CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS EBOOK

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Construction Materials Ebook

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CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING

Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Related titles Dedication Author Profiles Preface 1. Introduction 1. Background 1. Sustainable Construction Materials 1. Sewage Sludge Ash 1.

Layout and Contents 2. Methodology 2. Introduction 2. Sourcing and Appraisal of Literature 2. Building the Data Matrix 2. Analysis, Evaluation and Modelling of Data 2.

Dissemination 2. Conclusions 3. Sewage Sludge Ash Production 3.

Introduction 3. Sewage Sludge 3. Incineration 3. Phosphorus Recovery 3. Conclusions 4. Sewage Sludge Ash Characteristics 4. Introduction 4. Physical Characteristics 4. Chemical Characteristics 4. Engineering Characteristics 4. Conclusions 5.

Concrete-Related Applications 5. Introduction 5. Raw Feed in Cement Clinker Production 5.

Cement Component 5. Aggregate 5. Mortar and Concrete 5. Lightweight Aggregate Concrete 5.

The Construction Materials eBook Collection

Blocks 5. Aerated Concrete 5. Foamed Concrete 5. Controlled Low-Strength Materials 5. Environmental Assessment 5. Case Studies 5. Conclusions 6. Ceramic Applications 6. Introduction 6. Against this backdrop, ICCMATS was used as a platform for sharing of cutting-edge theories, techniques and scientific advances by some of the foremost scientists and researchers worldwide. The event provided insights for addressing issues of modern local infrastructure, and inspired future advancements, innovations and emerging researchers.

Consistent with the technical focus of the conference, high quality papers presented in these Proceedings covered a range of fields, categorized into nine 9 sub-topics and five 5 main themes viz. The acceptance of the papers for publishing in these Proceedings was based on the recommendations provided in the reviewer reports.

Sincere gratitude is due to the individual members of the ISC and all reviewers for their important contribution of ensuring the high quality of these Proceedings. The following organizations are gratefully acknowledged for their significant financial and technical support to the conference: On behalf of the Organising Committee, the Editors of the Proceedings wish to extend special thanks to all authors for the technical contribution of their high quality research, expertise and knowledge through these Proceedings.

In addition, the dilemmas of resource planning for participation in the conference, placed high demands on the authors; for which collective applause is in order for all authors who participated in the event. Finally, thanks are due to all members of the Conference Organizing Committee, the Conference Secretarial team, the Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment at the University of Johannesburg UJ , academic and technical staff of the UJ Department of Civil Engineering Science, partners from Harbin Institute of Technology, research students and all those who contributed to the running and success of the event.

It was a rewarding programme to all those involved, not excluding the wider scientific community. In that regard, this event's continuity into the future is anticipated.

Obtaining durability for a known service life in chloride exposures requires knowledge of the concrete properties, relevant transport processes, depth of cover as well as minimization of cracking and construction defects.

For example, imperfect curing can result in depth-dependent effects on resistance to chloride ingress. Several service life models with various levels of sophistication exist for prediction of time-to-corrosion of concrete structures exposed to chlorides.

The model inputs have uncertainty associated with them such as boundary conditions level of saturation and temperature , cover depths, diffusion coefficients, time-dependent changes, and rates of buildup of chlorides at the surface.

The performance test methods used to obtain predictive model inputs as well as how models handle these properties have a dramatic impact on predicted service lives. Very few models deal with the influence of cracks or the fact that concrete in the cover zone will almost certainly have a higher diffusion coefficient than the bulk concrete as the result of imperfect curing or compaction.

While many models account for variability in input properties, they will never be able to account for extremes in construction defects. Therefore, to ensure the reliability of service life predictions and to attain a concrete structure that achieves its predicted potential, designers, contractors and suppliers need to work together to ensure proper detailing, minimize defects, and adopt adequate, yet achievable, curing procedures.

As well, concrete structures are often exposed to other destructive elements in addition to chlorides eg frost, ASR and this adds another level of complexity since regardless of cause, cracks will accelerate the ingress of chlorides. These issues are discussed along with the need to use performance-based specifications together with predictive models.

Bibliographic Information

Research and applications of nanoparticles in concrete materials are rapidly increasing because fundamental properties of concrete such as rheology, strength, transport properties, fracture behavior, etc. Use of nanomaterials in concrete can also enhance sustainability and reduce negative environmental impact through reduction in cement use, energy and natural material consumptions during production and service.

In this paper, the needs and opportunities of use of nanoparticle modified concrete are highlighted. The challenges in nanoparticle processing such as dispersion and stabilization are addressed.

Recent developments in characterization methods such as Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation, modulus mapping, peak-force quantitative nanomechanical mapping and atomic force microscopy are reviewed. Effects of nanoparticles such as nanosilica, nanolimestone and nanoclay on concrete rheology, hydration, microstructure development, mechanical properties, and durability are discussed.

In current seismic design, structures are typically assumed to be fixed at the base. Separation at the base during earthquakes is thus avoided, in order to avoid the possibility instability or even overturning.

In contrast to this conventional approach, the structures described in this paper subscribe to a low-damage design philosophy in which the structures are indeed allowed to move and uplift while responding to earthquake loading.

Whenever there is partial separation of the structure from the supporting ground, earthquake energy induced into the structure will be temporarily cut off. Consequently, the structures experience less loading and less or even zero damage can be anticipated.

This paper presents an overview of current research on innovative seismic design approaches that could be implemented in low-damage earthquake-resistant structures of the future. Severe plastic deformation emerged as new processing to fabricate ultrafine grain metallic materials with a grain size under one micron meter, or nanocrytalline metals in a bulk form. It was found that such ultrafine grain UFG and nanocrystalline metals have superior mechanical properties with high strength and relatively high ductility as well as corrosion properties.

Thermal stress development in concrete structures is significantly influenced by the coefficient of thermal expansion CTE of concrete. Optimizing concrete CTE can reduce the thermal stress, which will eventually reduce the cracking potential of concrete structures. At early age, when concrete has low strength, it is much more vulnerable to cracking.

Early-age cracking has a detrimental effect on the durability of concrete structures. This study presents the importance of concrete CTE on the thermal stress development in concrete structures as well as three techniques to reduce the CTE of concrete. Concrete CTE can also be reduced by reducing cement paste volume. However, if the cement paste reduction increases the void content in the concrete system, saturated concrete CTE is likely to increase.

In an attempt to address future construction requirements a clear focus is necessary on development of new technologies addressing the need for safer and more cost-effective infrastructure. The paper aims to summarise the current state-of-the-art on application of superabsorbent polymers SAP in cementitious composites as internal curing agents.

The effect of SAP type, cement type and fly ash content on performance of cement mortars is briefly discussed. In this paper, a summary of analytical and experimental studies into the behavior of a new hysteretic damper, designed for seismic protection of structures is presented. The Multi-directional Torsional Hysteretic Damper MTHD is a recently-patented invention in which a symmetrical arrangement of identical cylindrical steel cores is so configured as to yield in torsion while the structure experiences planar movements due to earthquake shakings.

The new device has certain desirable properties. Notably, it is characterized by a variable and controllable-via-design post-elastic stiffness.

The mentioned property is a result of MTHD's kinematic configuration which produces this geometric hardening, rather than being a secondary large-displacement effect. Additionally, the new system is capable of reaching high force and displacement capacities, shows high levels of damping, and very stable cyclic response. The device has gone through many stages of design refinement, multiple prototype verification tests and development of design guidelines and computer codes to facilitate its implementation in practice.

Practicality of the new device, as offspring of an academic sphere, is assured through extensive collaboration with industry in its final design stages, prototyping and verification test programs. Analytical and experimental progress made so far in this on-going research is summarized in this paper.

Despite the relatively well-established concrete practice in the East African region, there are frequent incidents of construction failures, resulting into heavy loss of lives and property. The main objective of this paper was to examine structures that have failed during the construction phase, in East Africa, since the start of the 21 st century; identify and discuss the primary causes and sources of failures.

A classic failure case of building collapse, herein referred to as BBJ building, has been used to examine the most important issues related to construction failures. Following the analysis of reports of technical investigations undertaken on the collapsed structure, it was found that failures in reinforced concrete RC structures during construction, result from five primary causes of: Secondary issues that are complicit to construction failures are: It is evident that construction failures can be minimized if the right procedures are followed in the design, construction and operation of the structures; a matter that is of interest to stakeholders of the Built Environment.

Ultra high performance concrete UHPC is a a composite material that consists of Portland cement, silica fume, ultra-fine quartz powder, superplasticizer and small sized steel fibers with low water to binder ratio and absence of coarse aggregates.

Compared to conventional concrete, UHPC has superior properties such as strength, toughness and durability. In this paper, the principles for mixture design and properties including mechanical properties, dimensional stability and durability of UHPC were reviewed. Various wastes and by-product materials are generated in the Middle East including reclaimed asphalt pavement RAP aggregate, demolition concrete, excavation waste, steel and aluminum slags, cement by-pass dust CBPD , copper slag, petroleum-contaminated soils PCS , waste tires, incinerator ash, and others.

Recycling of such materials for road construction is not practiced. Research data and field studies on the potential use of selected materials in road construction applications are limited. This paper presents an overview of the different waste materials generated in many countries in the Middle East, their potential applications in road construction and the impediments to recycling initiatives.

Representative results of several laboratory studies on the use of PCS in asphalt concrete mixtures; the utilization of CBPD in soil stabilization; and the recycling of RAP aggregates in road bases and sub-bases will be presented. The Laboratory data indicated that it is feasible to partially reuse some of these materials in road construction provided that economic incentives and environmental concerns are taken into consideration.

High alumina cements are widely used in refractory industry, mainly for the manufacture of refractory concrete. It is known fact that from the components of refractory concrete, high alumina cement is the fondant component of the system due to the lower melting point of the mineralogical compounds contained, compare to the refractory aggregates used. To improve the behaviour at high temperature of high alumina cement, we will try to obtain high alumina cements based on calcium-aluminates compounds with higher refractory toward the usual high alumina cement based on monocalcium monoaluminate and dicalcium monoaluminate.

However, because with the improvement of refractoriness of calcium-aluminates compounds form high alumina cement, the hydraulically properties decrees, we will try to increase the hydraulically properties with an accelerator additive, such as calcium sulphoaluminate.

This paper aims to present the structural and mechanical behaviour of high alumina additivated cement based on high mineralogical refractory compounds such as dicalcium monoaluminate and monocalcium hexa aluminate in comparison with the usual high alumina cement, at normal temperature and after treatment at high temperature heat, too.

This paper investigated the suitability of the use of borrow pit sand locally known as Obimo sand in structural concrete. It was found out that the specimens fall within the acceptable limits of fine aggregates for structural concrete works given in both IS: The chemical composition obtained by elemental analysis using X-ray florescence spectrometry proved Obimo sand samples free of sulfate and saline contents.

Also the concrete made from the WOS gave 6. Specifically, the compressive strength ranged from Conclusively, a cost analysis carried out showed a reduction of 1. For the last decades, concrete materials and technology have been widely developing in many ways in order to achieve an economic and high quality product. But from the other hand concrete offersa wide range of capabilities to achieve a good balance between human needs and earth's capacity which is known as the sustainability.

Two stage concrete TSC known sometimes as preplaced aggregate concrete PAC is a relatively as a new concrete type which has ability to satisfy the requirements of performance and sustainability.

Its main concept depends on pre-packing the coarse aggregates in the formwork, then injecting cement mortar grout into the voids in between the aggregates. This low percentage of voids should have a positive impact on the concrete properties both on short and long term basis. The behaviour of TSC in compression has been well documented, but there are little published data on its behaviour in tension and modulus of elasticity.

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This paper presents results of experimental testing of TSC made with two types of coarse aggregates and three different mix proportions of grout. It was found that the modulus of elasticity of two-stage concrete is equivalent or higher than that of conventional concrete for the same compressive strength. Relationships of stress versus strain and modulus of elasticity versus compressive strength were statistically derived and elaborated.

The aim of this study was to find a new method for usage of the hazardous waste coming from the aluminium scrap recycling factories. It is generally considered that non-metallic residues NMR are process waste and subject to disposal after residual metal has been recovered from primary dross. NMR are impurities, which are removed from the molten metal in the process of dross recycling, and it could be defined as a hazardous waste product.

Processing of NMR created in the aluminium scrap recycling companies is one of the most challenging tasks due to its toxic nature - in accordance with the Basel Convention, Annex III, marking of this waste is H 4. The new alkali activated materials, which could be defined as porous building materials, were created by using calcined illite clay from local site and NMR.

Physical and thermal properties of the obtained materials were tested. The compressive strength of the materials was in range from 1. The thermal conductivity of porous alkali activated building materials was between 0.

Steel fibers have been used worldwide to enhance properties of concrete but have not yet gained popularity in Pakistan. An experimental study was conducted to study the mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete that would lead to recommendation for possible use in Pakistan. Steel fibers conforming to recommendations of ACI Committee were used with cement, sand and silica fume to cast samples for testing.

Three different mixes were made with 2.This study presents the importance of concrete CTE on the thermal stress development in concrete structures as well as three techniques to reduce the CTE of concrete. Unbound Applications 8. Compared to conventional concrete, UHPC has superior properties such as strength, toughness and durability. The Proceedings of this conference contain about two hundred peer-reviewed papers from fifty-one countries, making this a truly international event.

Ravindra Kumar Dhir OBE is an honorary professor of concrete engineering, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom; adjunct professor at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, and emeritus professor of concrete technology, University of Dundee, United Kingdom, where he held the position of founding director of the Concrete Technology Unit and developed it into an internationally acknowledged Centre of Excellence. Hardcover ISBN: Updating Results.

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