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Additionally, superintendents may issue, within formal delegations of authority, park-specific instructions, procedures, directives, and other supplementary guidance such as hours of operation or dates for seasonal openings , provided the guidance does not conflict with Service-wide policy. However, the key of every structure and strategy is not how detailed it is presented and articulated, but how it is implemented.

Implementation is the process which makes it possible to transform plans and strategies into practicable, feasible assignments guaranteeing the successful meeting of the aims. For such sites including National Parks there are requirements for two types of reports: - Reactive reports that are initiated when a threat to National Park values is identified, and - Systematic or periodic reports that routinely assess and report on aspects of management of National Park properties.

Currently, most reporting has been in relation to reactive monitoring of properties under threat. But there is a further need to improve the nature and extent of periodic reporting in National Parks. Programming problems identification and priority setting ; 2. Adaptive management use of performance information to improve management ; and 3. Accountability reporting on activities and performance.

Mixed or diffuse information can lead to completely different results. The result of the whole process heavily depends on the interpretation of the starting situation.

The information resources for all the National Parks exist in a variety of different media, including paper records, electronic documents, maps, databases, photography, video and audio. For an effective management of this information, it is necessary to implement professional quality programs to preserve, manage, and integrate these resources, and to make them accessible.

Since National Parks are "public domain" all information about the parks is presumed to be accessible and available to anyone interested. The NPS is even committed to the widest possible sharing and availability of knowledge, and to fostering discussion about the National Park System and the national experiences and values they represent.

The only exceptions to information sharing are where disclosure could jeopardize specific park resources or donor agreements, or violate legal or confidentiality requirements. The managers of the US National Parks are committed to take systematic and proactive measures to: - develop and implement appropriate, cost-effective management controls for results-oriented management, - assess the adequacy of management controls in federal programs and operations, - identify needed improvements, - take corresponding corrective action, and - report annually on management controls.

On the other hand, the NPS as a higher department has implemented systems of controls to ensure that the programs achieve their intended results, that the resources are used consistent with the NPS mission, and that the programs and resources are protected from fraud, waste, abuse, or mismanagement. Additionally, the NPS ensures that laws and regulations are followed by all park agencies, and that reliable and timely information is obtained, maintained, reported, and used for decision-making.

As the business system for the NPS, performance management has to set goals and track accomplishments. For this scope, Service-wide strategic plans, annual performance plans, and annual performance reports are prepared, distributed, used, and analyzed for management accountability.

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To improve conservation and management effectiveness of protected areas several principles must be considered: - Assessment or evaluation systems should aim to be participatory at all stages of the process and should seek to involve all relevant organizations and individuals that may have an interest in the management and use of a site.

The results should be easily accessible to all interested parties. Issues should be divided between those that are within and outside a manager's control. Assessment is likely to include both quantitative and qualitative information that should be supported by measurement or other evidence. For such an widespread adoption of a management effectiveness evaluation system, several requirements should be met: - Awareness of the need for evaluation of management performance for protected areas.

In general, systems should either include outcomes or recommend a strategy to collect data to measure outcomes in the future. Outcomes do not only measure management impacts but also other factors visitor impact, pollution, natural factors, legislative factors, funding, etc. The assessment system should be attempting to link outcomes with management actions and with other influencing factors.

This framework has not been tested yet and it is therefore not predictable if it is actually compatible in reality. This means that there is no implementation strategy, also due to the different circumstances in the several National Parks. However, the main work of such guidelines is their actual implementation.

The best strategy is worthless if not transferred into reality. Accordingly, the most essential aim of this project must be to demonstrate to site managers the benefits and application of monitoring and evaluation. A methodological procedure for national park management effectiveness evaluation can be as follow: 1.

Identify areas to be evaluated 2. Select neutral agent or facilitator and form a core group assisted by specialists who know the methodology, park staff and community representatives 3. Collect primary and secondary information Make charts; review bibliography; field visits; interviews 4. Select variables, sub-variables and determine their place within the fields Workshop with core group and community representatives 5.

Establish evaluation criteria, structure of conditions and development of scenarios Workshop with core group and community representatives 6. Identify and rate current situation 7. Integrate results and interpretation in terms of Management Effectiveness Indicators to evaluate effective protected area management are given in several fields of a National Park.

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As an example there is listed below the administrative field with its variables and sub-variables: Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten Table 1: Basic indicators to evaluate effective protected area management[16] This administrative field with its variables and sub-variables and all other fields concerning a National Park, such as policies, planning, information, management programs, legal and illegal uses, biogeographical characteristics or threats, can be evaluated as suggested in points 1 to 7 above.

Consequently, it should be possible for the national park management to see how effective their work is, which points need improvement and to this way ensure the area's viability. The NPS has designated for this scope a general management planning, which each of America's National Parks has to develop periodically, and also the more specific strategic planning, implementation planning, and annual performance planning and reporting. All these elements will be interrelated in a single framework for planning and decision-making.

Within this framework, actions will relate directly to goals, and goals will relate directly to the mission of the park.

The park's mission includes each park's purpose and significance, based on the park's enabling legislation or Presidential proclamation, and any laws and Executive orders that are relevant to the National Park System or to the individual park unit. The goals of each park articulate the ideals that the NPS hopes to achieve in each parks. Annual goals and work plans will relate to long-term five-year goals, while long-term goals will relate to the park's mission, management prescriptions, and the broadest decisions about what the Service ultimately hopes to achieve.

The purpose of each GMP is to ensure that the park has a clearly defined direction for resource preservation and visitor use. This should be the basic foundation for decision-making. Each GMP is developed by an interdisciplinary team, including park managers and technical experts, in consultation with relevant offices within the NPS, other federal and state agencies, other interested parties, and the general public.

General management planning will constitute the first phase of rowed planning and decision-making. It will focus on why the park was established, and what management prescriptions i. The GMP focuses on the overall view. It considers the park in its full ecological, scenic, and cultural context as part of a surrounding region. The GMP will also establish a common management direction for all park divisions and districts. This integration will help avoid unintentionally creating new problems in one area while attempting to solve problems in another.

The plan is intended to provide a foundation to help park managers guide park programs and set priorities. The alternative that is finally chosen as the plan will guide the management of Zion National Park over the next 20 years. Under this alternative, park managers would not undertake any new construction projects or make any major changes in managing visitor use as an example for a management field.

Variational Analysis

Three action alternatives would create zones within the park to protect resources and provide opportunities for a range of visitor experiences. All three action alternatives limit park visitation in some backcountry areas, although many of these areas are inaccessible anyway due to their steep topography.

In addition, all of the action alternatives call for adjustments to the park boundaries.

The preferred alternative would emphasize proactive management to address impacts caused by increased visitor use. Under this alternative, a range of quality visitor experiences would continue to be provided but visitor numbers may be limited or reduced in parts of the recommended wilderness.

A few new visitor facilities would be built in frontcountry areas. Alternative A would provide greater opportunities for increased use of Zion. Access would be improved inside the park by upgrading or building trails and designating new routes.


Additional picnic areas, interpretive facilities, and backcountry campsites also would be provided. Alternative B emphasizes the additional protection of park resources while still providing opportunities for a range of visitor experiences.

Under alternative B, the number and frequency of shuttles the free shuttle system was established in when the visitation was 2. Alternative A would provide for greater visitor use than today, but would also have the most negative impacts on natural resources. Alternative B would provide the greater protection of natural resources, but would have the most negative impacts on visitor use.

Since most parks have different extended sensitive natural areas, in each park these areas must be defined and protected properly. For this purpose, latest techniques such as digital satellite maps and digital aerial photographs are used, as in most Austrian National Parks as well.

In addition, after the executed zoning, the several different prescriptions for resource condition, visitor experience, and appropriate management activities can be adapted for the park. For example, highly sensitive natural areas might tolerate little, if any, visitor use, while other areas may accommodate a much higher level of use.

Involving the public in the GMP is seen as an essential measure. Members of the public - including existing and potential visitors, park neighbors, park inhabitants, concessionaires, cooperating associations, scientists, scholars, and government agencies - must be encouraged to participate during the preparation of a GMP.

This public involvement will help in the more effective development of the range of alternatives considered in planning, in the evaluation of the analysis of potential impacts, and in making known the underlying principle in decisions about the park's future. I thought it as a great play. Of course the story has been done By happy downloader I thought it as a great play.

Of course the story has been done by many. I was familiar with the story. Like this one the best. But a lot do.

Most readers know this tragic personnage who allied himself with the devil and finally paid the price for his betrayal of God from a famous play written by J. It was him who wrote the most famous version of Faust's history. If you want to know more about Goethe's work, please visit my reviewer page.

But he wasn't the only dramatist who considered this lost magician worth a tragedy. Exactly 2 centuries and 1 year before Goethe published his work, a play by the Englishman Christopher Marlowe saw the light of the world. Marlowe and Goethe are different personalities living in completely different times so that it's no wonder their plays vary in character. Goethe lived in prosperity and had all his life to think about subjects like human nature, social relationships, history and its influence on the present, love, religion and much more.

He was a philosoph, and that's the reason why Goethe's "Faust" is sometimes difficult to understand because you have to dive under the surface of things to understand their true nature. Marlowe's work is different: This man was certainly very intelligent and knew a lot about the forces that moved the world, but, unlike Goethe, he didn't have a lifetime to think about one single play.

You can imagine that Marlowe's "Faust" became more shallow, but still not shallow enough to be ignored by this imaginary institution we call World Literature.

As a compensation, Marlowe's work contains more life and action in it, something I can't say about Goethe's.

Both men were geniuses. In this review, I'd like to pay my tribute to the Englishman. As stated above, the play tells the story of a medieval scientist who allies himself with the devil. The latter promises to serve the first in this world, whereas Faust must do the same in hell. The poor doctor doubts his choices because it's his soul being sold, still he follows the devil and has the time of his life.

I beg your pardon, for I feel the need to return to Goethe to show you another important difference between both versions: Whereas Marlowe's Faust wants the devil to provide him with fun and all richness of the world materialism , Goethe's alter ego feels the importance to be educated by the devil to get a complete picture of the world.

At the end, Marlowe's Faust realizes that all experiences weren't worth his soul. He begs God to save him, but it is no longer possible.The park's mission includes each park's purpose and significance, based on the park's enabling legislation or Presidential proclamation, and any laws and Executive orders that are relevant to the National Park System or to the individual park unit.

If you want to know more about Goethe's work, please visit my reviewer page. Most helpful customer reviews 0 of 0 people found the following review helpful.

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In some cases, initiatives do not originate within the Service, but rather with persons or organizations outside the Service, such as the logging or agriculture industries for example, which have a strong interest in how the Service manages the parks. Each GMP is developed by an interdisciplinary team, including park managers and technical experts, in consultation with relevant offices within the NPS, other federal and state agencies, other interested parties, and the general public.

Most readers know this tragic personnage who allied himself with the devil and finally paid the price for his betrayal of God from a famous play written by J. They also cooperate with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation throughout the country and the world. Strategic plans may also identify the need for more detailed implementation plans. But the playwright created equally powerful scenes that invest the work with tragic dignity, among them the doomed man's calling upon Christ to save him and his ultimate rejection of salvation for the embrace of Helen of Troy.

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