articulating a particular point of view. Chetan Bhagat's books do both and more. - A.R. Rahman, in TIME magazine, on Che.  CCNP TSHOOT Quick Reference CHAPTER 1 by Brent Stewart Maintenance Chapter 1 Maintenance Maintenance might seem separate from the . This book is designed to provide information about the CCNP TSHOOT Exam ( Exam ) for the. CCNP Routing and Switching certification. Every effort has.
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CCNP TSHOOT Lab bestthing.info Uploaded by Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for .. PaloAlto Training print pdf. Uploaded. CCNP TSHOOT OFFICIAL CERTIFICATION GUIDE wp1-nyc. bestthing.info ccnp tshoot pdf. Search for and download any torrent from the. ccnp tshoot pdf. Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks ( TSHOOT) Foundation Learning Guide: Foundation learning for the CCNP.
You need to take the exam to find that out for yourself. There you can find out other exam details such as exam topics and how to register for an exam.
The strategy you use to prepare for the TSHOOT exam might be slightly different than strategies used by other readers, mainly based on the skills, knowledge, and experience you have already obtained. For example, if you have attended the TSHOOT course, you might take a different approach than someone who learned troubleshooting through onthe-job training.
Regardless of the strategy you use or the background you have, this book is designed to help you get to the point where you can pass the exam with the least amount of time required.
How This Book Is Organized Although this book can be read cover to cover, it is designed to be flexible and enable you to easily move between chapters to cover only the material that you need more work with.
The chapters can be covered in any order, although some chapters are related and build upon each other. If you do intend to read them all, the order in the book is an excellent sequence to use. Also discussed in this chapter is a collection of commonly used maintenance approaches.
Next, this chapter lists common maintenance tasks, emphasizes the importance of regularly scheduled maintenance, and summarizes critical areas of network performance. Finally, this chapter identifies how to compile a set of network maintenance tools that complement your network maintenance plan.
Also discussed is each subprocess in a structured troubleshooting approach. Finally, this chapter shows how maintenance processes and troubleshooting process can work in tandem to complement one another. Also, this chapter introduces spanning tree protocol STP , which allows a Layer 2 topology to have redundant links while avoiding the side effects of a looped Layer 2 topology, such as a broadcast storm. You then learn strategies for troubleshooting an STP issue. Finally, troubleshooting an EtherChannel connection is addressed.
This chapter concludes with a trouble ticket and an associated topology. You are also given show command output baseline output and output collected after the reported issue occurred. Based on the information provided, you hypothesize an underlying cause for the reported issue and develop a solution.
You can then compare your solution with a suggested solution. Troubleshooting procedures are also compared for these platforms. Two approaches for routing packets using Layer 3 switches are also discussed. These approaches are using routed ports and using switched virtual interfaces SVIs.
Next, this chapter discusses three approaches to providing first-hop router redundancy. Examined next is the architecture of a Cisco Catalyst switch and the different architectural components that could become troubleshooting targets.
Finally, this chapter presents you with a trouble ticket and an associated topology. You are also given show and debug command output baseline output and output collected after a reported issue occurred.
You see how Layer 2 information can be learned and stored in a router. Additionally, you are presented with a collection of show commands, useful for troubleshooting IP routing. Again, you are presented with a collection of show and debug commands useful for troubleshooting various EIGRP operations. Finally, this chapter challenges you with a trouble ticket and an associated topology. You are also given show command output.
You are then presented with a collection of show and debug commands useful for troubleshooting OSPF operations.
This chapter next presents you with a trouble ticket and an associated topology. Based on the information provided, you hypothesize an underlying cause for the reported issues and develop solutions.
You can then compare your solutions with the suggested solutions. This chapter also introduces the concept of route redistribution and discusses how a route from one routing process can be injected into a different routing process. Common route redistribution troubleshooting targets are identified, along with strategies for troubleshooting route redistribution. Finally, this chapter challenges you with another trouble ticket and an associated topology. You are then presented with a collection of show and debug commands useful for troubleshooting BGP operations.
You are given show command output.
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Finally, this chapter discusses how to troubleshoot performance issues on a router, focusing on CPU utilization, packet-switching modes, and memory utilization. SNMP is set up by identifying a server and listing the events to be monitored.
If snmp-server enable traps is used without specifying specific events, all traps are monitored: config snmp-server host [ip-address] config snmp-server enable traps EEM enables custom reactions to events and acts as a supplement to SNMP.
A simple example EEM applet is shown next. Authorized access only. Movement to consolidate networks has collapsed storage and virtualization, and telephony has put more traffic on Ethernet. Poor forwarding performance on switches is usually associated with cabling and port problems, duplex mismatch, or TCAM issues. Problems at the physical layer can be seen from show interface, show interface counters and show interface counters errors.
Look for the following errors: Align-Err, runts: Alignment errors are usually associated with cabling, NICs, or duplex mismatch.
Commonly associated with switching a faster link to a slower link. Cisco has built in a SLA monitoring tool that can make availability statistics known and monitored for critical links and servers.
It is quite useful for critical traffic real-time monitoring and notification. Frequently these statistics are run as a continuous background process between CE nodes between sites, if remote connectivity between critical traffic endpoints is a business driver.
Maximize performance and availability; minimize cost, and time-to-repair. This chapter focuses on minimizing time-to-repair. The time it takes to restore functionality is predicated on two things: The previous chapter spoke about the elements of preparation, such as documentation and scheduled preventative maintenance.
This chapter focuses on the techniques that you can apply to minimize downtime. Many approaches and different approaches might be successful in specific situations.
The test does advocate a structured approach to troubleshooting, based on the scientific method. Each of the troubleshooting practices described in this chapter assume that good documentation exists and that appropriate tools are available.
Principles The scientific method is commonly described as a six-step process: Define the problem. Gather information.
Test hypothesis. Analyze test. Interpret results and, if necessary, generate a new hypothesis. The first step—problem description—is usually accomplished when a user reports a problem. You can determine symptoms by talking to the user, by personal observation, or by referring to management systems such as Netflow, Syslog, and SNMP monitors.
When you have an adequate description of the problem, you can form a hypothesis.
A hypothesis is a hypothetical potential problem whose symptoms would be similar. The hypothesis should commonly suggest a way to prove or disprove itself. For instance, if you suspect that the WAN connection is down, looking at the interface status or pinging a remote device would test that theory.
Test results will either support or refute a theory. For example, ping might be used to test a WAN connection. A ping timeout cannot, by itself, be considered definitive. The target might be shut down or have a firewall that drops ICMP. Test results should be confirmed through a number of different lines of evidence. If the tests contradict the hypothesis, start over with a new theory. After a hypothesis is accepted as a reasonable explanation, you can take action to fix the problem.
Of course, any action is another type of test. Structured Troubleshooting The term structured troubleshooting describes any systematic way of collecting information, forming a hypothesis, and testing. In a structured approach, each unsuccessful test rules out entire classes of possible solutions and gracefully suggests the next hypothesis.
An unstructured—random—approach usually takes much longer and is less likely to be successful. Start at the OSI application layer and drill down.
Start with the OSI physical layer and work up. Start at the network layer and follow the evidence, developing specific tests of each hypothesis. Understand the order of operations within each device to do this. Compare the configuration to an older version or to that of a similar device. Diff and WinDiff are tools that make this comparison easy. Swap components to see if the problem moves with a device. Two troubleshooting tactics need special mention.
Most technicians build up a reservoir of experience, which gives them an intuition about the solution to a given problem. This thinking is a logical error: Sometimes this does provide a clue, but large networks have many things happening contemporaneously every second. This troubleshooting method can easily provide a false lead.
The Troubleshooting Method Troubleshooting a network falls into a series of steps that mirror the scientific method. The first step in troubleshooting is to define the problem. Always start the troubleshooting process by gathering a detailed description of the problem. Ask questions to gather details, such as the names and locations of affected devices.
One good way to gather details is to ask about how the problem can be duplicated. What is the scope? What other devices or locations are affected? When did it start?
How can you test the problem? As information is gathered, one or more theories might begin to form. Develop tests that confirm or refute the theories, and work to find the root cause. Tests can be as simple as pings or as complex as implementing a configuration change; the tests should be aimed at separating valid theories.
When the testing process is complete, take a moment to consider the results. Do the results suggest a configuration or hardware change?
Is the problem resolved? If not, reconsider the problem description and the original hypothesis. Either the problem was not completely and accurately described, or the hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be revisited. The state of the network and the problem resolution need to be communicated, and documentation might need to be updated. Past these obvious steps, consider whether the problem found can be in other parts of the network. If the problem were in the configuration, think through the configuration template used in your network and determine if the fix needs to be repeated preemptively on other devices.
The important points here are to work logically and methodically, and to view each problem as an opportunity to perfect the larger network. Integrating Troubleshooting into Maintenance Every interaction with the network is an opportunity to learn. Smart organizations capture information learned to solve similar problems and to help understand the network in the future.
Change control and documentation are the two principal ways that feedback from network changes is incorporated into the maintenance cycle, as shown in Figure Troubleshooting identifies the corrective action to upgrade or repair the network. Throughout these processes, a regular communication with end users is critical to understand the problem and to gather feedback on the solution.
Communication with end users, within the team, and with management is pervasive throughout the cycle. The change-control process is a formal communication process for requesting and receiving permission.
Change control provides an opportunity for management and peers to be aware and consent to the proposed change. The change process encourages the network technician to take a deliberate and thoughtful approach.
Finally, the change process creates a record of the change that can be incorporated in documentation. After a change is made and an issue is resolved, updating documentation must be seen as a part of the clean-up process. Most organizations have records including IPs, inventory, configurations, and topology; changes need to be added to these records.
If the change is sufficiently broad, it might also need to be incorporated into standards and templates so that other devices can be preemptively upgraded. As records and standards change, team members need to be educated on the changes. A number of tools can compile baseline data and monitor the network continuously. A baseline is a reading of the critical parameters of the network such as latency and utilization over a period of time. The baseline serves as a record of normal behavior to help identify how performance has changed.
Updating baseline information is part of the documentation process. Think about troubleshooting as a holistic process. Approach each issue with a rational evidence-based philosophy, make thoughtful changes, and communicate with all the invested groups often.
Understanding the capabilities of the operating system and how to use them effectively can reduce time-to-repair and the stress of a network outage. Many people are not familiar with the filtering techniques that enable a troubleshooter to quickly focus.
Some of these filters are command-specific. Consider show ip route, which is a familiar command. When used, this command shows a complete routing table as shown here: Foard-rtr01 show ip route Codes: One way to summarize this information is to ask for a summary using show ip route summary.
Specifying an address, mask, and the keyword longer-prefixes asks for anything that matches the prefix or any routes contained within the prefix.
The following example shows all the more-specific routes contained within the Foard-rtr01 show ip route Generic filters can also be applied to all show commands. Show process cpu, which might be used to look for runaway processes, can be used as an example. First, an example portion of output is shown: Foard-rtr01 show process cpu CPU utilization for five seconds: Output is matched against a regular expression. Following is a table of common regular expression characters.
Any character Ethernet. Foard-rtr01 show process cpu include IP Input 87 58 0. In the following example, piping to begin starts the output at the telnet ports. This is a lot easier that using the space key to work through a large configuration: Foard-rtr01 show running-configuration begin vty line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 20 0 password 7 CD logging synchronous transport input ssh transport output telnet ssh line vty 5 15 exec-timeout 20 0 password 7 CD logging synchronous transport input ssh transport output telnet ssh!
Piping output can be a great way to focus on relevant details, but show running-configuration section is a lot to type, particularly repeatedly. The alias command can make this easier. In configuration mode, create a shortened version of a command as shown next. Type srs vty to see the same output as the example. In the preceding example, piping to begin also includes all the text after the part of interest. Piping to section shows the indented commands under a line that matches the regular expression.
In the following example, the sections found under the keyword vty are shown: Foard-rtr01 show running-config section vty line vty 0 4 exec-timeout 20 0 password 7 CD logging synchronous transport input ssh transport output telnet ssh line vty 5 15 exec-timeout 20 0 password 7 B1ED2B2C2B logging synchronous transport input ssh transport output telnet ssh The pipe symbol is also used as an OR within a regular expression, as shown in the next examples.
Normally, show ip interface brief summarizes all the interfaces found on a router.
Some routers have a large number of interfaces, making even this simplified display cumbersome. In the following text, some of the interfaces are grouped into multilinks and others are turned off.
Finding the detail you need is complicated by the long and confusing output: In configuration mode, create a shortened version of a command as shown here. Redirecting output enables an administrator to collect information for archiving or to share with other troubleshooters and save it as a text file. Redirect just creates the file, whereas tee also displays the content in session. Any filesystem supported by that router is supported, so output can be pointed at flash, tftp, ftp, http, and other destinations.
The syntax to use this function is Show command redirect file Show command tee file The next examples show the running configuration being piped to TFTP. In the first example, the output is redirected. The second example tees the output so that it builds the TFTP file and displays on screen. Foard-rtr01 show running-configuration redirect tftp: Building configuration Current configuration: Ping tests connectivity and is so commonly used that even end users are passingly familiar with it.
A ping response shows that a working path between two end points exists.
CCNP TSHOOT 642-832 Official Certification Guide - Pearsoncmg
End systems sometimes have firewalls that prevent response, but generally ping is a reasonable first test of network connectivity: Foard-rtr01 ping First, pay attention to the pattern of the response. Alternating success and failure!.!.! Second, pay attention to the response time. Many applications depend on quick response. Voice, for instance, assumes a round-trip time of less than ms. The response time can also clue the troubleshooter to utilization issues. If the response time is much larger than usual that might indicate a heavy traffic load and queuing.
If you notice that the minimum and maximum times vary widely, this could also be a sign of queuing because of a heavy load. Ping can do a lot more than that simple test, however.
Privileged mode supports an extended ping that enables every aspect of ping to be controlled. This opens up many more tests that can be accomplished with the humble command. The following example below an extended ping. Notice that the command ping—with no destination specified—is entered in privileged mode. The example sends five pings of bytes, then five of bytes, continuing to byte pings. The DF bit do not fragment is set. A more detailed explanation of the command is found after the example: Foard-rtr01 ping Protocol [ip]: Target IP address: Datagram size : Timeout in seconds : Extended commands [n]: Data pattern [0xABCD]: Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]: Sweep range of sizes [n]: Sending 75, [ Packet sent with a source address of Selecting all the defaults is similar to a normal ping.
Sometimes testing involves repeatedly pinging for instance, when you believe that an interface is flapping up and down. An extended ping with a repeat count of can be used to interactively test the network over a period of time. Pings can be set to different packet sizes through the Datagram Size variable. The router can automate testing a range of sizes.
To do so, use the extended commands and choose to sweep a range of sizes. If a router is asked to forward a packet that is larger than the MTU of the transmitting link, the router normally breaks the packet into smaller pieces.
Setting the DF bit instructs receiving routers to discard the traffic rather than fragment it. When the MTU limit is reached, all subsequent pings will be dropped. Pings are normally sourced from the transmitting interface. Using an internal interface as the source shows that the receiving device and the intermediate routers understand how to route back to that prefix.
A final idea is to try different Type of Service settings. Many networks now carry voice, video, and prioritized data. Like ping, there is an extended version of traceroute. It has a few of the same capabilities, with one other significant testing ability. This can be used to test application performance for applications that use UDP, such as voice. This is important when trying to diagnose the affects of firewalls and access-lists.
An example extended traceroute is shown next. The only choice specified in the example is to use UDP port Newton-rtr01 traceroute Protocol [ip]: Numeric display [n]: Timeout in seconds : Probe count : Minimum Time to Live : Maximum Time to Live : Port Number : Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to Telnet does not offer many options, but by changing the target port, different network services can be tested. The following examples show that email and the web server respond on the appropriate ports: Foard-rtr01 telnet www.
Open www. Fri, 4 Sep Several commands describe the functional state of an IOS device. If network hardware is suspected, a good place to start troubleshooting is to understand the external environment. The show environment all command displays information about the temperature within the device and the state of the power supplies.
Especially when troubleshooting remotely it is easy to forget power and air conditioning, but problems in either area can lead to device malfunction: Unit is on. Temperature readings: Of course, this information is much more useful if obtained before a problem occurs and connectivity drops! By comparing the inventory to previous inventories, it is possible to recognize differences caused, presumably, by hardware failure.
If the organization has a Cisco SmartNet maintenance contract, the serial number and part-number information is necessary to obtain spares: Foard-rtr01 show inventory NAME: V03 , SN: V01 , SN: A lack of memory can also cause a network issue.
The show memory command displays the state of memory on a device; focus on the Free column to determine if enough is available.
Show controller can show some information about the interface—serial interfaces in particular report things such as cable information here. Show interface shown next displays a good deal of information about the state of the interface.See the "Recommended Study Resources" section of this article for a link to this topology.
Verify that defined neighbors are reachable using ping and that they are neighbors by reviewing show ip bgp neighbors. In both cases, show ip cef shows the cef forwarding table, and show adjacency shows the Layer 2 headers used in forwarding. Some amount of drops is excusable, but drops could be related to CPU oversaturation.
Foard-rtr01 show ip route Ping can do a lot more than that simple test, however. Poor forwarding performance on switches is usually associated with cabling and port problems, duplex mismatch, or TCAM issues.
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