Department of the Army. Washington, DC, 17 SURVIVAL. Contents. Page. PREFACE. This publication supersedes FM , June and equipment, you are ready to make your survival plan Forgetfulness. • Low energy level answer the challen FM Pages·· MB· U.S. Army Field Manual Survival PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL · A Look at Stress SURVIVAL PLANNING AND SURVIVAL KITS · Importance of.
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FM SURVIVAL Manual U.S. Military - Equipped to Survive (tm) offers Click here to download a PDF file of FM ( MB) courtesy of Patrick. Page 1. FM US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL. FM US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL. Page 1 of Page 2. FM US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL. Welcome to the skills and knowledge repository of the Lifeboat Foundation. This webspace is intended to provide a place for Lifeboat members.
Fatigue 5. Loss of skin elasticity 6. Emotional instability 7. Thirst 8. Delayed capillary refill in the fingernail beds Fm At temperatures below degrees Fahrenheit, drink one pint of water every hour. Disclaimer: This guide was downloaded from ArmyStudyGuide. Version 5. Loss of skin elasticity 6. Emotional instability 7. Thirst 8. Delayed capillary refill in the fingernail beds Fm At temperatures below degrees Fahrenheit, drink one pint of water every hour.
Disclaimer: This guide was downloaded from ArmyStudyGuide. Version 5. Is it always safe to eat and drink what the animals eat and drink? Animal life in the area can also give you clues on how to survive.
Animals also require food, water, and shelter. By watching them, you can find sources of water and food. Many animals eat plants that are toxic to humans. Keep in mind that the reaction of animals can reveal your presence to the enemy.
If in a friendly area, one way you can gain rapport with the natives is to show interest in their tools and how they get food and water. By studying the people, you learn to respect them, you often make valuable friends, and, most important, you learn how to adapt to their environment and increase your chances of survival.
Without training in basic skills for surviving and evading on the battlespace, your chances of living through a combat survival and evasion situation are slight.
Learn these basic skills nownot when you are headed for or are in the battle. How you decide to equip yourself before deployment will affect whether or not you survive. You need to know about the environment to which you are going, and you must practice basic skills geared to that environment. For instance, if you are going to a desert, you need to know how to get water. Practice basic survival skills during all training programs and exercises. Survival training reduces fear of the unknown and gives you self-confidence.
It teaches you to live by your wits. Develop a survival pattern that lets you beat the enemies of survival. This survival pattern must include food, water, shelter, fire, first aid, and signals placed in order of importance. For example, in a cold environment, you would need a fire to get warm; a shelter to protect you from the cold, wind, and rain or snow; traps or snares to get food; a means to signal friendly aircraft; and first aid to maintain health.
If you are injured, first aid has top priority no matter what climate you are in. Change your survival pattern to meet your immediate physical needs as the environment changes.
Figure Guidelines for Survival Chapter 2 Psychology of Survival It takes much more than the knowledge and skills to build shelters, get food, make fires, and travel without the aid of standard navigational devices to live successfully through a survival situation.
Some people with little or no survival training have managed to survive lifethreatening circumstances. Some people with survival training have not used their skills and died. A key ingredient in any survival situation is the mental attitude of the individual involved. Having survival skills is important; having the will to survive is essential.
The Ultimate Guide to U.S. Army Survival Skills, Tactics, and Techniques
Without a desire to survive, acquired skills serve little purpose and invaluable knowledge goes to waste. There is a psychology to survival.
You will face many stressors in a survival environment that ultimately will affect your mind. These stressors can produce thoughts and emotions that, if poorly understood, can transform a confident, well-trained person into an indecisive, ineffective individual with questionable ability to survive.
Thus, you must be aware of and be able to recognize those stressors commonly associated with survival.
It is also imperative that you be aware of your reactions to the wide variety of stressors associated with survival. This chapter identifies and explains the nature of stress, the stressors of survival, and those internal reactions that you will naturally experience when faced with the stressors of a real-world survival situation. The knowledge you gain from this chapter and the remainder of this manual, will prepare you to come through the toughest times alive.
Before we can understand our psychological reactions in a survival setting, it is helpful to first know a little bit about stress and its effects.
Stress is not a disease that you cure and eliminate.
The Obstacle Is the Way: The Timeless Art of Turning Trials into Triumph
Instead, it is a condition we all experience. Stress can be described as our reaction to pressure. It is the name given to the experience we have as we physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually respond to lifes tensions. We need stress because it has many positive benefits. Stress provides us with challenges; it gives us chances to learn about our values and strengths.
Stress can show our ability to handle pressure without breaking. It tests our adaptability and flexibility, and can stimulate us to do our best. Because we usually do not consider unimportant events stressful, stress can also be an excellent indicator of the significance we attach to an eventin other words, it highlights what is important to us.
We need to have some stress in our lives, but too much of anything can be bad. The goal is to have stress, but not an excess of it. Too much stress can take its toll on people and organizations.
Too much stress leads to distress. Distress causes an uncomfortable tension that we try to escape or, preferably, avoid. Listed below are a few of the common signs of distress that you may encounter when faced with too much stress: Difficulty making decisions.
Angry outbursts. Low energy level. Constant worrying. Propensity for mistakes. Thoughts about death or suicide. Trouble getting along with others. Withdrawing from others. Hiding from responsibilities. As you can see, stress can be constructive or destructive. It can encourage or discourage, move us along or stop us dead in our tracks, and make life meaningful or seemingly meaningless.
Stress can inspire you to operate successfully and perform at your maximum efficiency in a survival situation. It can also cause you to panic and forget all your training. Your key to survival is your ability to manage the inevitable stresses you will encounter.
The person that survives is one who works with his stresses instead of letting his stresses work on him. Any event can lead to stress and, as everyone has experienced, events dont always come one at a time. Often, stressful events occur simultaneously. These events are not stress, but they produce it and are called stressors. Stressors are the obvious cause while stress is the response. Once the body recognizes the presence of a stressor, it then begins to act to protect itself.
In response to a stressor, the body prepares either to fight or flee. This preparation involves an internal SOS sent throughout the body. As the body responds to this SOS, the following actions take place: The body releases stored fuels sugar and fats to provide quick energy. Breathing rate increases to supply more oxygen to the blood. Muscle tension increases to prepare for action. Blood clotting mechanisms are activated to reduce bleeding from cuts. Senses become more acute hearing becomes more sensitive, pupils dilate, smell becomes sharper so that you are more aware of your surroundings.
Heart rate and blood pressure rise to provide more blood to the muscles. This protective posture lets you cope with potential dangers.
However, you cannot maintain this level of alertness indefinitely. Stressors are not courteous; one stressor does not leave because another one arrives. Stressors add up. The cumulative FM As the bodys resistance to stress wears down and the sources of stress continue or increase , eventually a state of exhaustion arrives.
United States Army Field Manuals
At this point, the ability to resist stress or use it in a positive way gives out and signs of distress appear. Anticipating stressors and developing strategies to cope with them are two ingredients in the effective management of stress.
Therefore, it is essential that you be aware of the types of stressors that you will encounter. The following paragraphs explain a few of these. Injury, Illness, or Death Injury, illness, and death are real possibilities that you have to face.
Perhaps nothing is more stressful than being alone in an unfamiliar environment where you could die from hostile action, an accident, or from eating something lethal. Illness and injury can also add to stress by limiting your ability to maneuver, get food and drink, find shelter, and defend yourself.
Even if illness and injury dont lead to death, they add to stress through the pain and discomfort they generate. It is only by controlling the stress associated with the vulnerability to injury, illness, and death that you can have the courage to take the risks associated with survival tasks. Uncertainty and Lack of Control Some people have trouble operating in settings where everything is not clear-cut.
The only guarantee in a survival situation is that nothing is guaranteed. It can be extremely stressful operating on limited information in a setting where you have limited control of your surroundings.
This uncertainty and lack of control also add to the stress of being ill, injured, or killed. Environment Even under the most ideal circumstances, nature is quite formidable. In survival, you will have to contend with the stressors of weather, terrain, and the variety of creatures inhabiting an area.
Heat, cold, rain, winds, mountains, swamps, deserts, insects, dangerous reptiles, and other animals are just a few of the challenges that you will encounter while working to survive. Depending on how you handle the stress of your environment, your surroundings can be either a source of food FM Hunger and Thirst Without food and water you will weaken and eventually die.
Thus, getting and preserving food and water takes on increasing importance as the length of time in a survival setting increases.
Foraging can also be a big source of stress since you are used to having your provisions issued.
Fatigue Forcing yourself to continue surviving is not easy as you grow more tired. It is possible to become so fatigued that the act of just staying awake is stressful in itself. Isolation There are some advantages to facing adversity with others. As a soldier you learn individual skills, but you train to function as part of a team. Although we complain about higher headquarters, we become used to the information and guidance it provides, especially during times of confusion.
Being in contact with others also provides a greater sense of security and a feeling someone is available to help if problems occur. A significant stressor in survival situations is that often you have to rely solely on your own resources.
The survival stressors mentioned in this section are by no means the only ones you may face. Remember, what is stressful to one person may not be stressful to another. Your experiences, training, personal outlook on life, physical and mental conditioning, and level of self-confidence contribute to what you will find stressful in a survival environment. The object is not to avoid stress, but rather to manage the stressors of survival and make them work for you. We now have a general knowledge of stress and the stressors common to survival.
The next step is to examine your reactions to the stressors you may face. Man has been able to survive many shifts in his environment throughout the centuries. His ability to adapt physically and mentally to a changing world kept him alive while other species around him gradually died off. The same survival mechanisms that kept our forefathers alive can help keep you alive as well! However, the survival mechanisms that can help you can also work against you if you do not understand and anticipate their presence.
It is not surprising that the average person will have some psychological reactions in a survival situation.
The following paragraphs explain some of the major internal reactions that you or anyone with you might experience with the previously stated survival stressors. FEAR Fear is our emotional response to dangerous circumstances that we believe have the potential to cause death, injury, or illness.
This harm is not just limited to physical damage; the threat to your emotional and mental well-being can generate fear as well. If you are trying to survive, fear can have a positive function if it encourages you to be cautious in situations where recklessness could result in injury. Unfortunately, fear can also immobilize you. It can cause you to become so frightened that you fail to perform activities essential for survival.
Most people will have some degree of fear when placed in unfamiliar surroundings under adverse conditions. There is no shame in this! You must train yourself not to be overcome by your fears. Ideally, through realistic training, you can acquire the knowledge and skills needed to increase your confidence and thereby manage your fears. Associated with fear is anxiety. Because it is natural for you to be afraid, it is also natural for you to experience anxiety. Anxiety can be an uneasy, apprehensive feeling you get when faced with dangerous situations physical, mental, and emotional.
When used in a healthy way, anxiety can urge you to act to end, or at least master, the dangers that threaten your FM If you were never anxious, there would be little motivation to make changes in your life. In a survival setting you can reduce your anxiety by performing those tasks that will ensure you come through the ordeal alive.
As you reduce your anxiety, you also bring under control the source of that anxiety your fears. In this form, anxiety is good; however, anxiety can also have a devastating impact.
Anxiety can overwhelm you to the point where you become easily confused and have difficulty thinking. Once this happens, it will become increasingly difficult for you to make good judgments and sound decisions. To survive, you must learn techniques to calm your anxieties and keep them in the range where they help, not hurt. Frustration arises when you are continually thwarted in your attempts to reach a goal. The goal of survival is to stay alive until you can reach help or until help can reach you.
To achieve this goal, you must complete some tasks with minimal resources. It is inevitable, in trying to do these tasks, that something will go wrong; that something will happen beyond your control; and that with your life at stake, every mistake is magnified in terms of its importance. Thus, eventually, you will have to cope with frustration when a few of your plans run into trouble. One outgrowth of this frustration is anger. There are many events in a survival situation that can frustrate or anger you.
Getting lost, damaged or forgotten equipment, the weather, inhospitable terrain, enemy patrols, and physical limitations are just a few sources of frustration and anger. Frustration and anger generate impulsive reactions, irrational behavior, poorly thought-out decisions, and, in some instances, an I quit attitude people sometimes avoid doing something they cant master.
If you can harness and properly channel the emotional intensity associated with anger and frustration, you can productively act as you answer the challenges of survival.
If you do not properly focus your angry feelings, you can waste much energy in activities that do little to further either your chances of survival or the chances of those around you.
You would be a rare person indeed if you did not get sad, at least momentarily, when faced with the hardships of survival. As FM Depression is closely linked with frustration and anger. Frustration will cause you to become increasingly angry as you fail to reach your goals. If the anger does not help you succeed, then the frustration level goes even higher.
A destructive cycle between anger and frustration will continue until you become worn down physically, emotionally, and mentally. When you reach this point, you start to give up, and your focus shifts from What can I do to There is nothing I can do.
Depression is an expression of this hopeless, helpless feeling. There is nothing wrong with being sad as you temporarily think about your loved ones and remember what life is like back in civilization or the world. Such thoughts, in fact, can give you the desire to try harder and live one more day. On the other hand, if you allow yourself to sink into a depressed state, then it can sap all your energy and, more important, your will to survive.
It is imperative that you resist succumbing to depression. Man is a social animal. Human beings enjoy the company of others. Very few people want to be alone all the time! There is a distinct chance of isolation in a survival setting. Isolation is not bad. Loneliness and boredom can bring to the surface qualities you thought only others had.
The extent of your imagination and creativity may surprise you. When required to do so, you may discover some hidden talents and abilities. Most of all, you may tap into a reservoir of inner strength and fortitude you never knew you had. Conversely, loneliness and boredom can be another source of depression.
If you are surviving alone, or with others, you must find ways to keep your mind productively occupied. Additionally, you must develop a degree of selfsufficiency.
You must have faith in your capability to go it alone. GUILT The circumstances leading to your being in a survival setting are sometimes dramatic and tragic. It may be the result of an accident or military mission where there was a loss of life. Perhaps you were the only survivor or one of a few survivors.
While naturally relieved to be alive, you simultaneously may be mourning the deaths of others who were less fortunate. It is not uncommon for survivors to feel guilty about being spared from FM This feeling, when used in a positive way, has encouraged people to try harder to survive with the belief they were allowed to live for some greater purpose in life.
Sometimes, survivors tried to stay alive so that they could carry on the work of those killed. Whatever reason you give yourself, do not let guilt feelings prevent you from living. The living who abandon their chance to survive accomplish nothing. Such an act would be the greatest tragedy.
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Your mission in a survival situation is to stay alive. The assortment of thoughts and emotions you will experience in a survival situation can work for you, or they can work to your downfall. Fear, anxiety, anger, frustration, guilt, depression, and loneliness are all possible reactions to the many stressors common to survival.Many of these items are cheap to replace when damaged.
The following paragraphs describe how to treat airway, bleeding, and shock emergencies. Too much stress can take its toll on people and organizations. This feeling, when used in a positive way, has encouraged people to try harder to survive with the belief they were allowed to live for some greater purpose in life. You will face many stressors in a survival environment that ultimately will affect your mind.
You must also have and apply high personal hygiene standards. At temperatures below degrees Fahrenheit, drink one pint of water every hour.