Chapter 4: Calypso The fourth chapter of Ulysses begins at a.
This chapter also parallels the Odyssey in that just as Odysseus Ulysses was held as a love captive for seven years by the beautiful nymph Calypso, so also is Bloom, in a sense, a prisoner of his wife, Molly.
Some of the similarities between Bloom and Stephen are not easily detectable at first, but we need to look for them in order to fully understand both men. Bloom pours the cat some milk that has just been delivered by the milkman, and one recalls the old milkwoman in the opening chapter of the novel.
Photo girl he calls her. Both Bloom and Stephen as was mentioned before are keyless heroes, both symbolically dispossessed.But there was an instance of anti-semitism much nearer home, which Joyce avoided mentioning because it would inevitably have altered the balance of Ulysses.
Frowsy girls sat along the curbstones before their baskets.
Aristotle taught that we are first aware of bodies through their translucence or transparency diaphane , then through their colors. In Cyril, Stephen sees himself as he was at Clongowes: weak-eyed, insecure, misunderstood, trembling, and put upon by the school disciplinarian.
Though not connected with the Rising, he was arrested in The melon he had he held against my face.. The son-in-search-of-a-fafher and the father-in-search-of-a-son approach is viciated by the fact that, as Hugh Kenner has said, the last thing on earth Stephen needs at present is another father And life lay all before him These motifs are often blended, and one must never forget that Ulysses is a vast symphony of symbols and recurring images.
Barney Kiernan The Cyclops Episode takes place in his pub and begins just before p.