Medicinal Plants/Indian Herbal Remedies, published by Springer. Ayurvedic synonyms have been selected from the following sources: • The Ayurvedic. PDF | Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex, multifactorial, progressive, neurodegenerative disease mainly affecting the elder population. Potential Medicinal Plants used in Ayurvedic System of Medicine and their diversity in Southern Western Ghats of Coimbatore District, Tamil.
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medicinal plants used by traditional healers are also discussed. In India for claims of plants used for Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine has. medicinal plants is needed in order to understand their potential influence fully. ayurvedic polyherbal medicine, action of ayurvedic plants, importance of. Articles / Topics about Ayurveda, ayurveda treatments, basic principles,thoughts, health care through ayurveda.
In several parts of the world many herbs are used to honour their kings showing it as a symbol of luck. Now, after finding the role of herbs in medicine, lots of consumers started the plantation of tulsi and other medicinal plants in their home gardens.
Medicinal plants are considered as a rich resources of ingredients which can be used in drug development either pharmacopoeial, non- pharmacopoeial or synthetic drugs. A part from that, these plants play a critical role in the development of human cultures around the whole world. Moreover, some plants are considered as important source of nutrition and as a result of that they are recommended for their therapeutic values.
Some of these plants include ginger, green tea, walnuts, aloe, pepper and turmeric etc.
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Some plants and their derivatives are considered as important source for active ingredients which are used in aspirin and toothpaste etc. Apart from the medicinal uses, herbs are also used in natural dye, pest control, food, perfume, tea and so on. Now a days medicinal herbs are important sources for pharmaceutical manufacturing. Recipes for the treatment of common ailments such as diarrhoea, constipation, hypertension, low sperm count, dysentery and weak penile erection, piles, coated tongue, menstrual disorders, bronchial asthma, leucorrhoea and fevers are given by the traditional medicine practitioners very effectively.
Over the past two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of herbal medicine; however, there is still a significant lack of research data in this field. Importance of some herbs with their medicinal values Herbs such as black pepper, cinnamon, myrrh, aloe, sandalwood, ginseng, red clover, burdock, bayberry, and safflower are used to heal wounds, sores and boils. These herbs are easy to grow, look good, taste and smell amazing and many of them are magnets for bees and butterflies.
Many herbs are used as blood purifiers to alter or change a long-standing condition by eliminating the metabolic toxins. These are also known as 'blood cleansers'. Certain herbs improve the immunity of the person, thereby reducing conditions such as fever. Some herbs are also having antibiotic properties. Turmeric is useful in inhibiting the growth of germs, harmful microbes and bacteria. Turmeric is widely used as a home remedy to heal cut and wounds.
To reduce fever and the production of heat caused by the condition, certain antipyretic herbs such as Chirayta, black pepper, sandal wood and safflower are recommended by traditional Indian medicine practitioners. Sandalwood and Cinnamon are great astringents apart from being aromatic. Sandalwood is especially used in arresting the discharge of blood, mucus etc.
Some herbs are used to neutralize the acid produced by the stomach. Herbs such as marshmallow root and leaf. They serve as antacids. The healthy gastric acid needed for proper digestion is retained by such herbs. Indian sages were known to have remedies from plants which act against poisons from animals and snake bites. Herbs like Cardamom and Coriander are renowned for their appetizing qualities. Other aromatic herbs such as peppermint, cloves and turmeric add a pleasant aroma to the food, thereby increasing the taste of the meal.
Some herbs like aloe, sandalwood, turmeric, sheetraj hindi and khare khasak are commonly used as antiseptic and are very high in their medicinal values. Ginger and cloves are used in certain cough syrups.
They are known for their expectorant property, which promotes the thinning and ejection of mucus from the lungs, trachea and bronchi. Eucalyptus, Cardamom, Wild cherry and cloves are also expectorants. Therefore, they are used as cardiac stimulants.
Certain medicinal herbs have disinfectant property, which destroys disease causing germs. They also inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes that cause communicable diseases.
Herbal medicine practitioners recommend calmative herbs, which provide a soothing effect to the body. They are often used as sedatives. Certain aromatic plants such as Aloe, Golden seal, Barberry and Chirayata are used as mild tonics. The bitter taste of such plants reduces toxins in blood. They are helpful in destroying infection as well.
Introduction and Importance of Medicinal Plants and Herbs
However, affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. Table 1: Impact of modern food concept in required nutrition.
These medicines are not only used by the rural masses for their primary health care in developing countries but are also used in developed countries where modern medicines dominate [ 3 ]. The Indian subcontinent is a vast repository of medicinal plants that are used in traditional medical treatments. The alternative medicines in the traditional systems are derived from herbs, minerals, and organic matter, while for the preparation of herbal drugs only medicinal plants are used.
Use of plants as a source of medicine has been an ancient practice and is an important component of the health care system in India.
In India, about 70 percent of rural population depends on the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine. In the Western countries, approximately 40 per cent of people are using the herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases.
India is the largest producer of medicinal plants. There are currently about , registered medical practitioners of the Ayurvedic system, as compared to about , of the modern medicine. In India, around 20, medicinal plants have been recorded; however, traditional practitioners use only 7,—7, plants for curing different diseases. The proportion of use of plants in the different Indian systems of medicine is Ayurveda , Siddha , Unani , Homeopathy , Tibetan , Modern , and folk In India, around 25, effective plant-based formulations are used in traditional and folk medicine.
More than 1. It is estimated that more than manufacturing units are involved in the production of natural health products and traditional plant-based formulations in India, which requires more than tons of medicinal plant raw material annually [ 4 ].
More than herbals are sold as dietary supplements or ethnic traditional medicines [ 5 ]. Alternative medicines are being used by those people who do not use or cannot be helped by conventional medicinal system.
Some common medicinal plants having nutraceutical potential and their primary use in traditional medicine [ 6 — 26 ] are being given in Table 2. Table 2: Some common medicinal plants having nutraceutical potential and their primary use in traditional medicine.
Expanding Complementary and Alternative CAM Approaches More than 80 percent of people in developing countries cannot afford the most basic medical procedures, drugs, and vaccines. Among wealthier populations in both developed and developing countries, complementary and alternative practices are popular although proof of their safety and effectiveness is modest.
Evidence-based research in Ayurveda is receiving larger acceptance in India and abroad [ 27 — 30 ]. Its mission is to explore complementary and alternative healing practices in the context of rigorous science, support sophisticated research, train researchers, disseminate information to the public on the modalities that work, and explain the scientific rationale underlying discoveries.
The center is committed to explore and fund all such therapies for which there is sufficient preliminary data, compelling public health need and ethical justifications [ 31 , 32 ]. Complementary and alternative practices are adjuncts or alternatives to Western medical approaches. Economic factors influence user behavior.
Although social, cultural, and medical reasons account for most of the appeal of traditional approaches, economic factors also play a role. It is assumed that users of these approaches choose them because they are cheaper than conventional therapies or systems. However, several studies have found that CAM approaches cost the same or more than conventional treatments for the same conditions; thus, people seek them out for reasons other than cost.
At least one study showed that financial factors ranked behind such reasons as confidence in the treatment, ease of access, and convenience, in the choice of a traditional healer.
Another common misconception is that the poor are more likely to use traditional medicine, but this is not always true.
Nowadays people seek CAM techniques because they believe the side effects will be lower. In both developed and developing countries, users of complementary methods also commonly seek conventional care [ 33 ]. Table 3 enlists some important Ayurvedic herbal formulations [ 34 ]. Table 3: Some important herbal formulations frequently used in traditional Ayurvedic system in India.
Nutraceuticals an Evolving Alternative Approach Nutrition is a fundamental need. Various risk factors related to health result from an imbalance in nutrition. These imbalances in India are widely prevalent leading to adverse outcomes. A certain section of the population consumes diet which does not provide sufficient calories, let alone sufficient nutrients. On the other hand, there is a huge population that is nourished in calorie intake but not in terms of nutrient intake.
This segment would typically include lower middle to upper class population with sufficient downloading capacity but probably less awareness about their nutrient requirements, leading to imbalanced nutritional uptake. The third population segment, which is about 80 million, consumes nutrients and calories more than those recommended for the lifestyle they have opted for.
The main leading risk factors in developing countries [ 2 ] are shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Risk factors related to nutrition— 1: underweight, 2: unsafe sex, 3: blood pressure, 4: unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, 5: cholesterol, 6: tobacco, 7: indoor smoke from solid fuels, 8: low fruit and vegetable intake, 9: zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, physical inactivity, alcohol, overweight, and unsafe healthcare injections.
According to WHO report, India has the largest burden of cardiovascular diseases and largest number of diabetes patients in the world. The number of cardiovascular diseases patients in Brazil, Russia, China, and India are 4. Likewise the numbers of diabetes patients in same countries are 4. An estimate of the cost of productivity lost on account of mortality due to nutrition-related disorders was estimated to be 0. Even in the population that shows sufficient calorie intake, the micronutrient consumption is not at desired levels.
While the intake of calorie-rich foods may be high, micronutrient-rich foods are being consumed in low proportions. As a result, significant micronutrient deficiencies exist in urban as well as rural areas [ 35 ].
Hence, the requirement of external intervention, that can supplement diet to help prevent nutrition-related disorders and promote wellness over treatment of various diseases, has become a necessity, and such products are known as nutraceuticals. A nutraceutical is a food or food component that claims to have health benefits, including treatment and prevention of disease. Nutraceuticals, an emerging concept, can be broadly categorized as products which are extracted from natural sources nature-like or manufactured synthetically man-made , which supplement the diet to provide nutrition over and above regular food and help prevent nutrition-related disorders.
They do more than just supplement the diet.
Indian Medicinal Plants Vol 1
They, as was pointed out, help with disease prevention and treatment. Theoretically, the appeal of nutraceuticals is to accomplish treatment goals without side effects. With extensive anecdotal data on exciting health results, nutraceuticals promise significant contributions to disease prevention. United States and Japan are key markets for nutraceutical consumption.
Indian nutraceuticals market is about 1 billion USD which is increasing day by day. Globally, this market is expected to reach billion USD in The dietary supplements category is expected to be the fastest growing product category globally [ 2 ]. Herbal Medicines in Dietary Supplements Dietary supplements and herbal remedies are popular complementary or alternative products for people. These are the supplements that are intended to supplement the diet and contain one or more dietary ingredients including vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and other substances or their constituents.
These are intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid and are labeled on the front panel as being a dietary supplement.
These botanicals are sold in many forms as fresh or dried products, liquid or solid extracts, tablets, capsules, powders, tea bags, and so forth. For example, fresh ginger root is often used in various food stores; dried ginger root is sold packaged in tea bags, capsules, or tablets, and liquid preparations made from ginger root are also sold in the market.
A particular group of chemicals or a single chemical may be isolated from a botanical and sold as a dietary supplement, usually in tablet or capsule form.
An example is phytoestrogens from soy products [ 36 ]. Nutraceutical Concept with Varying Definition The nomenclature for nutraceuticals is based on the segments it constitutes. In Canada, this term is natural health products; in USA, it is called dietary supplements, and in Japan it is called foods for special health use. There are distinct definitions and regulations for dietary supplements and functional foods in USA, Canada, and Europe.
In Japan, dietary supplements and functional foods are governed under the same set of regulations.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
USA and Canada actually list the constituents that a product must have to be called a nutraceutical, whereas Europe and Japan just provide general guidelines on the properties that a product should have to be called a nutraceutical.
Traditional and herbal medicines are included in the definition of dietary or nutritional supplements in Canada. Japan does not mention traditional herbal medicines under functional foods for special health use.
USA includes herbal and botanical in its definition. The Indian definition lists down the ingredients that a product should have, and it also specifies general properties of nutraceutical. Traditional medicines though have been excluded from the definition. There are three categories which have been considered under the nutraceuticals [ 2 ].
Functional Foods. Dietary Supplements. Functional Beverages.
Liquids that quench thirst along with replenishing minerals provide energy, prevent ailments, and promote healthy life style, that is, sports and energy drinks, fortified juices, and glucose drinks and powder.
A product category can be classified into a specific need-segment based on its predominant use. The product segments catering to foundation and condition specific need are the largest and growing the fastest.As per data available over three-quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for their health care needs.
Measham et al. Nagar, and R. Hence, the modern food habits are affecting the balanced nutrition [ 2 ]. Population rise, inadequate supply of drugs, prohibitive cost of treatments, side effects of several synthetic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases have led to increased emphasis on the use of plant materials as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments.
Medical systems are found mentioned even in the ancient Vedas and other scriptures.
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