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Copyright Warning Notice. The Malayala Manorama Company Ltd (MM) is the owner of the copyright relating to this publication. As a subscriber to this. Story of Electricity (Tell Me Why #)(Gnv64) - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text MANORAMA. TELL ME WHY KNOWLEDGE MAGAZINE FOR CHILDREN. Great Indian Scientists (Tell Me Why #81)(Gnv64) - Download as PDF File .pdf), HVDERABAD: Malayala Manorama, BENGALURU: Malayala Manorama.

The yoga system of Patanjal i i s known as the Eightfol d Path, which leads to the fi nal goal of God-realization. Acharya Patanjal i wi l l forever be remembered and revered as a pioneer i n the science of self-discipl i ne, happi ness, and self-real ization.

S ridhara, was an I ndi an mathemati ci an who lived around the 1 0th century AD There are two theories concerni ng hi s bi rthplace. Some hi stori ans put Bengal asthe pl aceofhis birth, whi l e other hi stori ans bel i eve that Sridhara was born in southern I ndi a. He i s famous for hi s writi ngs on the practical appl i cati ons of al gebra, and he was one of the first to give a formul a for solvi ng quadratic equations.

Sri dhara i s known as the author of two mathematical treatises, namely the Trisatika, someti mes cal l ed the Pati gani tasara, and the Patiganita. However, at least three other works have been attributed to hi m too.

The Pati ganita covers the mathematical operations of addition, su btraction, multi pl i cati on, division, fi ndi ng squares, cubes and their roots, fracti ons, proportions, and some geometrical pri nci ples, but the last section i s lost.

The Trisatika i s a brief summary of the Pati ganita. M ahavira was an I ndi an mathematician who l ived i n the 9th century. He worked i n Mysore in southern I ndia, where he was a member of a school of mathematics. Mahavira made si gnificant contri butions to the development of al gebra. It consi sted of ni ne chapters, and i ncl uded al l the mathematical knowledge of 9th century I ndi a.

There were many I ndi an mathematicians before the ti me of Mahavi ra but perhaps, surprisingly, their work on mathematics i s al ways contai ned i n texts which di scuss other topics such as astronomy.

The Ganita Sara Samgraha by Mahavira i s the earliest I ndi an text we possess, which i s devoted entirely to mathematics. Great Indian Scientists Why is Brahmadeva considered one of the immorals of mathematics? B rahmadeva was an I ndian mathematici an who wrote a commentary on the work of Aryabhata.

Brahmadeva's commentary i s i n ni ne chapters, and it fol l ows the contents of the ori gi nal work of Aryabhata, i ncl udi ng the l ongitudes of the pl anets, probl ems rel ati ng to the dai l y rotation of the heavens, ecl i pses of the sun and moon, risi ngs and setti ngs, the l unar crescent, and conjunctions of the pl anets.

Brahmadeva died at the age of 70, but hi s reputation as a sci enti st, mathemati ci an, astronomer, and academi ci an l ives on. B haskaracharya wasa geni us i n mathematics, especi al l y i n algebra and geometry.

He was born i n Sahyadri, and headed the astronomi cal observatory i n Ujjai n. Bhaskaracharya also known as Bhaskara I I AD 1 1 1 4- 1 1 83 , wrote six books on arithmetic, al gebra, trigonometr, cal cul us, geometry, and astronomy.

He suggested si mpl e methods to calculate the squares, square roots, cube, and cube roots of big numbers. The Pythagoras theorem was proved by hi m in only two l i nes. His work on cal cul us predates Newton and Lei bni z by over half a mi l l enni um. Hi s renowned works are 'Li lavati' and ' Bijaganita'. Bose honoured to this day? J agadi sh Chandra Bose, al so known as J. Bose, was an I ndi an physicist who pi oneered the i nvestigation of radi o and microwave optics.

He was educated at Cal cutta, Cambri dge, and London. He studi ed physical science i n St. Xavier's Col l ege at Cal cutta, and the natural sciences i n Engl and. Most of hi s i mportant physi cal and bi ol ogi cal experiments were carried out at the Presidency Col l ege l aboratory. The Bri ti sh government kni ghted hi m i n 1 91 7.

Hi s research was on the properties of el ectro-magnetic waves. He i s al so known for hi s experiments demonstrati ng the sensitivity and growth of pi a nts, for wh i ch he desi g ned Great Indian Scientists an extremel y sensitive automatic recorder. He found that pl ants shri nk a l ittle duri ng the ni ght , and found out why pl ants always grow towards l i ght, even if they have to bend.

He di scovered the reason why some pl ants grow straight, and some do not. He expl ai ned that thi s was due to the 'pul sati on' i n pl ants. Bose is the. Jagadi sh Chandra Bose founded i n Cal cutta the 'Bose I nstitute' in November, 1 91 7, with donati ons from the publ ic.

He remai ned its di rector ti l l hi s death on 23,d November, 1 Visvesvaraya a remarkable Indian? V isvesvaraya was an engi neer par excellence, a hi ghl y respected statesman, and a vi si onary.

He was born i n Mysore in 1 Hi s first job was as an assistant engi neer i n the Publ i c Works Department under the government of the erstwhi le Bombay Presidency. Later, he al so served as the chi ef engi neer of the erstwhi l e state of Mysore, as wel l as the Dewan of Mysore for si x years. Vi svesvaraya was the dri vi ng force behi nd the construction of manymajor dams andwater supply schemes, i ncl udi ng the famous Kri shnaraja Sagar dam.

The use of automatic sl uice gates, an engi neeri ng i nnovation appl ied i n many dams across the country, was hi s i dea. He was i nstrumental in the formation of Mysore University as wel l as the Vi svesvaraya Col l ege of Engi neeri ng and University of Agri cul tural Sciences.

He was honoured with Bharat Ratna i n 1 Tell Me Why Why is P. Ray considered the father of the Indian chemical industry? Ray, often referred to as Acharya Praful l a Chandra Ray, was a pioneer of chemical i ndustries i n I ndi a.

Ray was born on August 2nd 1 , in Bengal. Hi s father was a rich landowner so he coul d afford to send the young Praful l a to the UK for higher educati on, where he got hi s B. He returned to Kol kata, and became a professor of chemi stry in 1 at Presidency Col l ege.

Great Indian Scientists Dr. Ray succeeded in isolati ng mercurous nitrite.

DEVELOPING AN AD CREATIVES

Later, Ray and hi s co-workers studied compoundsofmetal l ic el ements with organi c su I ph u r derivatives. He i nspi red a generation of young chemi sts in I ndia, thereby bui l di ng up an I ndi an school of chemi stry. S rinivasa Ramanujan's life story is an amazing one. The chil d of very poor parents, he taught hi mself mathematics from an el ementary Engl ish textbook. This self-taught prodigy never graduated from a college, but sent over 1 00 remarkable theorems that he had di scovered, to a great mathematician i n Cambridge, Godfrey Hardy.

Soon, a regul ar correspondence developed betweenthetwo, and in 1 91 4, Ramanujan enrol l ed at Trinity Col lege, Cambridge. There, Hardy and Ramanujan began col l aborati ng. He made contributions to the analytical theory of numbers, and worked on el l i ptic functions, continued fractions, and infinite series. As he had no formal trai ni ng i n mathematics, he arrived at his results by an al most mi racul ous intuition.

He died at an young age i n 1 Ramanujan Tell Me Why C. Raman, as he is popul arl y known, was born i n 1 i n Tami l Nadu.

He obtai ned a master's degree in physics in 1 He later became professor of physics i n Cal cutta, and i n 1 , became the di rector of the I ndi an I nstitute of Science, Bangal ore. It opened up the unknown routes to unveil the mysteries of l i ght wave optics, acoustics, and col l oids. Raman was conferred the hi ghest title of 'Bharat Ratna' in 1 He passed away i n 1 , and to thi s day, i s honoured as one of the greatest scientists I ndi a has ever seen.

Kashyap Professor Kashyap is called the Father of Indian bryology. He is known mainly for the work on Bryophyta, and discovered some new genera and many new species of Bryophyta.

Bryology is the branch of botany concerned with the scientific study of bryophytes mosses, liverwors, and hornwors. He went to Cambri dge University for hi gher studies, obtai ned hi s B.

Sahni was a teacher par excel l ence, and had great passion for pal aeobotany. He started teachi ng thi s subject from a smal l corner in the botany department, Lucknow University, and ultimately succeeded i n establ i shi ng a wel l -recogni zed international i nstitute for this subject.

Pandurang Sadashiv Khankhoje Dr. Pandurang Sadashiv Khankhoje was an Indian revolutionary, scholar, agricultural scientist and historian.

He worked as an agricultural scientist in Mexico, on the Mexican corn breeding project, and was appointed director to the Mexican government's department of agriculture. Later, he returned to India, and settled in Nagpur. P rashantha Chandra Mahal anobis was born i n Calcutta i n 1 Whil e in Cambridge, he developed an i nterest i n statistics that ended up overtaki ng hi s first love, physics. He al so started a new journal i n statistics cal l ed 'Sankhya,' and establ ished a division wi thi n the l SI called the Nati onal Sampl e Survey.

This division, al ong with Mahal anobis, playedan incredibly vital role i n the creation of the second five-year economic pl an i n I ndi a. Meghnad Saha K. Mehta K. Mehta was a famous scientist whose field of specialization was plant pathology. He is known for his research regarding the recurrence of rust- an infection that affects plants. His research showed that the infection spreads from the Himalayas in the Norh, and the Nilgiri and Palany Hills inthe South.

Who is Meghnad Saha? M eghnad Saha was an outstandi ng I ndi an sci enti st, who made remarkabl e contributions to the fi el d of astrophysics. In 1 91 3, he graduated i n mathematics from Presidency Col lege, Calcutta. He taught quantum physics. He made the first effort to i ncl ude nucl ear-physics i n the curricul um of hi gher studies of science.

D0n1 OlS1urO. I n 1 91 9, Bose and Saha prepared the first Engl ish-l anguage book based on German and French transl ati ons of Al bert Ei nstei n' s ori gi nal , special, and general relativity papers. Bose's first article on theoretical physics was on 'Equati on of State', based on research conducted and publ i shed joi ntly wi th Meghnad Saha.

Thi s article was publ i shed in 1 91 8. Scientists now refer to it as the 'Saha-Bose Equati on'. Ei nstei n systematical l y adapted Bose's approach in his own work. That i s why thi s parti cul ar field of Bose's research has come to be known as 'Bose-Einstein Statistics'.

Later, Bose got an opportunity to meet Ei nstei n, and substantiate hi s theories. Bose's theoretical exposition developed this branch. He was the founder di rector of the Counci l of Scientific and I ndustri al Research or CSI R, whi ch was later to become a major agency for research i n i ndependent I ndi a. Bhatnagar was a university professor for 1 9 years, first at the Banaras Hi ndu University, and then at the Punjab University.

He had a reputati on as a very i nspi ri ng teacher. Hi s research contri buti on i n the areas of magneto chemi stry and physi cal chemi stryofemul si on were wi del y recogni sed. He al so did consi derabl e work in appl ied, and i ndustri al chemi stry. The first i ndustrial probl em undertaken by Bhatnagar was the development of a process to convert bagasse -peel i ngs of sugarcane- i nto food cake for cattle. Bhatnagar, joi ntly with K. Bhatnagar was kni ghted i n 1 , i n recogni ti on of hi s work for the war effort.

He was awarded the title Padma Vi bhushan by the President of I ndi a. K nown as the 'Bi rdman of I ndia', Dr. Sal i m Al i's name has become synonymous with bi rds. One of the greatest orni thol ogists and natural i sts of al l ti me, he was one of the very first scientists to carry out systemati c bi rd surveys i n I ndi a and abroad.

Sal i m Al i publ i shed a research paper di scussi ng the nature and activities of the weaver bi rd in 1 The paper made hi m famous, and establ ished hi s name i n the field of orni thology. Tell Me Why Y. Subbarao Birth of a Birdwatcher Salim Ali's interst in birds started at the age of 1 0. He picked up a fallen bird that looked like a house sparrow but had a yellowish throat. He wanted to know what kind of bird it was, so his uncle took him to meet W. The meeting was the turning point in Salim Ali's life for it sparked his interest in birds and bird watching.

Subbarao considered a world class scientist? Subbarao was an I ndi an biochemist. He first became famous with the di scovery of an esti mati on of phosphorous in body fl ui ds and ti ssues, al ong wi th another scientist, Cyrus Fi ske. Thi s method of esti mati on came to be known as the Fi ske- Subbarao Method. I n medi ci ne, Subbarao di scovered many anti bi otics and also hel ped to develop a drug used i n the treatment of cancer.

He was recognized as one of the most emi nent medi cal mi nds of the l ast century. Krishnan an outstanding scientist? Krishnan was an I ndi an physicist who worked with Si r C.

Raman, and played a si gnificant role in the di scovery of the Raman Effect. He was an outstandi ng physicist as wel l as an erudite schol ar in phi losophy, and has been a rol e model of a teacher to a whol e generati on of I ndi an scientists.

In the early 1 s, Raman started hi s studi es on the scatteri ng of l i ght from vari ous materials, havi ng al ready made a mark by hi s work i n acoustics, especi al ly the behavi our of I ndi an musi cal i nstruments.

Kri shnan shared i n the excitement of di scovering the Raman Efect along with hi s mentor, C. Later, Kri shnan used hi s i nnovative experimental ski l l s to set 30 Tribute from Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru paid tribute to K.

Krishnan by declaring "he is a great scientist but is something much more. He is a perect citizen, a whole man with an integrated personality. Krishnan up a new method of measuri ng the anisotropy of magneti c suscepti bi l ity in crystal s.

In 1 , K. Kri shnan was made the professor and head of the department of physics at the Universityof Al l ahabad. Tell Me Why K. Ramanathan K. Ramanathan was an Indian physicist and meteorologist. He was the first director of the Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in , and the Padma Vibhushan in He established Dobson ozone spectrophotometer stations in India.

He was kni ghted in 1 and awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of I ndi a i n 1 He was al so the first recipient of the presti gi ous Bhatnagar Award i n 1 Kri shnan was perhaps a current day model of the ancient sages or rishis, who made I ndia great.

He was also a model teacher who had more than PhD students. He guided them, helped them write their theses, and even assisted them financially if they needed it.

He was awarded the Padma Shushan in Seshadri Why is K. Rao considered a pioneer in NQR Spectroscopy? Rao, or Kotcher.

Rao conducted research on atomi c spectra at the I mperial Col l ege of Science and Technology i n London under the guidance of Professor A. He subsequently returned to I ndi a to start research work on the nucl ear quadrupol e resonance i n the l aboratories of the Andhra University.

Rao's contri buti on to the worl d of physi cs in general ,andspectroscopy in particular, i s i mmense. Rao i n the hi story of physics in the country, he is remembered through awards and honours named after hi m. Apart from hi s rol e as physicist, Dr.

Tell Me Why magazine

Rao has always been known as a nati onal i st, for hi s si mple tastes i n lifestyle and dress. Grea t Indian Scientists r! K edareswar Banerjee or K. He was born i n 1 i n Dacca, and i n 1 , after a bri l l iant academic career, joined the research groupofSi rC. I n 1 , when onl y a few crystal structures had been determined throughout the world, Banerjee's work on the determination of atomi c arrangements i n crystal l i ne naphthal ene and.

Apart from structural X-ray crystal l ography, Banerjee's research pursuits covered a wi defield of crystal physics.

100 New Inventions (Manorama: Tell Me Why # 117)

Maheshwari considered a great botanist? P rof. Maheshwari was an I ndi an botani st who i s known worl dwi de for hi s research on the embryology of pl ants. As a result of thi s techni que, more floweri ng plants coul d now be cross-bred.

The techni que proved to be of i mmense hel p to pl ant breeders, and opened up new avenues i n economi c appl i ed botany. Hi s work, ' An I ntroduction to the Embryology of Angi osperms' i s a cl assi c i n that field. Pisharody called the Father of Remote Sensing in India? Pi sharody was born i n Kerala and completed hi s earl y education i n that state.

Duri ng the summer vacations he used to work under Prof. Raman at the I ndi an I nstitute of Science, Bangalore. Pisharody then joined the University of Cal iforni a.

Pune in 1 He was entrusted with the job of introduci ng remote sensi ng technology i n I ndia. He accepted the chal lenge, and hi s pi oneeri ng experiment of detection of coconut wi lt-root di sease using Soviet ai rcraf and US equipment was considered to be the first success i n remote sensing i n I ndi a, earning hi m the title of 'Father of Remote Sensi ng i n I ndia'.

S Ubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar wasan I ndian-born, Americanastrophysicist. The nephew of Si r C. He explored astrophysical subjects such as stel l ar structure, the theory of white dwarf stars, and the mathematical theory of bl ack holes.

Fowler, for key di scoveries that l ed to the currently accepted theory, on the later evol uti onary stages of massive stars. Hi s last book was 'Newton's Pri nci pia for the Common Reader'. He established the National Botanical Gardens at Luck now in He remained director of the Botanical Gar dens till Gr e at I ndi an Scien tists 37 G N.

Ramachandran 38 Why is Homi Bhabha considered the founder of India's atomic energy programme?

With the support of Jawaharl al Nehru, he l ai d the foundati on for I ndia's scientific growth, and was responsi ble for the creation of two premi er i nstitutions, the Tata I nstitute of Fundamental Research, and Bhabha Atomi c Research Centre. He was al so the first chai rman of I ndia's Atomi c Energy Commi ssi on.

Why are G. With the hel p of J. He establ ished the Atomi c Energy Commi ssi on of I ndia i n 1 Under hi s gui dance, I ndi an scientists worked on the devel opment of atomi c energy, and the first atomic reactor in Asi a went into operation at Trombay, near Bombay, i n 1 The cl i max of I ndi a' s atomic energy programme came on May 1 8th, 1 when I ndi a exploded a nucl ear device at Pokhran, Rajasthan, joi ni ng a select club of nati ons.

He died in 1 in a pl ane crash i n Mont Bl anc, the hi ghest mountai n i n the Al ps. Later, he went to Cambri dge and aft er compl eti ng hi s PhD, returned tothe i nstitute. Usi ng X-ray diffracti on, Ramachandran, al ong wi th Go pi nath Kartha, proposed and publ i shed the tri pl e hel i cal str ucture of col l agen i n 1 After years of research, he p ubl i shed the Ramachandran Pl ot i n the Journal of Mol ecul ar B i olo gy. He founded the mol ecul ar biophysics unit at the I ndi an I nstitute of Science, and was the recipient of the B h atnagar Award, among the many other honours that he r e ceiv ed.

Gr eat Indian Scientists 39 C. Vikram Ambal al Sarabhai, the father of the I ndi an space programme has put I ndia on the i nternati onal map i n the field of space research. In 1 , he was awarded a doctorate by Cambri dge Uni versity, and on hi s return to I ndi a, Dr.

He di rected the setting upofthe Thumba Why is C. Rao internationally renowned? Rao is an I ndi an-Ameri can mathemati ci an and stati sti cian. Rao caught the attenti on of the worl d wi th hi s 'theory of esti mati on'. He returned to I ndi a and joi ned b as a professor.

Afer a remarkable effort, the i naugural fl i ght was l aunched on November 2Pt, 1 Sarabhai started a project for the fabrication and l aunch of an I ndi an satell ite, and the first I ndi an satell ite, Aryabhata, was put in orbit i n 1 from a Russi an cosmodrome.

Sarabhai was a creative scienti st, a successful and forward-l ooki ng i ndustri al i st, an i nnovator of the hi ghest edi tor of Sankhya- the I ndi an Journal of Stati sti cs. He l eft l bl i n 1 to joi n the Uni versi ty of Pi ttsburgh, but came back and reti red as the di r ector of l SI. After hi s reti rement, he moved to Pennsylvani a. Roy is a distinguished scientist whose work in cytogenetics, plant breeding, tissue culture and cytotaxonomy won him many laurels.

He was president of the Indian Science Congress in H ar Gobi nd Khorana i san I ndian-born, Ameri can organi c chemi st and bi ochemist. He was awarded a Ph. D i n organic chemi stry by Liverpool Uni versity, and was a research fel low at Cambri dge before movi ng to Vancouver as head of the department of organi c chemi stry.

Khorana's early work was on the bi ochemi stry of enzymes, but i n the 1 s, he turned to the nucl ei c aci ds and the geneti c code. I n the early 1 s, he was one of the first to artifi ci al l y synthesize a gene, i niti al l y from yeast, and then later, from the bacteri um escheri chi a col i.

Chandrasekhar Har Gobind Khorana o K. He is known for his work in number theory and summability, and was given numerous awards. Chandrasekhar persuaded mathematicians from all over the wolld, to visit TI FR, and deliver courses of lectures. After getti ng hi s master's degree i n 1 , he worked with Homi Bhabha at the I ndi an I nstitute of Sci ence, Bangal ore. She galloped the stairs behind me two or perhaps three at a time. We felt like teenagers discovering a secret. I felt like showing her my secret superpowers.

Or my stashed wisdom from the ages. I owned nothing of that.

But still I fluffed with pride when her stupefied gaze scanned the entire arena. It was a screenplay like they show in movies : captivating is the word. She looked amused, amazed and dazed with all those books around. Ignoring the chaperone standing guard lest we stole a book, she hugged me and said, well again nothing. And she said it all. This is something I can't pen into words.

They belong to the language of understanding that you share with someone you consider your soulmate. Kindly forgive me, dear readers, for not putting up a review instead of the book. I have read it in a single flow and found it really informative. Plus, having reading this series for 10 years straight gives me an excuse to go up to that staircase. He joi ned the TI FR in 1 He became the di rector of the i nstitute in 1 , fol lowi ng Bhabha's unti mel y death.

Hi s abl e di rectorshi p ofthe TI FR l asted unti l 1 Menon's research achieve ments i ncl ude the devel opment of hi gh preci si on measurement techni ques for cosmi c rays. He al so i nitiated hi gh-altitude cosmi c ray studi es near the geomagnetic equator, usi ng bal l oon flights. Thi s, by its abi l ity to carry X-ray and gamma ray telescopes as payloads, marked the genesi s of space-based astronomy i n the country.

He was al so i nvolved in the cosmi c ray studi es i ni tiated i n 1 in the mi nes at Kolar Gol d Fi el ds.Pisharody called the Father of Remote Sensing in India?

Menon has won numerous awards, and the asteroid Gokumenon was named in hi s honour in late Vikas Reddy. Raj Reddy was awarded the Padma Bhushan i n What is high voltage direct current? College Lane, Chennsi- l, V. Tell Me Why Y.

Ramanujan Tell Me Why C. Some of the earliest hydroelectric power plants were set up in and around London.

Electric current in DC alternating current took over and is measured in ampere electric transmission became easier and voltage in volts.

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