4?? Production Management. Production management is focus on managing production operations and resources throughout the production system. ME Production Management. 2 | Page. MODULE 1. 1. INTRODUCTION. The systems aspects of manufacturing are more important than ever today. Production/Operation management is the process which combines and products is called production management and for service management, then.
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Production and Operations Management by N.G. Nair; Publisher: Tata Mc. Graw . This definition limits the scope of operation and production management to. PAPER PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT. Unit – 1. Introduction to Production and Operation functions – Understanding the relationship. Production planning and control is a tool available to the management to Production control comes into action if there is any deviation between the actual and.
These products are successful in the market because they give full satisfaction to the customers. Supports other functional areas : Production management supports other functional areas in an organisation, such as marketing, finance, and personnel. The marketing department will find it easier to sell good-quality products, and the finance department will get more funds due to increase in sales. It will also get more loans and share capital for expansion and modernisation.
The personnel department will be able to manage the human resources effectively due to the better performance of the production department. Helps to face competition : Production management helps the firm to face competition in the market. This is because production management produces products of right quantity, right quality, right price and at the right time.
These products are delivered to the customers as per their requirements. Optimum utilisation of resources : Production management facilitates optimum utilisation of resources such as manpower, machines, etc. So, the firm can meet its capacity utilisation objective. This will bring higher returns to the organisation.
Minimises cost of production : Production management helps to minimise the cost of production. It tries to maximise the output and minimise the inputs.
This helps the firm to achieve its cost reduction and efficiency objective. Expansion of the firm : The Production management helps the firm to expand and grow.
Review Procedures for Water Resources Project Planning
This is because it tries to improve quality and reduce costs. This helps the firm to earn higher profits.
These profits help the firm to expand and grow. So they produce new and better varieties of products. The firm has to plan for the resources after taking the order from the customer. As the frequency is irregular, the firm can maintain a file of its detailed plans and it can refer to its previous files and start production.
Here the firm either receives order from the customer at regular intervals or it may produce the product to satisfy the demand. It can have well designed file of its plans, material requirement and instructions for the ready reference. It can also download materials required in bulk in advance. As the frequency of regular orders goes on increasing the Batch Production system becomes Mass Production System.
Here also, incase the demand for a particular product ceases, the plant and machinery can be used for producing other products with slight modification in layout or in machinery and equipment. Continuous Production system is the specialized manufacture of identical products on which the machinery and equipment is fully engaged.
The continuous production is normally associated with large quantities and with high rate of demand. Hence the advantage of automatic production is taken. This system is classified as i Mass Production: Here same type of product is produced to meet the demand of an assembly line or the market. This system needs good planning for material, process, maintenance of machines and instruction to operators. downloads of materials in bulk quantities is advisable. The difference between Mass and Flow Production is the type of product and its relation to the plant.
In Mass Production identical products are produced in large numbers.
If the demand falls or ceases, the machinery and equipment, after slight modification be used for manufacturing products of similar nature. In flow production, the plant and equipment is designed for a specified product. Hence if the demand falls for the product or ceases, the plant cannot be used for manufacturing other products.
It is to be scraped. The examples for the above discussed production system are i Job Production Shop: Tailors shop; cycle and vehicles repair shops, Job typing shops, small Workshops.
Tyre Production Shops, Readymade dress companies, Cosmetic manufacturing companies Components of industrial products, iv Flow Production: Cement Factory, Sugar factory, Oil refineries Table 1.
Characteristics of intermittent and continuous manufacturing system S. Particulars Intermittent production system Continuous production system. Type of Process layout is most Product layout designed according plant layout.
Type of As it necessitate frequent changes in the As production flow is permanently in machine machine set-up required by the specifica- the form of product line, Automatic or tion of each order, general purpose special purpose machines are used. Also they In flow production specialised have good flexibility.
In batch produc- machines are used. Production and Operations Management 11 S.
Type of The type of production pre-supposes The manufacturing activity becomes labour frequent changes in product design and a routine function and as the machines machine setups; which requires highly are designed to suit the process skilled labour. Repair and maintenance required for product and automatic in of machines are to be done by nature unskillful or semi-skilled labour these labours.
A specialised team of plant maintenance staff will look after the repair and maintenance of machines. The product manufacutred in large quantities.
Each lot one or two products of standard design. Changes As specification of each order changes, In this type of manufacturing, the set- in machine the machines are to set according to up of machines remains unchanged for set-up. The standard products frequent changes in machine are manufactured in a continuous flow.
Nature and Generally the size of orders is small Generally the production is carried on size of and they are not repeated. The orders for stock. The production of stan- orders. Products are of single product or products in produced in anticipation of demand. Usually the production is The size of the order is large. Same done according to first-in-first-out type of product is produced in every principle. First orders are received and cycle to satisfy the demand.
Investment As the machines are arranged in The machines are arranged according on machines process layout and general purpose to process layout and because of this and machines are required for Job produc- duplication of machines is fairly high. The machines are fully automatic, the For batch production as automatic and cost is higher than intermittent semi-automatic machines are involved production.
Investment Here the operating cycle takes more Bulk download of materials is done at on time and it is necessary to have periodic intervals.
Due to continuous inventories standard materials for long period process, less in process inventory hence inventory cost per product is exists hence material cost per product considerably large. Material Because of verities of products, Mechanisation of material handling is handling different routes are followed by possible. Generally, convenyors, equipments materials also volume of order is small, pipe-lines, automatic material handing mechanisation of material equipment is used.
Material Material handling per product is costlier Due to mechanised material handling, handling because of long distance handling material handling cost per product cost manual and backtracking. Plant It is desirable to have a maintenance It is essential to have a good plant maintenance department to avoid losses due to maintenance department to avoid and service brake down of machinery. Balancing Due to different products and different The chances of imbalance in plant of types of machines with different capacity is very much less.
Production The functions of routing, scheduling and The function of routing, scheduling planning and loading becomes relatively complicated and loading are carried on smoothly control due to odd size of order, non-repetitive due to standardised products, rated nature of the order, different delivery capacity. Here production planning dates, etc. Production and operations system. Market research reveals consumer preferences and needs. The marketing department will transfer this information to the design department.
The design department basing on the information received from marketing department designs the product to fulfill consumer needs and supplies design specifications and drawings to production department. The production department verifies whether the product can be manufactured with the technology and skill available in the firm.
If yes it will give the acceptance. Production cycle. Once this is done the design department conduct the market survey and analyze the demand and submits its sales programme to the top management.
The top management after going through the proposals sanctions the budget and gives green signal for production. Production department produces a trial run and sales department release the product in the test markets to get consumer acceptance sells the products.
Meanwhile, the production department prepares the detailed production plans and production scheduling. After getting the acceptance from the marketing department, actual production of product starts to meet the marketing programme. All this is shown in figure number 1.
Distinguish between Product, Service and Project. Define Production Planning and Control and state the objective of production Planning and control department. What advantages are desired from efficient Production? Operations Management.
Briefly discuss the functions of Production Management. Describe with the use of organization structure the importance of Production Management function and its relationship with other departments in the organization. What are the specific problems in each one of the above and how can there be tackled.
Recommend a suitable Production Planning and control system by a unit undertaking design and fabrication of steel transmission towers. Each order is tailor made to Customers requirements.
Your proposal, among other things, should cover a Production of the nature of work from the print of view of production Planning and control.
Distinguish in clean terms between mass, batch and unit production. In what ways Production Planning and control system differ between the three types? In a restaurant wide variety foods are offered to the customers, to suit the needs the locality the restaurant work from am to pm and 4.
The restaurant is famous for its food stuffs. Stuff that has not been consumed in any one day are scrap and cannot be stored for use on the next day.
A certain amount of cold storage at the restaurant is available, and the management is prepared to expand the facility, if necessary. How would you use Production Planning and control procedure to: Chowdary has been in the field of hospital administration for last 18 years. Recently he has been posted as chief of a district Head Quarters Hospital. After assuming the position, Dr.
Chowdary came to know that everything is not good at the hospital and came across certain critical problems. Some of them are. The allocation should be based on the job description, requirements on the machining centres, and the skills of the workers. Bottlenecks get cleared only when the rate of production at different work stations have been equalised by increasing the capacities at intermediate positions. This happens by either improving the tooling or adding another machine or by allocating an additional worker.
A skilled worker may be substituted by a less skilled worker. Similarly, the skilled worker may be located at a more suitable position. This process may involve training.
This process of relocation should result in better utilisation of equipment and smoother throughput. Case Study 2 Continued Let us consider the previous case study. Let us take a scenario where the worker who performs step one of the manufacturing processes is on leave for 10 days.
In that case, to run the production smoothly and to meet the demand, Anil and Ravi asked the remaining two workers to help each other in assembling the back rest and then to perform their respective steps assembling the frame and attaching the back rest. They also bought an advanced drilling machine to make their work easy. As a result, instead of any loss due to the absence of the worker who performs the first step, the remaining two workers could finish the job smoothly. This is because Anil and Ravi properly reallocated the work to the two workers who were skilled.
Also the usage of the advanced drilling machine at the right time made their work easy. Time and motion study is a method of finding the best way of performing a complex task by breaking the task into small steps and measuring the time taken to perform each step.
This enables the standards of performance to be set. These standards can then be used to plan and control production, estimate prices and deliver times, and devise incentive schemes. The standards were set after a lot of documentation and research to fix the basic times for various operations. The norms are set for different jobs based on the basic motions and the time required for them.
Handbook of Production Management Methods
System efficiency is also taken into consideration while fixing the productivity norms. Production operations are conducted and measured in terms of quantities and time requirements. It is important to make an estimate of both of them to assure deliveries. The operations are based on sequencing, loading, and dispatching. Expediting is done with the purpose of ensuring that the operations are smooth.
Shortfalls will have to be made up either by overtime or subcontracting. Evaluation has to be on a continuous basis so that deadlines are met. Self Assessment Questions 5. Labour productivity is measured by calculating the number of products per hour for an individual.
Measuring their performance for provision of reward is a daunting task for the manager. Their productivity cannot be directly measured. However, it is necessary that their functions are recognised and evaluated for purposes of training and compensation. The middle management relies upon the performance of these personnel for information, communication, and implementation of any production-enhancing activities.
Personnel will be the ones who will motivate the workforce during the implementation of change programme, quality enhancement activities, and methods improvement. Their productivity is indirectly measured in terms of the productivity in the functions and workforce to which they are aligned. The person should be evaluated for his or her knowledge level, skill level, and the behavioural aspect attitude.
Any shortfall has to be corrected, and it is this process that we call training. When the task is performed systematically under supervision and guidance, the job gets done. The purpose of training is to enhance the performance so that the overall objective of achieving the desired productivity is achieved. Needs are assessed, gaps are measured, and the remedial actions are planned. New methods, advanced technology, and latest equipments call for training for those who use these.
Training programmes enhance motivation, which is an important attribute of a productive employee. It gives an assurance to the manager and confidence to the employee. Different methods are employed depending upon the needs, time, and budget. This is a motivating factor and thus reduces attrition and assures better performance. Entropy hampers the efficiency and training is necessary to maintain even the existing levels of efficiency.
When expansion development is on the anvil, training is an efficient tool to make the process efficient. Implementation of TQM and other change management programmes depend on training for their success. Self Assessment Questions 9. The personnel are equipped with a variety of skills that are required to manage and sort out the problems on a day-to-day basis.
An arrangement of workers, machines, and equipment in which the product being assembled passes consecutively from operation to operation until completed. Define production management. What are the various functions involved in production management? What is meant by productivity? What are the factors that restrict outsourcing?
Explain the purpose and importance of training. Value additions 2. Master production schedule 5. True 6. Quality circle 7. True 9.
True Productivity Terminal Questions 1. Production management encompasses all those activities that enable conversion of a set of inputs into desired outputs. Refer section 1. Procurement, manufacturing, maintenance, inventory management are some of the functions of production management.
Refer to 1. Productivity is expressed as the ratio of outputs to inputs. Lack of expertise, quality considerations, nature of demand, and cost factors may restrict outsourcing. Milestones in the journey of productivity Govt.
Consider the following: India's bane: Low productivity Despite the 9. Indian workers are unlikely to catch up with their counterparts in other countries over the next two decades. There's some good news, though. Their productivity has improved more than 50 per cent since , the second-fastest rate of improvement after China.
Related Papers. Introduction to Operations Management. By balu gmat. SLM-Unit By Saurabh Sardar. ManagerialEconomics MB Contents. By Iskander Louati.
ECO Study Guide. By Chetan Newaskar.This high efficient production system was one main factor in the Japanese car industry for being so successful. Group technology GT is the analysis and comparisons of items to group them into families with similar characteristics. In addition, economists, mathematicians, and computer socialists contributed newer, more sophisticated analytical approaches. A good layout is one that gives due consideration to workers safety and satisfaction and safeguards the plant and machinery against fire, theft, etc.
So, the source of supply of component parts will be the one of the factors that influences the location.
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