Digital electronics: principles, devices, and applications / Anil Kumar Maini Digi. in the available books on the subject of digital Digital Electronics: Principles. PDF | On Jan 1, , D.K. Kaushik and others published Digital Electronics. The book Digital Electronics contains twelve chapters with comprehensive. I will highly recommend you to download the book Digital Electronics by Thomas -Floyd . It is very well written covering all different aspects needed for.
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Digital electronics is a very interesting subject, and here you will get a short description of top 6 books for digital electronics. these books are. Digital Electronics: Principles, Devices and Applications Anil K. Maini and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Foundation of Digital Electronics and Logic.
This book covers all the basic concepts very well. It is a book which is not only restricted to engineering students but anyone who has interest in digital electronics could read it. Here Language used is very simple and easy to understand. It not only tells about how to make an efficient circuit but also focuses on fault finding. This is a book which is followed in many colleges and universities throughout the world. There are many books of digital electronics but none can match this book.
It is a book with which you can make a wonderful start. In this book there is a perfect combination of everything theory, examples and exercises. Being an Indian writer, he used very simple language to explain everything.
He had teaching experience of almost 40 years so he explained everything very nicely keeping in mind that how much reader will grasp. More than sufficient examples are given in book which helps reader to get a clear concept about everything.
This is a perfect book for self-study. This book firstly deals with basic concepts and then takes the reader to another level. Then it covers topics like microcontrollers, integrated circuits etc. At the end of every chapter multiple choice questions are given which are of great help for those who are aspiring for competitive exam after B.
To read this book, you need to have an idea about electronics. It not only discusses about different concepts but also tells their application in practical world.
History[ edit ] The binary number system was refined by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published in and he also established that by using the binary system, the principles of arithmetic and logic could be joined.
Digital logic as we know it was the brain-child of George Boole in the mid 19th century. In an letter, Charles Sanders Peirce described how logical operations could be carried out by electrical switching circuits. Ludwig Wittgenstein introduced a version of the row truth table as proposition 5. Walther Bothe , inventor of the coincidence circuit , shared the Nobel Prize in physics, for the first modern electronic AND gate in Mechanical analog computers started appearing in the first century and were later used in the medieval era for astronomical calculations.
In World War II , mechanical analog computers were used for specialized military applications such as calculating torpedo aiming.
During this time the first electronic digital computers were developed. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers PCs. Finished in , it was the world's first working programmable , fully automatic digital computer. At the same time that digital calculation replaced analog, purely electronic circuit elements soon replaced their mechanical and electromechanical equivalents. The bipolar junction transistor was invented in From onwards, transistors replaced vacuum tubes in computer designs, giving rise to the "second generation" of computers.
Compared to vacuum tubes, transistors have many advantages: they are smaller, and require less power than vacuum tubes, so give off less heat.
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Silicon junction transistors were much more reliable than vacuum tubes and had longer, indefinite, service life. Transistorized computers could contain tens of thousands of binary logic circuits in a relatively compact space. At the University of Manchester , a team under the leadership of Tom Kilburn designed and built a machine using the newly developed transistors instead of vacuum tubes.
While working at Texas Instruments in July , Jack Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit then successfully demonstrated the first working integrated on 12 September In the early days of integrated circuits, each chip was limited to only a few transistors, and the low degree of integration meant the design process was relatively simple.
Manufacturing yields were also quite low by today's standards.
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As the technology progressed, millions, then billions  of transistors could be placed on one chip, and good designs required thorough planning, giving rise to new design methods. Properties[ edit ] An advantage of digital circuits when compared to analog circuits is that signals represented digitally can be transmitted without degradation caused by noise.
In a digital system, a more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using more binary digits to represent it. While this requires more digital circuits to process the signals, each digit is handled by the same kind of hardware, resulting in an easily scalable system.
In an analog system, additional resolution requires fundamental improvements in the linearity and noise characteristics of each step of the signal chain. With computer-controlled digital systems, new functions to be added through software revision and no hardware changes.
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Often this can be done outside of the factory by updating the product's software. So, the product's design errors can be corrected after the product is in a customer's hands. Information storage can be easier in digital systems than in analog ones.
The noise immunity of digital systems permits data to be stored and retrieved without degradation. In an analog system, noise from aging and wear degrade the information stored. In a digital system, as long as the total noise is below a certain level, the information can be recovered perfectly. Even when more significant noise is present, the use of redundancy permits the recovery of the original data provided too many errors do not occur.
In some cases, digital circuits use more energy than analog circuits to accomplish the same tasks, thus producing more heat which increases the complexity of the circuits such as the inclusion of heat sinks. In portable or battery-powered systems this can limit use of digital systems.
For example, battery-powered cellular telephones often use a low-power analog front-end to amplify and tune in the radio signals from the base station. However, a base station has grid power and can use power-hungry, but very flexible software radios. Such base stations can be easily reprogrammed to process the signals used in new cellular standards.
Many useful digital systems must translate from continuous analog signals to discrete digital signals. This causes quantization errors. Quantization error can be reduced if the system stores enough digital data to represent the signal to the desired degree of fidelity. The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem provides an important guideline as to how much digital data is needed to accurately portray a given analog signal. In some systems, if a single piece of digital data is lost or misinterpreted, the meaning of large blocks of related data can completely change.
For example, a single-bit error in audio data stored directly as linear pulse code modulation causes, at worst, a single click.
Instead, many people use audio compression to save storage space and download time, even though a single bit error may cause a larger disruption. Because of the cliff effect , it can be difficult for users to tell if a particular system is right on the edge of failure, or if it can tolerate much more noise before failing.
Digital fragility can be reduced by designing a digital system for robustness. For example, a parity bit or other error management method can be inserted into the signal path.
These schemes help the system detect errors, and then either correct the errors , or request retransmission of the data. A binary clock , hand-wired on breadboards A digital circuit is typically constructed from small electronic circuits called logic gates that can be used to create combinational logic. Each logic gate is designed to perform a function of boolean logic when acting on logic signals. A logic gate is generally created from one or more electrically controlled switches, usually transistors but thermionic valves have seen historic use.
The output of a logic gate can, in turn, control or feed into more logic gates. Another form of digital circuit is constructed from lookup tables, many sold as " programmable logic devices ", though other kinds of PLDs exist. Lookup tables can perform the same functions as machines based on logic gates, but can be easily reprogrammed without changing the wiring. This means that a designer can often repair design errors without changing the arrangement of wires.
Therefore, in small volume products, programmable logic devices are often the preferred solution. They are usually designed by engineers using electronic design automation software. Integrated circuits consist of multiple transistors on one silicon chip, and are the least expensive way to make large number of interconnected logic gates. Integrated circuits are usually interconnected on a printed circuit board which is a board which holds electrical components, and connects them together with copper traces.
Foundation of Digital Electronics and Logic Design
Design[ edit ] Engineers use many methods to minimize logic functions, in order to reduce the circuit's complexity. When the complexity is less, the circuit also has fewer errors and less electronics, and is therefore less expensive. The most widely used simplification is a minimization algorithm like the Espresso heuristic logic minimizer [ needs update ] within a CAD system, although historically, binary decision diagrams , an automated Quine—McCluskey algorithm , truth tables , Karnaugh maps , and Boolean algebra have been used.
When the volumes are medium to large, and the logic can be slow, or involves complex algorithms or sequences, often a small microcontroller is programmed to make an embedded system. These are usually programmed by software engineers. When only one digital circuit is needed, and its design is totally customized, as for a factory production line controller, the conventional solution is a programmable logic controller , or PLC.
These are usually programmed by electricians, using ladder logic.
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Representation[ edit ] Representations are crucial to an engineer's design of digital circuits. Some analysis methods only work with particular representations.Representation[ edit ] Representations are crucial to an engineer's design of digital circuits.
In a digital system, as long as the total noise is below a certain level, the information can be recovered perfectly. This makes the digital machine perform a "sequence" of operations. A comprehensive, must-read book on digital electronics for senior undergraduate and graduate students of electrical, electronics and computer engineering, and a valuable reference book for professionals and researchers.
Reviews "This book is a comprehensive work by the authors that provides an understanding of the basic principles of digital electronics and logic design. download them now!
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