Our aim is to build teachers' confidence, knowledge and classroom abilities - and inspire them to try out new ideas." Jeremy Harmer, Series Editor How to Teach. Learning to Teach English - A Practical Introduction for New Teachers. Uploaded by. Dorota Daszyńska. Jeremy Harmer - The Practice of English Language. And it demands new editions of a book like The Practice of English Language Teaching. Since the last edition of this book, different new ideas (or shifts in.
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THE PRACTICE OF. ENGLISH. LANGUAGE. TEACHING. Jeremy Harmer IC Wells. NEW. Edition. Readers may wish to consult the above publications. How to Teach English is an easy-to-read, practical introduction to English Language Teaching. Файл формата pdf; размером 20,82 МБ This new edition has been fully revised to reflect recent methodological developments and includes. This 3rd edition has been completely rewritten and updated to combine the best of This new edition has been fully revised to reflect recent methodological Harmer Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. pdf. Раздел.
Yet teenagers arenot the only students who sometimes exhibit problem behaviour that is behaviour whichcauses a problem for the teacher, the student him- or herself, and, perhaps, the others inthe classroom.
Younger children can, of course, cause difficulties for the teacher and class,too. Adults can also be disruptive and exhausting.
They may arrive late for class or fail to doany homework. And, whatever the causes of this behaviour, a problem is created. Teachers need to work both to prevent problem behaviour, and to respond to itappropriately if it occurs. Learning stylesAll students respond to various stimuli such as pictures, sounds, music, movement, etc ,but for most of them and us some things stimulate them into learning more than otherthings do.
The Neuro-Linguistic Programming model often called NLP takes accountof this by showing how some students are especially influenced by visual stimuli and aretherefore likely to remember things better if they see them. Some students, on the otherhand, are especially affected by auditory input and, as a result, respond very well to thingsthey hear.
Kinaesthetic activity is especially effective for other learners, who seem to learnbest when they are involved in some kind of physical activity, such as moving around, orrearranging things with their hands.
The point is that although we all respond to all ofthese stimuli, for most of us, one or other of them visual, auditory, kinaesthetic is morepowerful than the others in enabling us to learn and remember what we have learnt. Another way of looking at student variation is offered by the concept of MultipleIntelligences, first articulated by Howard Gardner. In his formulation and that of peoplewho have followed and expanded his theories , we all have a num ber of different intelligences mathematical, musical, interpersonal, spatial, emotional, etc.
W hat these two theories tell us from their different standpoints is that in any oneclassroom we have a num ber of different individuals with different learning styles andpreferences. Experienced teachers know this and try to ensure that different learning stylesare catered for as often as is possible. In effect, this means offering a wide range of differentactivity types in our lessons in order to cater for individual differences and needs.
Nevertheless, we need to find out whether there are any generalisations which willhelp us to encourage habits in students which will help all of them. We might say, forexample, that homework is good for everyone and so is reading for pleasure see Chapter7.
Citations per year
Certain activities - such as many of the speaking activities in Chapter 9 - are good forall the students in the class, though the way we organise them and the precise things we askstudents to do may vary for exactly the reasons we have been discussing.
LevelsTeachers of English generally make three basic distinctions to categorise the languageknowledge of their students: beginner, intermediate and advanced. However, as we shall see, these are rough and ready labels whoseexact meaning can vary from institution to institution.
Other descriptive terms are also used in an attem pt to be more specific about exactlywhat kind of beginner, intermediate or advanced students we are talking about. Elementary students are no longer beginners and are able to communicate in a basic way. They can string some sentences together, construct a simple story, or take part in simplespoken interactions. Pre-intermediate students have not yet achieved intermediate competence, whichinvolves greater fluency and general comprehension of some general authentic English.
However, they have come across most of the basic structures and lexis of the language. Upper-intermediate students, on the other hand, have the competence of intermediatestudents plus an extended knowledge of grammatical construction and skill use.
However,they may not have achieved the accuracy or depth of knowledge which their advancedcolleagues have acquired, and as a result are less able to operate at different levels ofsubtlety. In recent years, the Council of Europe and the Association of Language Testers ofEurope ALTE have been working to define language competency levels for learners of anum ber of different languages.
If they are at level BI, for example,how can their abilities be described? If we rem ind ourselves that terms such as beginner and intermediate are rough guidesonly in other words, unlike the ALTE levels, they do not say exactly what the students cando , then we are in a position to make broad generalisations about the different levels:BeginnersSuccess is easy to see at this level, and easy for the teacher to arrange.
But then so is failure! Some adult beginners find that language learning is more stressful than they expectedand reluctantly give up. However, if things are going well, teaching beginners can beincredibly stimulating. Intermediate studentsSuccess is less obvious at intermediate level. Intermediate students have already achieved alot, but they are less likely to be able to recognise an almost daily progress.
We often call this the plateau effect, and the teacher has to make strenuous attempts toshow students what they still need to learn w ithout being discouraging. One of the ways ofdoing this is to make the tasks we give them more challenging, and to get them to analyselanguage more thoroughly. We need to help them set clear goals for themselves so that theyhave something to measure their achievement by.
Advanced studentsStudents at this level already know a lot of English. There is still the danger of the plateaueffect even if the plateau itself is higher up! In these areas, we can enable students to use language with more subtlety.
It is also at this I r Learners level, especially, that we have to encourage students to take more and more responsibility for their own learning. Although many activities can clearly be used at more than one level designing newspaper front pages, writing radio commercials, etc , others are not so universally appropriate.
With beginners, for example, we will not suggest abstract discussions or the writing of discursive essays.
For advanced students, a drill where students repeat in chorus and individually - see pages focusing on simple past tense questions will almost certainly be inappropriate. Beginners need to be exposed to fairly simple gram m ar and vocabulary which they can understand. Intermediate students know all this language already and so we will not ask them to concentrate on it. At beginner levels, the need for us to rough-tune our speech see page 37 is very great: we can exaggerate our voice tone and use gesture to help us to get our meaning across.
But at higher levels, such extreme behaviour is not so important. Indeed, it will probably come across to the students as patronising. At all levels, teachers need to ascertain what students know before deciding what to focus on. At higher levels, we can use what the students already know as the basis for our work; at lower levels we will, for example, always try to elicit the language that is, try to get the language from the students rather than giving it to them we are going to focus on.
That way we know whether to continue with our plan or whether to amend it then and there because students, perhaps, know more than we expected. Educational and cultural background We have already discussed how students at different ages present different characteristics in the classroom.
Some children come from homes where education is highly valued, and where parental help is readily available. Other children, however, may come from less supportive backgrounds where no such backup is on offer. Older students - especially adults - may come from a variety of backgrounds and, as a result, have very different expectations of what teaching and learning involves. Where students have different cultural backgrounds from the teacher or from each other, they may feel differently from their classmates about topics in the curriculum.
They may have different responses to classroom practices from the ones the teacher expected or the ones which the writers of the coursebook they are using had anticipated.
Some educational cultures find learning by rote memorising factsand figures more attractive than learning by doing where students are involved in projectwork and experimentation in order to arrive at knowledge.
And it is worth rememberingthat even where students all live in the same town or area, it is often the case that they comefrom a variety of cultural backgrounds. In many English-speaking countries such as Britain, the US, Australia, etc, multilingualclasses classes where students come from different countries and therefore have differentmother tongues are the norm, especially in private language schools.
As a result, studentsare likely to represent a range of educational and cultural backgrounds. As teachers, we need to be sensitive to these different backgrounds. We need to be ableto explain what we are doing and why; we need to use material, offer topics and employteaching techniques which, even when engaging and challenging, will not offend anyone inthe group. Where possible, we need to be able to offer different material, topics and teachingtechniques at different times to suit the different individual expectations and tastes.
The importance of student motivationA variety of factors can create a desire to learn. Perhaps the learners love the subject theyhave chosen, or maybe they are simply interested in seeing what it is like. Perhaps, as withyoung children, they just happen to be curious about everything, including learning. This desire to achieve some goal is the bedrock of motivation and, if it is strong enough,it provokes a decision to act.
For an adult this may involve enrolling in an English class. For a teenager it may be choosing one subject over another for special study. This kind ofmotivation - which comes from outside the classroom and may be influenced by a numberof external factors such as the attitude of society, family and peers to the subject in question- is often referred to as extrinsic motivation, the motivation that students bring into theclassroom from outside. While it may be relatively easy to be extrinsically motivated that is to have a desireto do something , sustaining that motivation can be more problematic.
As students wecan become bored, or we may find the subject more difficult than we thought it was goingto be. We can do this in a num ber of ways. The activities we ask students to take part in will, if theyinvolve the students or excite their curiosity - and provoke their participation - help themto stay interested in the subject.
We need, as well, to select an appropriate level of challengeso that things are neither too difficult nor too easy. We need to display appropriate teacherqualities so that students can have confidence in our abilities and professionalism seeChapter 2.
We need to consider the issue of affect - that is, how the students feel about the20 Learnerslearning process. Students need to feel that the teacher really cares about them; if studentsfeel supported and valued, they are far more likely to be motivated to learn. If students feel they have some influence over what ishappening, rather than always being told exactly what to do, they are often more motivatedto take part in the lesson.
But however much we do to foster and sustain student motivation, we can only, in theend, encourage by word and deed, offering our support and guidance.
Title: How to teach english 2nd edition jeremy harmer
Real motivationcomes from within each individual, from the students themselves. Responsibility for learningIf giving students agency is seen as a key component in sustaining motivation, then suchagency is not just about giving students more decision-making power. It is also aboutencouraging them to take more responsibility for their own learning. We need to tell themthat unless they are prepared to take some of the strain, their learning is likely to be lesssuccessful than if they themselves become active learners rather than passive recipients ofteaching.
Insuch cases, teachers will not be successful if they merely try to impose a pattern of learnerautonomy. At first we will expect them, for example, to make their owndialogues after they have listened to a model on an audio track. Such standard practice getting students to try out new language is one small way of encouraging studentinvolvement in learning. We might go on to try to get individual students to investigate agrammar issue or solve a reading puzzle on their own, rather than having things explainedto them by the teacher.
We might get them to look for the meanings of words and how theyare used in their dictionaries see below rather than telling them what the words mean. Getting students to do various kinds of homework, such as written exercises,compositions or further study is one of the best ways to encourage student autonomy.
W hat is im portant is that teachers should choose the right kind of task for the students. It should be within their grasp, and not take up too much of their time - or occupy toolittle of it by being trivial. Even more im portantly than this, teachers should follow uphomework when they say they are going to, imposing the same deadlines upon themselvesas they do on their students.
Other ways of prom oting student self-reliance include havingthem read for pleasure in their own time see pages and find their own resourcesfor language practice in books or on the Internet, for example. At earlier stages of learning, good bilingual dictionaries servethe same function and allow the students a large measure of independence from theteacher. We will help students to be responsible for their learning if we show them where eitherin books, in self-access centres or online they can continue studying outside the classroom.
For example, we can point them in the direction of suitable websites if they have computeraccess , or recommend good CD or DVD resources.
How to Teach English 2nd Edition Jeremy Harmer
If students are lucky, their institutionwill have a self-access centre with a range of resources comprising books including readers- see page , newspapers, magazines, worksheets, listening material, videos and DVDs,and computers with access to the Internet. Students can decide if and when to visit suchcentres and what they want to do there.
Self-access centres should help students to makeappropriate choices by having good cataloguing systems and ensuring that people are onhand to help students find their way around. However, the object of a self-access centre isthat students should themselves take responsibility for what they do and make their owndecisions about what is most appropriate for them.
O f course, many schools do not have self-access centres, and even where they do, manystudents do not make full use of them. This is because not all students, as we have said,are equally capable of being or wanting to be autonom ous learners.
Despite this fact, weshould do our best to encourage them to have agency without forcing it upon them. But generally they find it quite hard to say why certain teachers struck themas special. Perhaps it was because of their personality. Possibly it was because they hadinteresting things to say. Sometimes, it seems, itwas just because the teacher was a fascinating person! One of the reasons that it is difficult to give general descriptions of good teachers is thatdifferent teachers are often successful in different ways.
Some teachers are more extrovertor introvert than others, for example, and different teachers have different strengths andweaknesses. A lot will depend, too, on how students view individual teachers and hereagain, not all students will share the same opinions. But there are also others, perhaps, who do nothave what appears to be a natural gift but who are still effective and popular teachers.
Suchteachers learn their craft through a mixture of personality, intelligence, knowledge andexperience and how they reflect on it. It is truethat some lessons and students can be difficult and stressful at times, but it is also worthremembering that at its best teaching can also be extremely enjoyable. In this chapter we will look at what is necessary for effective teaching and how that canhelp to provoke success - so that for both students and teachers learning English can berewarding and enjoyable.
Who teachers are in classWhen we walk into a lesson, students get an idea of who we are as a result of what we looklike how we dress, how we present ourselves and the way we behave and react to what is 23 Chapter 2going on. They take note, either consciously or subconsciously, of whether we are alwaysthe same or whether we can be flexible, depending on what is happening at a particularpoint in the lesson. As we have said, teachers, like any other group of hum an beings, have individualdifferences.
However, one of the things, perhaps, that differentiates us from some otherprofessions, is that we become different people, in a way, when we are in front of a classfrom the people we are in other situations, such as at home or at a party. Everyone switchesroles like this in their daily lives to some extent, but for teachers, who we are or appear tobe when we are at work is especially important.
PersonalitySome years ago, in preparation for a presentation to colleagues, I recorded interviews with alarge num ber of teachers and students.
Effective teacher personality is a blend between who we really are, and who we are asteachers. We have to be able to present a professionalface to the students which they find both interesting and effective. When we walk into theclassroom, we want them to see someone who looks like a teacher whatever else they looklike. This does not mean conforming to some kind of teacher stereotype, but rather finding,each in our own way, a persona that we adopt when we cross the threshold.
We need to askourselves what kind of personality we want our students to encounter, and the decisionswe take before and during lessons should help to demonstrate that personality. This is notto suggest that we are in any way dishonest about who we are - teaching is not acting, afterall - but we do need to think carefully about how we appear. AdaptabilityW hat often marks one teacher out from another is how they react to different events inthe classroom as the lesson proceeds.
This is im portant, because however well we haveprepared, the chances are that things will not go exactly to plan.
We will discuss such magic moments and unforeseen problems on page This is especially im portant when the learning outcomes we had planned forlook as if they may not succeed because of what is happening.
We have to be flexible enoughto work with this and change our destination accordingly if this has to be done or findsome other way to get there. Or perhaps we have to take a decision to continue what weare doing despite the interruption to the way we imagined things were going to proceed.
When students see that they can do this, their confidence intheir teachers is greatly enhanced. If, for example, the teacher always acts as acontroller, standing at the front of the class, dictating everything that happens and beingthe focus of attention, there will be little chance for students to take much responsibility fortheir own learning, in other words, for them to have agency see page Being a controllermay work for grammar explanations and other information presentation, for instance,but it is less effective for activities where students are working together cooperatively ona project, for example.
In such situations we may need to be prompters, encouragingstudents, pushing them to achieve more, feeding in a bit of information or language tohelp them proceed. At other times, we may need to act as feedback providers helpingstudents to evaluate their performance or as assessors telling students how well they havedone or giving them grades, etc.
We also need to be able to function as a resource forlanguage information, etc when students need to consult us and, at times, as a languagetutor that is, an advisor who responds to what the student is doing and advises them onwhat to do next.
The way we act when we are controlling a class is very different from the listeningand advising behaviour we will exhibit when we are tutoring students or responding toa presentation or a piece of writing something that is different, again, from the way weassess a piece of work.
Part of our teacher personality, therefore, is our ability to performall these roles at different times, but with the same care and ease whichever role we areinvolved with. This flexibility will help us to facilitate the many different stages and facetsof learning. RapportA significant feature in the intrinsic motivation of students see page 20 will depend ontheir perception of what the teacher thinks of them, and how they are treated.
Rapport means, in essence, the relationship that the students have with the teacher,and vice versa. In the best lessons we will always see a positive, enjoyable and respectfulrelationship. Rapport is established in part when students become aware of ourprofessionalism see above , but it also occurs as a result of the way we listen to and treatthe students in our classrooms.
In the firstplace, students want teachers to know their names rather than, say, just pointing at them. But this is extremely difficult for teachers who see eight or nine groups a week. How canthey remember all their students?
One m ethod is to ask the students at least in the first week or two to put namecards on the desk in front of them or stick name badges on to their sweaters or jackets.
We can also draw up a seating plan and ask students always to sit in the same place untilwe have learnt their names.
Many teachers use the register to make notes about individual students Do they wearglasses?
Are they tall? We need, therefore, tofind ways of doing this that suit us best. At any age, they will bepleased when they realise that their teacher has remembered things about them, and hassome understanding of who they are. Listening to studentsStudents respond very well to teachers who listen to them. But we need to listen properly to students in lessons too.
And we need to show thatwe are interested in what they have to say. Respecting studentsOne student I interviewed had absolutely no doubt about the key quality of good teachers. Correcting students see page 97 is always a delicate event. The problem we face, however,is that while some students are happy to be corrected robustly, others need more supportand positive reinforcement. In speaking activities see Chapter 9 , some students want tobe corrected the m om ent they make any mistake, whereas others would like to be correctedlater.
In other words, just as students have different learning styles and intelligences, so, too,they have different preferences when it comes to being corrected.
But whichever methodof correction we choose, and whoever we are working with, students need to know that weare treating them with respect, and not using mockery or sarcasm - or expressing despairat their efforts! Respect is vital, too, when we deal with any kind of problem behaviour.
We could,of course, respond to indiscipline or awkwardness by being biting in our criticism of thestudent who has done something we do not approve of. Yet this will be counterproductive. It is the behaviour we want to criticise, not the character of the student in question.
Teachers who respect students do their best to see them in a positive light. They are notnegative about their learners or in the way they deal with them in class. They do not reactwith anger or ridicule when students do unplanned things, but instead use a respectfulprofessionalism to solve the problem. Being even-handedMost teachers have some students that they like more than others.
For example, we all tendto react well to those who take part, are cheerful and cooperative, take responsibility fortheir own learning, and do what we ask of them w ithout complaint. Sometimes we are lessenthusiastic about those who are less forthcoming, and who find learner autonomy, forexample, more of a challenge.
The reasons that some students are not forthcoming may be many andvaried, ranging from shyness to their cultural or family backgrounds.
Sometimes studentsare reluctant to take part overtly because of other stronger characters in the group. Andthese quiet students will only be negatively affected when they see far more attention beingpaid to their more robust classmates. At the same time, giving some students more attentionthan others may make those students more difficult to deal with later since they will cometo expect special treatment, and may take our interest as a licence to become overdominantin the classroom.
Treating all students equally not only helps to establish and maintain rapport, but isalso a m ark of professionalism. Asprofessionals we are also asked to perform certain tasks.
Part of this preparation resides in the knowledge theyhave of their subject and the skill of teaching, something we will discuss in detail on pages But another feature of being well-prepared is having thought in advance of what weare going to do in our lessons. As we walk towards our classroom, in other words, we needto have some idea of what the students are going to achieve in the lesson; we should havesome learning outcomes in our head. O f course, what happens in a lesson does not alwaysconform to our plans for it, as we shall discuss on pages , but students always takecomfort from the perception that their teacher has thought about what will be appropriatefor their particular class on that particular day.
The degree to which we plan our lessons differs from teacher to teacher. It will oftendepend, among other things, on whether we have taught this lesson or something like it before. We will discuss planning in detail in Chapter A collection of games and activities for elementary students of English.
Perfect photocopiable material for busy teachers.
The games make use of a variety of techniques. Variety is important in language teaching, and a succession of games based on the same principles, though exciting and novel at first, would soon pall. Pearson Education Limited, This new edition has been fully revised to reflect recent methodological developments and includes: Longman, How to Teach Vocabulary has been written for all teachers of English who wish to improve their knowledge and to develope their classroom skills in this important area.
Introduction What's in a word? How words are learned Classroom sources of words Texts, dictionaries and corpora How to present vocabulary How to put words to work Teaching word This book has been written for teachers of English who are curious or confused or unconvinced about the teaching of grammar.
Introduction What is grammar?Some of the issues for both real and virtual learning environments are the same. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. They should also do their best to keep abreast of new developmentsin teaching approaches and techniques by consulting a range of print material, onlineresources, and by attending, where possible, development sessions and teacher seminars.
Upper-intermediate students, on the other hand, have the competence of intermediatestudents plus an extended knowledge of grammatical construction and skill use.
Being even-handedMost teachers have some students that they like more than others. One m ethod is to ask the students at least in the first week or two to put namecards on the desk in front of them or stick name badges on to their sweaters or jackets.
If we rem ind ourselves that terms such as beginner and intermediate are rough guidesonly in other words, unlike the ALTE levels, they do not say exactly what the students cando , then we are in a position to make broad generalisations about the different levels:BeginnersSuccess is easy to see at this level, and easy for the teacher to arrange. After all,people have been doing it successfully for two thousand years or more, and some aspectsof teaching in the past have probably not changed that much.