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There are also some more involved transcriptions where appropriate, and a few full score reductions where each instrumental part is important, and harmony parts and voicings are included. Australian screen. Education Developed by Curriculum Corporation through The Le rning Federation, the education collection is designed to help teachers and students make the most of the wide range of moving image resources on the site.

The clips in this collection are accompanied by teachers' notes created by specialist curriculum writers. Expert curators' notes also provide useful background material. Australian screen : Australia's audiovisual heritage online. You can view clips from Australian feature films, documentaries, TV programs, shorts, home movies, newsreels, advertisements, other historical footage, and sponsored films produced over the last years, with curators' notes and other information about each title.

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It includes books published in the provinces as well as in Moscow and Leningrad, and offers a spread of material covering different age groups, from pre-schoolers to pre-teens. Many of the items included are now extremely rare. The collection contains material on children's games and other leisure activities, the New Year and other holidays, theater, radio and cinema. Classical music library Classical Music Library provides musical sound recordings and MIDI files, program notes, reference texts composer biographies, history, and glossary , and images.

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Learning resources include a detailed introduction, plot summary, character biographies, a relationship map, language analysis, scene study, performance background and historical context for each play. Updates vary. Drama online Includes full texts of plays from across the history of the theatre, ranging from Aeschylus to the present day. Includes non-English-language works in translation, scholarly and critical editions, first night program texts, and critical analysis and contextual information.

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Maxine Peake's Hamlet. Also includes the Nick Hern books collection - almost titles from specialist theatre publisher, Nick Hern. The works in this collection are presented as images, which may be viewed online, or downloaded in PDF format. Eighteenth century journals : a portal to newspapers and periodicals, c It brings together rare journals printed between c and , illuminating all aspects of eighteenth-century social, political and literary life.

Topics include: the writings of Sir Isaac Newton; the French Revolution; reviews of literature, the theater, and fashion throughout Europe; the origins and rise of Romanticism; political debates; gender, religion, influence of the press, and coffee Encyclopedia of popular music Featuring a broad musical scope covering popular music of all genres and periods from to the present day, including jazz, country, folk, rap, reggae, techno, musicals, and world music, the Encyclopedia also offers thousands of additional entries covering popular music genres, trends, styles, record labels, venues, and music festivals.

Key dates, biographies, and further reading are provided for artists covered, along with complete discographies that include record labels, release dates, and a 5-star album rating system. Phrasal verbs although not always. Researchers have found out that m a n y m e n t a l illnesses are based on molecular defects. Researchers have discovered that m a n y m e n t a l illnesses are based on molecular defects.

Direct questions although not always.

W h a t can be d o n e to improve the state of o u r economy? We n o w need to consider w h a t can be d o n e to improve the state of o u r economy. Adverbs in initial or final positions the middle position is preferable. T h i s w o r k relies on previous research heavily.

T h i s w o r k heavily relies on previous research. Inappropriate negative forms. Short forms of the words or slang. This booklet describes the requirements a n d content of the university graduation exams. This booklet describes the requirements a n d content of the university graduation examinations.

Figures at the beginning of the sentence. Reduce the Ninety-seven p e o p l e visited t h e m u s e u m last week. The investigation of the origin of the Universe will go on. What are the effects of pollution on the population of birds in large urban areas?

Several assumptions can be made. You can clearly see the difference between these two sets of data. The experiment will be over in three months. We can't tell whether electricity is some peculiar kind of substance or motion of ordinary matter. This approach does not promise many innovations. Our new research assistant is a nice guy. Each statement in a high-level programming language is translated into many machine-code instructions generally.

It is, therefore, important to adopt an appropriate point of view, that is to choose or not to choose personal pronouns I or we for framing a piece of writing. Traditionally, academic writing tends to avoid personal pronouns and shows preference toward impersonal style. At the same time, there is a tendency now to use an I-perspective in English academic writing, mostly in humanities. Using I, however, may seem somewhat unusual or awkward to Ukrainian writers.

It may thus be recommended, at least for beginners, to maintain impersonal style and to avoid the first person pronoun I. This does not mean, however, that I should never be used. Cautious Writing An important feature of English academic written discourse is a cautious manner of writing, that is the avoidance of too definite statements or conclusions. The purpose of such a strategy is to be accurate and to protect the author from being criticized for possible errors or invalid claims.

Cautious writing also allows for other opinions or points of view. The main linguistic ways of doing this are as follows. By using modal verbs. By using adjectives that express probability in all examples below the statements gradually weaken in strength. Dinosaurs died o u t d u e to sudden climatic changes. It is certain It is likely It is probable It is possible It is unlikely that dinosaurs died o u t due to sudden climatic changes.

By using a there is construction with the word possibility. There is a strong possibility a definite possibility a slight possibility t h a t dinosaurs died o u t d u e t o s u d d e n climatic changes. By using adverbs that express certainty and probability. Definitely, Undoubtedly, Probably, Possibly, Presumably, d i n o s a u r s died o u t d u e to s u d d e n climatic changes.

Social scientists seem to o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. Social scientists appear to o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. Social scientists tend to o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values.

By using quantity words. A majority of social scientists o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. A large number of social scientists o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. Social scientists of many countries o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values.

Some social scientists o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. A few social scientists o f t e n serve c o n t r a d i c t o r y political a n d scientific values. By using statements of shared knowledge, assumptions, and beliefs. It is generally agreed It is widely accepted It is now generally recognized t h a t dinosaurs died o u t d u e t o s u d d e n climatic changes. Underline the instances of a cautious style of writing that you will be able to find in the text below some of them will slightly differ from those listed above.

Native American Cultures The America that greeted the first Europeans was far from an empty wilderness. It is now thought that as many people lived in the Western Hemisphere as in Western Europe at that time—about 40 million. Estimates of the number of Native Americans living in what is now the United States at the onset of European colonization range from two to 18 million, with most historians tending toward the lower figure.

What is certain is the devastating effect that European disease had on the indigenous population practically from the time of initial contact.

Smallpox, in particular, is thought to have been a much more direct cause of the decline in Indian population in the s than the numerous wars with European settlers. Indian customs and culture at the time were extraordinarily diverse, as could be expected, given the expanse of the land and the many different environments to which they had adapted.

Some generalizations, however, are possible. Most tribes, particularly in the wooded eastern region and the Midwest, combined aspects of hunting, gathering and the cultivation of maize and other products for their food supplies. In many cases, the women were responsible 30 English Academic Style and Language for farming and the distribution of food, while the men hunted and participated in war. By all accounts, Indian society in North America was closely tied to the land. Indian life was essentially clan-oriented and communal, with children allowed more freedom and tolerance than was the European custom of the day.

Although some North American tribes developed a type of hieroglyphics to preserve certain texts, Indian culture was primarily oral. Clearly, there was a good deal of trade among various groups and strong evidence exists that neighboring tribes maintained extensive and formal relations—both friendly and hostile.

Be careful to use appropriate choices for each situation. Supervision is a critical link between top managers and workers. The expansion of the Universe continues. Monetary policy is not effective. Diseases are the results of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The most influential component of a computer is a central processing unit.

Genetic differences in alcohol metabolism between American Indians and other races caused the death of a Navajo teenager. Errors are the indicators of the learners' stages in their foreign language development. Economists think that statistical methods have a profound impact on process involvement, production costs, quality, and competitive position. A drop of nicotine kills the horse. Ecology is defined as a study of the relations of living things with their environment. Verbs English academic style makes use of formal verbs, often of Latin origin.

In Ukrainian textbooks, such verbs are usually referred to as "general scientific verbs" Ukr. Below are the most frequently used "scientific verbs " in the left column and the descriptions of their meanings in the right column arranged in groups often, alphabetically. Check your knowledge of the verbs by matching them with the descriptions of their meanings. Memorize the words you do not know actively.

You m a y also add to this list o t h e r "general scientific verbs" that y o u will c o m e across w h e n reading literature in your field. Their knowledge and appropriate use is very important for successful academic writing in English. A The following sentences contain widespread academic collocations. However, one component—a noun in the majority of cases —has been omitted.

Find the missing words in the list above the sentences and fill in the blanks. Social and ideological crises usually give religions and beliefs. Ecologists lay light insights emphasis to non-traditional on the consequences of human utilization of natural resources. The data he has found will shed on theoretical assumptions. Advances in molecular biology may have for therapy.

Recent research into mental illnesses has provided causes of schizophrenia. The recent elections have shown that political forces managed to maintain the.

The participants of the conference have raised many burning 8. The paper offers to Canada. For the purposes of this research, this theorem will be taken for.

The tests of gene therapy have allowed medical scientists to draw about its possible risks and benefits. Practical consequences of the research lie outside the paper.

When investigating the origin of different disease, researchers take into both hereditary anil environmental factors. Traditionally, Ukrainian higher education importance on the development of wide erudition of students. The authors of the article recent research to show how the goal of learning English vocabulary can be integrated into speaking activities.

Bohr, the outstanding Danish physicist, the foundations of a "liquid droplet" theory of nuclear phenomena. Few facts the theory of the virus nature of cancer. In the history of science, some researchers the theories that already existed to include the new phenomena.

He research into the use of optics. Many scholars think that humankind overpopulation. Cloning of animals research. Intensive space exploration in the second half of the 20th century has essentially to our understanding of the Universe. You may try to the paper to an international journal. Political and economic changes in Ukraine have of society for economists and lawyers.

Choose a missing component and fill in the blanks again. There is a relationship between the attraction of the moon and sea tides. The key of the study suggests that high Cortisol level in an individual may cause the symptoms of depression. In this paper, we show the results of computational simulation for a case of the thermal resistance function that will be further verified. Nowadays, ecological interpretation is becoming an of social sciences. The right of women to have abortions is a hotly many countries.

Discourse analysis is a relatively new area field of 8. The laboratory is a research. The theory of shells has been chosen as a this investigation. Philological research requires wide framework of knowledge in such related fields as history and philosophy. The study has been undertaken with theoretical. To arrive at valid conclusions, sociologists must use only sources and data.

Special advice: W h i l e reading the literature in your field, try to write out more collocations typical for your discipline and add them to the list. They also improve the flow of writing, that is a s m o o t h m o v e m e n t f r o m one idea or piece of information in a text to the next.

Logical connectors are thus guideposts for readers that help t h e m to better follow the text.

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As transitional expressions show various kinds of logical relations, they may be grouped according to their meaning and function. Read the following passages. Which one is easier to read? Now look back at version B and answer the questions that follow. A E-mail and electronic communications are not new. Large-scale use of computer-to-computer transfer of information was implemented by the United States military in the late 60s and early 70s—part of the superpower competition of the cold war and the arms race.

Recognizing that shared information among scientists and mathematicians was also of strategic value, the network was made accessible to scholars and researchers in universities and colleges around the world.

Mathematicians and scientists and their universities have been linked and electronically exchanging information over the Internet since the mid70s. E-mail and Internet are too wonderful to remain in the hands of just a few academics or the military, and in the last few years, important developments in electronic communications have begun to affect the lives of all of us. The Post-industrial age is the information age, and the means to acquire, store, manipulate, and use information will lead to success ami power.

Electronic communications are global and the Internet has no borders. This technology creates many opportunities for cultural and linguistic exchange. B E-mail and electronic communications in general are not new.

In fact, large-scale use of computer-to-computer transfer of information was implemented by the United States military in the late 60s and early 70s—part of the superpower competition of the cold war and the arms race. Later, recognizing that shared information among scientists and mathematicians was also of strategic value, the network was made accessible to scholars and researchers in universities and colleges around the world. Thus, mathematicians and scientists and their universities have been linked and electronically exchanging information over the Internet since the mids.

However, e-mail and Internet are too wonderful to remain in the hands of just a few academics or the military, and in the last few years, important developments in electronic communications have begun to affect the lives of all of us. The Post-industrial age is the information age, and the means to acquire, store, manipulate, and use information will lead to success and power. That is why electronic transfer of information is so important to education.

Moreover, since electronic communications are global and the Internet has no borders, this technology creates many opportunities for cultural and linguistic exchange. Which expressions in the text show causal relationship? Which expression shows that more information will be added? Which expression indicates time? Which expression shows that the sentence will contradict something said earlier? Which expression introduces a conclusion? Which expressions intensity the meanings of the sentences?

As far as possible, group them into their functions according to Table 1. Several connectors may have more than one meaning, so they may need to go in more than one of the cells.

Use a dictionary if you need to check the meaning of a connector. Each cell contains one connector provided as an example for you. Box 1. Logical Connectors accordingly although as as a matter of fact as a result as far as as long as as to at the same time because of consequently conversely despite due to even though finally firstly for example for instance furthermore hence however in addition in brief in conclusion in contrast in fact in other words in spite of in this case likewise meanwhile moreover nevertheless nonetheless notwithstanding on the contrary on the other hand on the whole otherwise overall regarding similarly since that is i.

Functions of Logical Connectors Function Addition Cause and effect Comparison Concession Conclusion Contrast Enumeration Illustration Intensification Reformulation Relation Summation Time Connectors furthermore, because of, likewise, nevertheless, therefore, on the other hand, firstly, for example, as a matter of fact, in other words, regarding, overall, meanwhile. Fill in the blanks with the logical connectors given before the text. You must have also met some of them while reading Ukrainian academic texts, where such expressions are easy to notice, because they are often written in the Roman alphabet.

In English texts, such expressions rather than abbreviations are sometimes given in italics. Below are the lists of abbreviations and expressions that you may use while writing in English. Table 2. Anno Domini in the year of our Lord a. Latin Expressions Expression Meaning a fortiori by a more convincing argument a posteriori reasoning based on past experience a priori reasoning that precedes experience ab initio from the beginning ab ovo from the beginning acl hoc arranged for a particular purpose; not pre-arranged; informal ad infinitum without limit; forever liter ego one's other self bona fide genuine ly , sincere ly , in good faith de facto existing by fact, not by law or right de jure by right; according to law ego I; individual perception or experience of oneself errata list of errors, misprints, etc.

Although knowledge of foreign languages is practically important, it is also valuable per se. History knows several examples when countries were ruled by de facto kings. Chemical processes usually flow in vivo quicker than in laboratory conditions. You may find Errata in the section "Announcements" of the journal.

Every creator starts to work within a traditional system ideological, epistemological, literary, etc. While some scholars argue that conceptual systems do not exist a priori, others think that social groups, within which individuals function, are determined by and interact with prior "systems.

The studies have shown that this class of bacterial proteins also pumps toxins out of the cell interior Nguen et al.

To elaborate a new decision, the committee gathered for an ad hoc meeting. Per capita income is an important economic category. Minerals get their names from various sources; e. Knowledge of them is especially important for those who perform research in humanities and social sciences.

The first tendency considered here is the so-called politically correct language. This tendency, characteristic mostly of American English, consists in the use of euphemisms mild, vague, and indirect words or phrases that soften accurate meanings in accordance with sociopolitical values. Some examples of "politically correct" American English are given below.

Blacks, N e g r o e s Afro-Americans; Indians N a t i v e Americans; c h e a t i n g in school a c a d e m i c dishonesty; foreign s t u d e n t s international students; poor marginalized; blind visually challenged; h a n d i c a p p e d o r crippled differently abled; mentally retarded d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y challenged; stupid intellectually disadvantaged; u n a b l e to deal w i t h technical appliances technologically challenged.

Discuss the above examples with your partner. What values political, ideological, and moral , in your opinion, underlie these euphemisms?

The second tendency consists in the avoidance of unnecessary distinctions based on sex in language use. These distinctions are called sexist language. The proper understanding of this important for the Western societies tendency may not be easy for Ukrainians and other speakers of East Slavic languages, in which grammar is strongly affected by the category of gender.

The text in the task below will help you to better understand what sexist language is and how to avoid it when writing in English.

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The use of generic terms such as mankind and man is now associated with sexism and avoided by most careful speakers and writers of English. The needs and conditions of the modern English-speaking world have steered English toward becoming the most effective and sensitive international medium of communication. But, despite this openness and adaptability of the English language to new words, concepts, and usages, many speakers of English, male and female, The power relations within the English language are revealed in its gender biases, the majority of which rest on the traditional sexual division of labor and on the cultural assumption of male superiority.

Use of a gender-neutral form of English strives to correct these distorted assumptions by making apparent the full participation of both sexes in all spheres of life.

One of the main arguments against male-centered English in its usage is that discrimination against women is promoted through sexist language.

In their essay, "One Small Step for Genkind," Miller and Swift offer several examples of sexism in language and the ways in which the English language reflects a sexist culture. According to the authors, sexist language is any language that expresses "stereotyped attitudes and expectations, or that assumes the inherent superiority of one sex over the other" The use of masculine pronouns for people in general, for example he in generalized usage, refers to either sex as described by Miller and Swift as an instance of a linguistic construction that "operates to keep women invisible" or secondary in status to men In recognition of the power of language to subjugate groups of people, most reputed dictionaries and guides to writing in English published in the last 10 years advise against the use of words or statements that suggest bias or prejudice toward any group.

More specialized books on style and composition 46 English Academic Style and Language such as the Modern Language Association's Handbook for Writers of Research Papers offer a list of reliable guides to writing in nonsexist language.

The MLA Handbook, for example, gives its own clear guideline of what constitutes sexually discriminatory language and its reasonable alternative: Gendered Gender-free postman chairman landlord manmade poetess air hostess policeman maid postal agent chairperson landowner synthetic poet flight attendant police officer domestic For those who believe that language and culture are interrelated, that language embodies and disseminates cultural assumptions and relations of power, the first step toward transforming a biased society may be to transform the language itself.

Discuss with your classmate the last sentence of the text. What is y o u r attitude toward the idea of transforming the language itself? Think of how to improve the following sentences. Each student will be given a diary for his use.

The headmasters of all the city schools met to discuss the recent crisis. All the doctors and their wives were invited to the event. The areas widely covered in the textbooks available in Ukraine such as, for example, verb tenses will not be considered here. Word order While in Ukrainian there is no strict word order, a normal English declarative sentence has the following structure, with the subject preceding the predicate: There are, however, additional rules.

Most important of them are given below. Adjectives are used before the noun that they modify in the following order: For example: A nice small brown French writing table. Old red Spanish home-made wine. Adverbs of frequency always, seldom, usually, often, frequently, rarely, occasionally, etc. Adverbs of manner that answer the question "how? However, in academic style, the middle position is preferable.

Adverbs and conjunctions referring to the whole sentence are placed at the beginning. In questions, we normally put an auxiliary verb before the subject.

However, in indirect questions, the subject comes before the verb. The word order may be inverted i. In some negative sentences clauses. In unreal conditionals. For emphasis. A singular noun, pronoun, or an uncountable noun is used with a singular verb. A plural noun or pronoun is used with a plural verb. T h e water in t h e river is fresh a n d transparent. T h e stars shine brightly in t h e sky.

After or or nor a verb agrees with the subject closest to it. The following singular expressions with plural nouns agree with plural verbs: A number of researchers f r o m U k r a i n e are taking p a r t in t h e conference. The following nouns ending in -s agree with singular verbs: Measles is a serious disease. The following plural nouns agree with plural verbs: Note that the Ukrainian equivalents of these words are, vice versa, singular and agree with singular verbs.

N u c l e a r arms are extremely dangerous. T h e outskirts of t h e city are dirty. Names of quantities thought of as one unit have singular verbs.

Five miles is too m u c h to walk. Three weeks is a good holiday. Table 4. A number of U. Critically he studied the article on transgenic food products. As the annual report of the Mesa Garden states, these cactuses grow exclusively in the northern parts of Mexico. Either the journalist or the witness know the truth about this mysterious event.

Elaborated will be in this paper the model of corrosive destruction of metals under lacquer-paint coatings. The teacher asked the students if they knew the health effects of insecticides.

The premises of the library is cleaned every day. Twenty dollars are not enough to download this book. Many mathematical symposiums are held in Europe every year. Bile acids contains significant amounts of cholesterol. This extremely interesting new Ukrainian historical novel has been favorably reviewed.

In no ease the work on the project will be terminated 52 English Academic Style and Language Articles English articles usually mystify Ukrainian learners even though this theme is widely taught. Below are the most basic rules of using articles that you should always observe. For more exhaustive explanations, consult additional literature. The Indefinite Article 1. The indefinite article a before a consonant sound or an before a vowel sound is used with countable nouns in the singular, meaning "member of a class of objects," "one of," "some.

She was a gifted researcher. An octopus has eight legs. It may be used with uncountable nouns to mean "a kind of," or w i t h kind of, or certain.

This person has an integrity that we all appreciate. The pictures of British romantic painter Joseph Turner reveal a great love of the sea.

The Definite Article 1. Once the scanner is activated, it reads images as a series of dots. Do you see the men standing near the door? They are our new research assistants. In the so-called "of — phrases. The preliminary results of the investigation are promising. The is not used in generalizations with uncountable nouns.

He is very interested in nature. W h a t is the nature of this strange disease? People have to live in society. People have to observe the laws and norms of the society they live in. However, it is used in generalizations with singular countable nouns to refer to a class of things. The computer has replaced the typewriter. The brain is a complex biological system. The is used with the superlative degrees of adjectives, ordinal numerals, and specifiers such as same, only, chief, principal, etc.

The best results were obtained during the second experiment. The only paper on this problem was published ten years ago. With the names of unique objects. The Universe is thought to contain 10'11 kilograms of matter. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. With the names of theories, effects, and devices modified by a proper name used as an adjective: Finstein's theory of relativity. Marx's "Capital. Fill in the blanks with missing articles for convenience, mark the absence of the article as 0.

Consult additional literature on the use of articles if necessary. A brain is clearly most complex biological system scientists can study.

There are 50 billion cells, trillions of connections among these cells, several "neurotransmitters" small molecules that transmit messages among nerve cells , and genetic and hormonal controls for entire system. Tackling this is more than lifetime occupation; it's work of many lifetimes, observes Stanley Watson, senior neuroscientist at University of Michigan. He suggests that science is likely to need another or years to completely understand how brain functions.

Watson recalls that one of early analogies used to describe brain was that of telephone switching center. In this view, brain was central receiver and distributor of messages from and to other parts of body. Data came in from senses or organ, brain "processed" this information, and response or instruction was sent to appropriate sites throughout body. In some cultures, eating lavish and exotic meals is sign of wealth and power, whereas eating only basic foods is sign of belonging to more common class.

In some cultures, offer of glass of cool clean water is greatest compliment or honor one can receive. In some cultures, whenever you receive guest, whether for pleasure or business, you must offer them something to eat or drink: Diet is not consideration. In movie Indiana Johns and the Temple of Doom, there are two scenes in which two lead characters are offered meals from different culture.

One meal, meant to break ice, consisted of insects. Once in Alaska, it would take these first North Americans thousands of years more to work their way through the openings in great glaciers south to what is now United States. By 3, B. Who refers to persons. Which refers to things. That refers to b o t h persons a n d things.

Wallwork Adrian. English for Academic Correspondence and Socializing

I am interested in t h e collaboration w i t h t h e scholars that investigate t h e spread of d e m o c r a c y in Eastern E u r o p e. Complete the sentences with suitable relative pronouns.

The emancipation of was the process the Ukrainian peasantry political experience. Give slowly gave 2. The reform in immigration opened the doors to Vietnamese refugees poured into the United States in the aftermath of the war. The great threat to human life can be El Nino affects the climate. Identifying clause: Non-identifying clause: M u c h o f t h e progress i n basic genetics i s d u e t o t h e a d v a n c e s o f m o l e c u l a r genetics, which in turn contributed to our understanding of the pathogenesis of disease.

In identifying clauses, we may leave out a relative pronoun when it is the object, e. H e m a i n t a i n s scholarly c o n t a c t s with the r e n o w n e d professor of H e m a i n t a i n s scholarly c o n t a c t s with the renowned professor of biochemistry whom he met at the previous Congress. Identifying clauses are frequently used in definitions.

Psychology is a branch of science which studies the mind and its processes. Identifying clauses may be reduced in the following cases.

When the relative pronoun introducing the clause is followed by the verb to be. The relative pronoun and be can both be left out. W h e n the relative clause has the verb to have. In this case, the relative p r o n o u n and have can be replaced by with. A tiger is a large, fierce animal f o u n d in Asia which has striped yellow and black skin. A tiger is a large, fierce animal f o u n d in Asia with striped yellow and black skin. W h e n the relative clause c o n t a i n s an active verb.

T h e relative p r o n o u n is dropped and the verb is replaced by the -ing form. A planet is any of the non-luminous bodies that orbit the Sun. A planet is any of the n o n - l u m i n o u s bodies orbiting the Sun.

Edit the sentences by reducing the relative clause. An ankylosaurus is an armored dinosaur which has two large lobes of bone in a tail. Rain is a kind of precipitation that reaches the ground in liquid form.

Tropical storms, which are known as typhoons in the Pacific and hurricanes in the Atlantic, claim more lives than any other storms.

The discoveries of this scientist include the existence of a group of enzymes that play a significant role in the energy metabolism of all mammalians and most bacterial cells. Many new word processors have been elaborated, which are capable of generating tables of numbers or figures, sophisticated indices, and comprehensive tables of contents. A lung is either of the two breathing organs which are in the chest of humans or animals.

Stress axis is a shorthand name for the powerful system which directs the body's response to some stressful event. Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often develop psychological problems. T h e following exercise will help you to develop the necessary attention toward spelling. How many words with the modified spelling will you be able to find in the humorous text below? Try to "restore " their traditional spelling. M o r Gud N u z The European Union commissioners have announced that agreement has been reached to adopt English as the preferred language for European communications, rather than German, which was the other possibility.

As part of the negotiations, Her Majesty's Government in London conceded that English spelling had some room for improvement and has accepted a five-year plan for what will be known as EuroEnglish Euro for short. In the first year, "s" will be used instead of the soft "c. Also, the hard "c" will be replased with "k. There will be growing publik enthusiasm in the sekond year, when the troublesome "ph" will be replased by "f.

In the third year, publik akseptanse of the new spelling kan be expekted to reach the stage where more komplikated changes are possible. Governments will enkourage the removal of double letters, which have always been a deterent to akurate speling. Also, al wil agre that the horible mes of silent "e"s in the languag is disgrasful, and they would go. By the fourth year, peopl wil be reseptiv to steps such as replasing "th" by "z" and "w" by "v. After zis fifz yer, ve vil hav a reli sensible riten styl.

Zer vil be no mor trubls or difikultis and evrivun vil find it ezi tu understand ech ozer. Ze drem vil finali kum tru. In academic writing, spelling should always be consistent, either American or British throughout. In some cases, however, alternatives exist, for example, judgement ox judgment, medieval ox mediaeval. In case of alternatives, it is advisable to follow the appropriate rules suggested by publishers.

Labeled, neighbour, center, insofar, fibre, modelling, colour, rumor, theater, favour, armor, favor, labelled, neighbor, theatre, in so far, fiber, armour, centre, modeling, rumour, color. American British Academic writing requires proofreading, that is reading over a finished paper, finding mistakes, and correcting them.

This process will be easier if you run a spell-check program while word-processing your texts. Such a program essentially helps to avoid spelling, grammar, and punctuation mistakes as well as misprints. But due to the existence of homophones words pronounced like other but different in meaning, spelling, or origin , the spell-checker may sometimes miss important things.

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The following sentence has been spell-checked. However, the program did not find any spelling errors. Would you be able to detect the mistakes? Eye would rather sea a flour in a would than on sail beside the rode. Would not eve? Oar yew! In addition to the cases common in both languages e.

The English rules of capitalization that differ from appropriate Ukrainian rules are as follows. Capitalize the pronoun I but not me, my, myself, or mine. Capitalize the names of nationalities and appropriate adjectives. Capitalize the adjectives formed from the names of continents. European e m i g r a n t s left their h o m e l a n d s to escape political oppression.

Capitalize the definite article in The Hague. Capitalize the titles of books, plays, movies, music, but do not capitalize articles, conjunctions, or prepositions unless they are the first word of the title.

Capitalize the names of the deity, religions, religious bodies, and religious holidays. Capitalize historic names, events, and periods. Capitalize the names of institutions. Capitalize north, south, east, a n d west and c o m p o u n d words made from t h e m w h e n they refer to specific regions or are part of a proper name.

Do not capitalize north, south, east, and west and c o m p o u n d words made from them when they mean directions. T h e problems of t h e Middle East constantly attract the attention of political observers. T h e Southwest of the USA often has severe tornadoes.

Belarus is worth of Ukraine and Turkey is. T h e b o o k stacks are along the worth wall of the library. Capitalization of prefixes used with proper names is not consistent. Look in a dictionary to be sure when to use capital letters as well as hyphens. Peter mohyla arrived in kiev in Much to his dismay, he found the educational standards and approach at the bohojavlenske brotherhood school wanting. Unhappy with the type of education offered, he, then a newly appointed archimandrite of the pecherska lavra, founded another school in the lavra in This school was modelled on the western jesuit schools that included latin and polish and aspired to operate at the collegial level.

At first, the mohyla collegiate experienced a great deal of resistance from conservative clerical circles. They saw this type of education as an innovation and latinization of the ruthenian greek Slavonic school. In his spiritual testament of march 31, , metropolitan iov boretsky advised mohyla to establish his school "within the confines of the kiev brotherhood, not elsewhere. We will consider only the use of the marks with which you might be less familiar the apostrophe, the asterisk, the slash, the quotation marks as well as the comma— a source of major differences and difficulties.

Apostrophe ' An apostrophe is used to show possession, ownership, or a relation similar to ownership. Note the use of an apostrophe after plural nouns and nouns ending in -s.

Quotation marks are always used in pairs. Quotation marks are used to set off the exact words of a speaker or to show material quoted from writing. They are put around the tides of works that are not published separately. A magazine article: If quotation marks are needed inside a passage that is already enclosed in quotation marks, single marks instead of double marks are used.

British English reverses this order. Full stops periods and commas should always be put inside the close of quotation marks. Quality should be defined as "surpassing customer needs and expectations throughout the life of the product. Do not overuse commas! The main rules of the use of commas that differ from the Ukrainian rules are as follows.

Do not separate with a comma commas identifying clauses refer to the section "Grammar" of this Unit for the explanation of the differences between identifying and non-identifying clauses. The water that we are using now is the very same water that the dinosaurs used millions years ago. A machine which is used to record seismic waves is a seismometer. An online dictionary is useful for a s t u d e n t who needs to quickly check the meaning of unfamiliar words. Separate with a comma commas non-identifying clauses.

English for Socializing

T h e basic set of principles, which this book presents, allows t h e deviation of conclusions in c o m p l e x situations. J o h n H a r r i s , who came on a research visit to our University, gave an interesting lecture on t h e issues of sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t. Do not separate with a comma infinitival, participial, prepositional phrases, and adverbial clauses if they come at the end of the sentence. M a n y countries are f i n d i n g t h a t the expectations a n d laws regarding age need to be reconsidered with the average age of populations around the world increasing and health care improving.

Separate with a comma infinitival, participial, prepositional phrases, and adverbial clauses if they come at the beginning of the sentence. With the average age of populations around the world increasing and health care improving, m a n y c o u n t r i e s are finding t h a t the expectations a n d laws regarding age need to be reconsidered.

Put a comma between two independent clauses if they are connected by and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so. A comma is not put before these conjunctions if they introduce rather short sentences closely related to the introductory clause in meaning: Investment in biological science is often a risk but always a necessity for a developing society.

He returned to the laboratory and started the experiment again.

Students can be allowed to conduct their interviews in their native language but must report their findings in English. For example, million people worldwide are communicating across borders via the Internet. However, real language does not consist solely of questions from one party and answers from another.

Pollutants may be chemicals, industrial waste, and small particles of soil. The most common subjects related to diversity center around race, color, gender, religion, and economic status.

Put a c o m m a after a person's family last n a m e if it is written before the first n a m e. Roberts, David. Another widespread and often quoted definition of clinical genetics is, "The science and practice of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of genetic disease. Genetics and Medicine: The Dynamic Interface The interaction between the basic science of genetics and the clinical science of medicine has been bidirectional and highly productive over the past several decades.

In its early stages genetics was more the province of the botanist and the entomologist than the physician. Mendel working in the s was able to formulate the concept of the gene from his experiments with pea plants and his ability to perform planned matings and observe multiple generations provided crucial elements not so easily achieved when studying humans.

Similarly the work of Thomas Hunt Morgan and others on the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, was much benefitted by the short generation time and relatively simple genome compared with the same factors in mammals of the fruit fly.

However as interest in human genetics began to blossom in the 20th century important concepts began to be recognized and explored in greater depth for humans than they had been for other species. Prominent examples include population genetics the study of polymorphism and biochemical genetics. In more recent times the trend has continued and the spin-offs from one discipline to another have multiplied.

As will be described for example the newly emerging field of the genetics of human cancer has demonstrated that human cells carry a variety of genes called "oncogenes" which normally participate in growth control.

Certain mutations of these oncogenes can contribute to the uncontrolled growth pattern we recognize as cancer.

The discovery of oncogenes has demonstrated an unexpected link between cancer virology and genetics and has brought together several diverse fields of biology. Furthermore using the strong evolutionary conservation of these genes this discovery has led directly to the cloning of important growth-regulating genes in yeast! Thus efforts in medicine have yielded continuing insights in genetics and basic biology. In the other direction the contribution of research in genetics to medicine is even easier to appreciate.

It is easy to forget in today's technological medical care system that medicine for most of its history has been a descriptive discipline. Although the descriptive approach is a valuable one fundamental advances in medicine generally have come instead from an elucidation of more basic scientific principles and their subsequent application to a clinical situation.

It is thus natural that developments in genetics have had profound implications for clinical medicine and the magnitude of those implications will continue to grow. Paragraphs and Paragraph Division The division into paragraphs is an important feature of any type of writing. A paragraph may be defined as a textual unit usually consisting of a number of sentences which deal with one main idea. Indentation means starting a line of print or writing farther from the margin than the other lines.

Indentation signals the beginning of some kind of a change. In English academic writing, all paragraphs with the exception of the first one should be indented. A paragraph is, therefore, a visual textual unit. By dividing a text into paragraphs, writers give their readers cues as to how process their texts. In English academic writing, the length of a paragraph is often between 75 and words although it can be much longer.

In a short piece of academic writing for example, the conference abstract or text summary , each major point may be developed into a separate paragraph. In longer types of papers e. The topic sentence of a paragraph tells what the paragraph is about.

A topic sentence can be put in any place in the paragraph, but putting it at the beginning guides paragraph development. Spain occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula, on the western edge of Europe. It is nearly surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

Spain's dry climate and poor soil make farming difficult. Extensive irrigation allows farmers to raise strawberries and rice in dry areas. Vegetables and citrus trees grow on the coastal plains, and olives and grapes grow in the river valleys.

The grasslands of the large dry central plateau are used for grazing sheep, goats, and cattle. People in this region eat roasted and boiled meats. They also raise pigs for ham and spicy sausage called chorizo.

And people all over the country eat lots of seafood from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. One classic Spanish dish, paella, includes sausage, mussels, lobster, or chicken, plus red pepper, peas, tomatoes, and saffron rice.

Peasants were the first to make paella, using whatever food was available. But this dish and others also reflect Spain's history of traders, conquerors, and explorers who brought a variety of foods by land and by sea. Phoenicians from the Middle East introduced grapes to Spain in about B. Hundreds of years later, Romans brought olives from what is now Italy. In the 8th century A. And in the s, s, and s, Spanish explorers and traders returned home with nutmeg and cloves from the East Indies; and peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate from the Americas.

Academic Names T h e names of English academic authors normally consist of the first given and last family names, the given name always being placed before the last name but, certainly, not in bibliographies , for example, "Richard Winkler.

Such a n a m i n g practice may n o t be acceptable for Ukrainian academics accustomed to a more formal style of self-presentation. On the other hand, the Slavic tradition of using patronymics is not generally k n o w n to English and international 70 Important Features and Elements of Academic Texts audiences.

Ukrainian authors writing in English may be advised, therefore, to use their full first and family names with the observation of appropriate rules of transliteration. These rules, provided by Ukrainian linguist Roksolana Zorivchak , are given below. Table 5. Compare and discuss your versions with a partner 72 Important Features and Elements of Academic Texts Titles Titles are important components of academic and research writing, "responsible" for gaining readers' attention and facilitating positive perceptions of any kind of written research.

John M. Swales and Christine B. Feak, linguists and authors on academic writing textbooks, suggest the following requirements for good academic titles The title should indicate the topic of the study. The title should indicate the scope of the study i. The title should be self-explanatory to readers in the chosen area.

The main structural types of English titles are as follows Yakhontova, b. Nominative constructions, that is titles with one or more nouns as principal elements. Titles consisting of two parts of different syntactic types separated by a punctuation mark other than the colon. These constructions are close in their rhetorical features to "colon"-titles.

Born Again? Verbal constructions, that is titles containing a non-finite form of a verb as a principal element. Titles in the form of complete sentences. Language is n o t a Physical O b j e c t Learner A u t o n o m y is m o r e t h a n a C u l t u r a l C o n s t r u c t There are also some other types of titles, which are, however, less widespread in English academic discourse.

Titles beginning with the prepositions on, to, toward s. Nominative titles with the conjunction as. Hard and natural sciences usually use long, detailed nominative titles.Feak, linguists and authors on academic writing textbooks, suggest the following requirements for good academic titles Sometimes, however, it is possible to borrow some information or phrases unintentionally, although this is not treated as a valid excuse.

Per capita income is an important economic category. Globe on screen; 2. Old red Spanish home-made wine. Requests and Replies Wallwork, Adrian Pages Thus, mathematicians and scientists and their universities have been linked and electronically exchanging information over the Internet since the mids.

Write three names of oral and three names of written academic genres you met during the five years of your university studies.

Maxine Peake's Hamlet. This fact can of course be seen in a positive or a negative light.

GEARLDINE from Stockton
Browse my other posts. I take pleasure in spearfishing. I do fancy reading comics questioningly.