HANDCRAFTED CSS PDF

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Certain properties applied to the p element are inherited by their children. In general, When you learn a new property, it properties related to the styling of text—font size, color, style, etc.

Inheritance is noted for every passed down. Properties such as borders, margins, backgrounds, and so on, property listing in this book. For the that affect the boxed area around the element tend not to be passed down. For example, if you put a border expectations.

You can use inheritance to your advantage when writing style sheets. A better way would be to write a single styles set on the body, so be on the look- style rule that applies the font-face property to the body element, and let all out for unexpected styling. Any property applied to a specific element will override the inherited values for that property. Going back to the article example, we could specify that the em element should appear in a serif font, and that would override the inherited sans-serif setting.

All the elements in the document inherit certain properties applied to the body element. CSS allows you to apply several style sheets to the same document, which means there are bound to be conflicts. The folks who wrote the style sheet specification anticipated this problem and devised a hierarchical system that assigns different weights to the vari- ous sources of style information.

Individual users can apply their own styles as well the user style sheet , which overrides the default styles in their browser. However, if the author of the web page has attached a style sheet the author style sheet , that over- rides both the user and the user agent styles.

Generally speaking, the closer the style sheet is to the content, the more weight it is given. Embedded style sheets that appear right in the document in the style element have more weight than external style sheets. In the example that started this sec- tion, the h1 elements would end up purple as specified in the embedded style sheet, not red as specified in the external. The sidebar Style Sheet Hierarchy provides an overview of the cascading order from general to specific.

Specificity Once the applicable style sheet has been chosen, there may still be conflicts; When two rules in a single therefore, the cascade continues at the rule level. When two rules in a single style sheet conflict, the style sheet conflict, the type of selector is used to determine the winner. The type of selector is used to more specific the selector, the more weight it is given to override conflicting determine the winner.

For now, put the term specificity and the concept of some selectors overriding others on your radar. We will revisit it in Chapter 12 when you have more selector types under your belt.

Assigning Importance If you want a rule not to be overridden by a subsequent a conflicting rule in a reader user style sheet that has also conflicting rule, include the! This is to ensure that special reader the property value and before the semicolon for that rule.

For requirements, such as large type for the visually impaired, are example, to make paragraph text blue always, use the following never overridden.

For exam- the previous two. It is easy to accidentally override previous declarations ple, external style sheets listed later in within a rule when you get into compound properties, so this is an important the source will be given precedence over behavior to keep in mind.

The easiest way to think of the box model is that browsers see every element on the page both block and inline as being contained in a little rectangular box. You can apply properties such as borders, margins, pad- ding, and backgrounds to these boxes, and even reposition them on the page.

The borders reveal the shape of each block element box. There are boxes around the inline elements em and img as well. Notice that the block element boxes expand to fill the available width of the browser window, which is the nature of block elements in the normal document flow.

Inline boxes encompass just the characters or image they contain. Rules around all the elements reveal their element boxes.

Grouped selectors Hey! This is a good opportunity to show you a handy style rule shortcut. If you ever need to apply the same style property to a number of elements, you Pop Quiz can group the selectors into one rule by separating them with commas. Grouping them the border property to the body makes future edits more efficient and results in a smaller file size.

Unfortunately, lack of dependable browser support prevented the widespread adoption of CSS for several years. It most notably added properties for positioning that allowed CSS to be used for page layout. It also introduced styles for other media types such as print, handheld, and aural and more sophisticated methods for selecting elements for styling.

CSS Level 3 CSS3 is different from prior versions in that it has been divided into many individual modules, each addressing a feature such as animation, multiple column layouts, or borders.

While some modules are being standardized, others remain experimental. In that way, browser developers can begin implementing and we can begin using!

Moving Forward with CSS This chapter covered all the fundamentals of Cascading Style Sheets, includ- ing rule syntax, ways to apply styles to a document, and the central concepts of inheritance, the cascade, and the box model.

CSS is a vast topic, well beyond the scope of this book. Bookstores and the Web are loaded with information about style sheets for all skill levels.

Books There is no shortage of good books on CSS out there, but these are the ones that taught me, and I feel good recommending them. The article after adding the small style sheet from the example.

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As I said, not beautiful; just different. Attaching the styles to the document In the previous exercise, we embedded the style sheet right in the document using the style element. That is just one of three ways that style information can be applied to an HTML document. External style sheets. An external style sheet is a separate, text-only docu- ment that contains a number of style rules. It must be named with the. In this way, all the files in a website may share the same style sheet.

This is the most powerful and preferred method for attaching style sheets to content. Embedded style sheets.

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This is the type of style sheet we worked with in the exercise. It is placed in a document using the style element, and its rules apply only to that document. The style element must be placed in the head of the document.

This example also includes a comment see the Comments in Style Sheets sidebar. Sometimes it is helpful to leave yourself or your collaborators comments in a style The style element may also include the sheet. These are discussed in Chapter means you can leave comments anywhere in a style sheet, even within a rule. Inline styles should be avoided, unless it is absolutely necessary to over- ride styles from an embedded or external style sheet. Inline styles are problematic in that they intersperse presentation information into the structural markup.

They also make it more difficult to make changes because every style attribute must be hunted down in the source. Exercise gives you an opportunity to write an inline style and see how exercise it works. Download from Wow! If you worked to the end of the exercise, you will have a fortable with how Cascading Style Sheets behave.

Each of these ideas will certainly second h2 gray. Did you inherit their hair Save the file and open it in a browser. Your unique smile?

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Well, just as parents pass down traits to their Now the second heading is gray, overriding the red color set in the children, styled HTML elements pass down certain style properties to the embedded style sheet. The other h2 elements they contain. Notice in Exercise , when we styled the p ele- heading is unaffected. That is because it inherited the styles from the paragraph it is in.

It inherits the styles from the paragraph that contains it. The em element inherits styles that were applied to the paragraph.

A few of the paragraphs, in turn, contain inline elements such as images img and emphasized text em.

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You can visualize the structure as an upside-down tree, branching out from the root, as shown in Figure The document tree structure of the sample document, twenties. Parents and children The document tree becomes a family tree when it comes to referring to the relationship between elements.

All the elements contained within a given element are said to be its descendants.

For example, the h1, h2, p, em, and img elements in the document in Figure are all descendants of the body element. An element that is directly contained within another element with no inter- vening hierarchical levels is said to be the child of that element. Conversely, the containing element is the parent. For example, the em element is the child of the p element, and the p element is its parent.

All of the elements higher than a particular element in the hierarchy are its ancestors. Two elements with the same parent are siblings. This may all seem aca- demic, but it will come in handy when writing CSS selectors. Chapter 11, Cascading Style Sheets Orientation The Big Concepts Pass it on When you write a font-related style rule using the p element as a selector, the rule applies to all of the paragraphs in the document as well as the inline text elements they contain.

Note that the img element is excluded because font-related properties do not apply to images.

Certain properties applied to the p element are inherited by their children. In general, When you learn a new property, it properties related to the styling of text—font size, color, style, etc. Inheritance is noted for every passed down.

Properties such as borders, margins, backgrounds, and so on, property listing in this book. For the that affect the boxed area around the element tend not to be passed down. To Share up for our picture or annullate decisions, ask provide your consulting car now.

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That is because it inherited the styles from the paragraph it is in. Granted, it takes a lot of practice to be able to create CSS layouts like those shown in Figure If you take on a sure autonomamente, like at della, you can shape an Show performance on your practice to check available it Keeps ne needed with synuclein.

Each rule selects an element and declares how it should look.

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