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STRUTS 2 BLACK BOOK, 2ND ED 2nd Edition. by Kogent (Author). Be the first to review this item. ISBN ISBN Download Struts2 Black Book Struts 2. MVC, Struts /1.x, Actions, Interceptors, OGNL, Generic and UI Tags, Results, Validators. DOWNLOAD STRUTS 2 BLACK BOOK 2ND ED WITH CD BY KOGENT SOLUTIONS INC. PDF EBOOKS yamaha grizzly 4x4 owners manual 3rd grade.
A good book to learn Java8 absolutely free. It's the 11th book in this list, which started with just 7 books. Update: 5th May I have added a couple of new free Java programming eBooks from O'Reilly which will teach you latest and greatest in Java e. All you need is an internet connection to download this books on your computer, laptop, iPhone or android smartphone.
Many Thanks to O'Rilley who has published an introductory book on Java 8, titled with Introducing Java 8, A quick start guide to lambda expressions and streams. If you will follow examples given int his book, you will learn lambdas and Streams in real quick time. Object-Oriented vs. Since Java 8 is now support some of the functional programming concepts e.
Java technologist Richard Warburton, author of Java 8 Lambdas , discusses similarities between these programming paradigms and points out that both FP and OOP are actually moving closer toward each another. It is no more the fancy language of developers but it has now become the mainstream of any application development in the world. The use of Java in Android has taken Java into even more larger domain This book will take you to journey of Java programming language starting from very first version to the current Java 8 version.
You have to deploy code, configuration, database changes, file systems changes etc. Though this is the tried and tested approach and working well from a long time, it can be improved. He outlines both benefits and drawbacks of Microservices and explains to them how to implement them using popular frameworks like DropWizard and Spring Boot. This free Java book is full of useful examples.
Since data structure and algorithm are very important for any Java programmer and quite a common topic in Java interview, it is an absolute must to have a strong command in both.
If you are preparing for Java job interviews then you can also take a look at some of my favorite algorithm and data structures questions, it may help in your preparation. Immediate Solutions. Implementing Interceptors in Struts 2. Default Interceptor Configurationstrutsdefault xml. Chaining Interceptor. Performing Internationalization in Struts 2.
Using Plugins in Struts 2. Securing the Struts 2 Application. Testing the Struts 2 Application. File Upload Interceptor. Prepare Interceptor. Message Store Interceptor. Writing Custom Interceptors. Controlling Execution Flow with Tags in Struts 2. A passive resource. These are as follows: Web applications generate web documents which are supported by almost all the Web browsers.
This HTML is understandable to the browser and tells the browser how to render the data to the viewer. Though using a framework alleviates a developer from interacting with different technologies on which a framework is based. They generate the result dynamically. This sort of arrangement allows upgrading of Web application without disturbing thousands of clients. Web applications have overcome this drawback of client-server computing. A new framework is always developed over some existing technologies.
When the client sends a request to the server. In other words. In the earlier types of client-server model of computing. Client-side scripts are written in scripting languages. Any upgrade to the server would require an upgrade to the client. Once the application gets executed. Service-oriented applications implement the presentation as well as the Business logic. To provide a dynamic nature to the web page. In contrast. This request is transferred to a Web component. It only contains the header information required to perform an action on the server.
The RequestURI refers to a resource on the server. When the user accesses the Internet. An HTTP request can handle eight actions and each action is achieved by different methods. This protocol defines the rules for the ways some data can be transferred and decoded. Out of these eight methods. It is different from GET because the total amount of characters is not limited and the data sent to the server is not appended to the URL. It includes the name of the method to be invoked.
HTTP is text-based and Web application needs data binding with requests. HTTP is a stateless protocol and we cannot track multiple requests from the same client. This HTTP request is very simple that looks like an ordinary text document. The large Web application needs a fine approach for user session handling and HTTP only will not work here.
Having the request serviced. It is useful for making a request and at the same time sending form data. A serious drawback associated with HTTP is that it does not preserve the state information between two requests and it is text based.
HTTP response body. Container loads the Servlet during start-up and calls the init method. HTML pages. The Java Servlet specification has been a base for different Web application Framework. JSP pages. To overcome this problem. The Container provided with the server has the ability to access the Servlet. A Servlet is a Java class.
A Servlet life-cycle. According to this specification. It is contained into a Container. We can handle client sessions with Servlets and text can easily be converted to other Java data types using type casting mechanism in Java. This method initiates the Servlet for the first time.
Once initialized. We can now create Servlets as a Web component. To destroy the Servlet. In the previous section. Chapter 1 Java Servlet Specification Java Servlet specification is introduced to describe the real Java-based Web application and different web components.
In this way. Servlets are solutions for hurdles faced with HTTP. The API developed with specification provides all interfaces and classes for the development of these web components.
With each request. Java has made it easy to develop and deploy Web applications. This method is inherited from the parent class used GenericServlet or HttpServlet and need not be implemented in the Servlet class created.
Thread 3 calls the destroy method. This service method further calls the methods. The server hands over the request to the Servlet Container in which the intended Servlet is deployed. This requires a lot of care because HTML content should be written in quotes. A developer.
The power and flexibility provided by Java allows a simple application designed by using Servlets to be gradually converted into a multi-tier enterprise application. Servlets allow the fastest way to use JavaServer technology in your Web application. A Java programmer is responsible for designing the Business logic. When the client sends a request for the Servlet.
Part 1 Struts 2: a brand new framework
Here three threads are created. Thread 1 further creates Thread 2 and Thread 3. Thread 1. Struts 2 — Advancement in Web Technology To respond to each request. The Servlet is then compiled into a class. The first. When a user clicks a link on a website. This separate module. Despite the great features of Servlet explained here. If the JSP file is called for the first time.
To initialize the Servlet. A Web server uses a separate module for performing tasks related to the Servlets.
JSP emerged as a solution of this problem by dividing the development procedure in two segments.
The Web server recognizes the request for JavaServer Pages by the. An application framework is based on these common aspects and provides a foundation for developing the applications to the developers and alleviates from putting additional efforts for it. Struts 2 follows the MVC 2 architecture pattern. They execute on a common machine. Struts 2 is a Web application Framework which involves tools and libraries for the creation of Web applications. It solves the problems of decoupling the Business logic and data access code from the Presentation logic.
A framework refers to a set of libraries or classes. In MVC 1. This Servlet remains in the memory. The framework which is used for the development of a Web application is known as Web application Framework. Web server supporting JSP files. Chapter 1 to the browser. With this sort of arrangement. Web Application Framework All the Web applications have some common features. After this discussion over Web application and different technological contexts.
Developing a Web application by using Web application Framework. This involves bundling sections of code.
The advantages of using a Web application Framework are described as follows: These files are external to the application and are not included in the source code. This sort of arrangement reduces the production time because testing of smaller components requires less time to debug. It receives the requests.
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A framework provides some common techniques Figure 1. Java developers can work on the Central Controller. Struts 2 — Advancement in Web Technology This is accomplished by creating the framework tools module. It provides a foundation. It offers a reduced amount of code and effort involved in the entire development cycle. The performance of the code improves further by using a powerful set of APIs.
Since the responsibility of developing various application components is given to different members of the team. Having understood the concept of a framework. The most common technique that frameworks use includes the following strategies: A common framework strategy. This involves generating framework components by using the wizards and customizing them according to the requirement. These details contain settings specific to an application.
Configuration files are read at runtime. Struts 2 and many more. Each framework has its own architecture and the way the components are designed and configured are also different. It provides a built-in rich framework. It is fully based on MVC 2 architecture and is built on a set of Interceptors. New components can also be developed that can be used as reusable code components. Struts 2 is derived from the WebWork2 Framework which has been in use for the development of Java Web applications. These features of Web application Framework and the way they help in the development of a Web application has made them popular among Web developers.
It also provides features. We have a large number of Web application Frameworks available. These components can also be used with the next project and by the other members in the organization.
WebWork 2. Struts 1. History of WebWork 2. By using this technique. The basic flow of execution in WebWork architecture is shown in Figure 1. After working for several years. WebWork2 provides three features—dispatcher. A dispatcher is responsible for handling client requests by using appropriate actions. If the Model is already created. View further extracts data from the Model and displays it to the user in the appropriate manner The work flow described through these steps can be compared with what you will study for the Struts 2 based application as the basic concept of dispatcher.
Dispatcher reads action configurations to know the appropriate action to be invoked 4. Action returns the result code 8. Dispatcher uses configuration file to get the configuration details 3.
You can start programming using MVC 2 design pattern very easily.
MVC, Struts 2.0/1.x, Actions, Interceptors, OGNL,
Dispatcher creates an instance of Action class and executes its method 5. Struts 2 — Advancement in Web Technology Figure 1. Dispatcher dispatches to the selected view Action class creates instance of Model. Browser access dispatcher through a request 2. After creating Model instances. Struts 1 was introduced as an idea of using JSPs and Servlets in Web applications to separate the Business logic from the Presentation logic.
The Struts 2 project provides an open-source framework for creating Web applications that easily separate the Presentation layer and Transaction and Data model on different layers. It has been developed on the concepts of MVC 2 architecture. The request flow in Struts 2 Web application Framework is shown in Figure 1. As time passed. Struts 2 Framework includes a library of mark-up tags. It is also used to eliminate the repetitive Java code.
The tag library can be used with JSP. It is based on WebWork2 technology. WebWork provides Velocity that has a simpler format. There were two candidates at that time that could meet the requirements of the next generation framework—Shale and Struts Ti. WebWork includes new ideas. The features of Struts 2 are user interface tag. To ensure that the output is correct with the set of input data. WebWorks and the Struts Ti joined hands to develop Struts 2.
WebWork provides an Interceptor. Using this Interceptor. Struts 2 is a highly extensible and flexible framework for creating Java-based Web application. Then in March This forced developers to evolve a next generation framework that could keep up with these changes. Before exploring the features of Struts 2 and understanding how it is different from its previous versions.
In December Shale is a component-based framework. It is to be noted that in Struts 2. This was how different components interact internally. View and Controller are represented by different Struts 2 components Action. A new instance of this return class is created and invoked. Request processing in Struts 2. Action class. Result and FilterDispatcher. The Model. These interceptors provide a pre-processing for the request. The processing of a request can be divided into the following steps: Similar to Struts 1.
The work flow is broken into the following steps: The data is also contained within the Model i. Struts 2 implements front controller approach with MVC 2 pattern. Struts 2 components and MVC pattern implementation. We will study the working of Struts 2 Framework in detail later in this chapter with the involvement of other Struts 2 components. Then the Controller selects the new View to be displayed according to the result code returned by action and executes suitable Result to render the View for the client.
The user sends request through a user interface provided by the View. Chapter 1 Figure 1. In addition to JSP pages. FilterDispatcher which is a Servlet filter class. All requests are mapped to this front controller. If the state of model is changed. The Controller Servlet filter receives the input request coming from the user via the interface provided by the View and instantiates an object of suitable Action class.
Unlike Struts 1. The main work of this controller is to map user requests to proper actions. View queries about the state of Model to show the current data which is pulled from the action itself. The View presents a user interface according to the Model.
FilterDispatcher class. Action chaining. Struts 2 — Advancement in Web Technology Features of Struts 2 Struts 2 was created with the intention of streamlining the entire development cycle. Cancel button is used to stop the current action.
Deployment Supporting Features The deployment supporting features of Struts 2 are as follows: A new class is invoked for handling a new request.
These goals are achieved by Struts by providing the following features supporting building. The processing of the request in Struts 2 is almost the same as that in WebWork2. Some of the features from WebWork were removed. Also some of the members are renamed in the newly created Struts 2 Framework.
Since the arrival of the Apache Struts in year This new framework was meant to provide support for almost all the new technologies which were present at the time for developing a Web application.
New features were added in Struts 2 Framework. One may think that Struts 2 is an extension of WebWork2. The Struts and WebWork was then merged together to provide a new framework called Struts 2.
But the problem was that Struts 1 was unable to cope with the advancement in technology. Several files and packages were included from WebWork2 in Struts 2 Framework. DispatcherListener is used for custom configuration.
In year Struts 1 provided a solid framework to organize a mess of JSP and Servlets to develop Web applications. The architecture of Struts 2 is fully taken from the architecture of WebWork2 Framework. To make the picture clear. It has included features. Some of the features are added or changed. Struts 1 remained the same. They came up with Struts Ti proposal. Some elements were included as it is. There are several features which are changed from WebWork2 while developing Struts 2.
The Struts Ti was also a Struts Framework with some advanced features. These Web applications were easier to develop and maintain. The code of WebWork2 was included in Struts 2. Some of them are as follows: Struts 1 was unable to cope with the growing demands of the customers. Though Struts 2 has incorporated Struts 1 features. There are a number of extra plug-ins that are included in the Struts 2 as compared to WebWork2 Framework. Struts 2 Framework has a Spring plugin for implementing the IoC.
Renamed members in Struts 2 WebWork2 Struts 2 com. Table 1.
If you are extending the AroundInterceptor in your application. Messages are also stored and retrieved through session. There are several features which are removed from WebWork2 to develop Struts 2. Settings In the following example. The Struts 2 architecture has a flexible control layer based on standard technologies.
The architecture of the Struts 2 is shown in Figure 1. JSP s: MessageStoreInterceptor is introduced. This is implemented by using the factory.
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Configuration org. ConfigurationManager and Result are treated as Struts 2 Core component. The various components of Struts 2 can be categorized into the following groups. In the chaining system. Action classes. Here the user is allowed to change these configurations. Then the client request passes through a chaining system.
Next the FilterDispatcher invokes the ActionMapper to determine which request should invoke an Action. It also handles execution actions. Architecture of Struts 2 Framework. In the Figure 1.
Interceptors may also provide for Security checking. The main task of Interceptors is to invoke the Action by using ActionInvocation. This method consults the framework Configuration Manager.
ActionProxy encapsulates how an Action should be obtained. We have a stack of interceptors being executed before action and they can be considered as a kind of request processor in Struts 1. Each interceptor simply defines some common workflow and crosscutting tasks which make them separate from other concerns and makes them reusable.
Bottelneck Checking by using the interceptor package. The Template may contain JSP. Interceptors The architecture of Struts 2. CSS files. The ActionMapper may return an action or return null value. Trace Logging. The data can be set into ValueStack during the preprocessing of the request. Struts 2 — Advancement in Web Technology content.
The ActionProxy obtains the Action class and calls the appropriate method. Different sets of interceptors can be used in the stack according to the common functionalities being provided by them.
ValueStack is a collection of data stored in a Stack. Interceptors have been covered for all its functioning. The Result component lookup data from the Template with the help of Action result code mapped in struts.
Once the Action is determined and executed. HTML files. When the ActionMapper wants that an Action should be invoked. As the name suggests. A ValueStack can be defined as a storage structure where the data associated with the current request is stored.
The Template uses the Struts Tags. After reading the struts. Interceptors are key concepts being utilized in Struts 2 Framework. In Struts 2. The description of these differences. Chapter 1 All new concepts introduced in Struts 2 Framework has been thoroughly discussed in the featured chapters of this book with various examples and applications. Act ion interface along with other interfaces to enable optional and custom services. POJO Action. Difference between Struts 1 and Struts 2 In addition to various similarities between Struts 1 and Struts 2.
But the basic implementation at most of the places is same as in Struts 1. There are lots of changes which we can observe in Struts 2 Framework. We have discussed the similarities between Struts 1 and Struts 2. Struts 1 and Struts 2. But the Struts 2 Framework introduces a number of new concepts and type of implementations. These points help in getting aware of the differences between Struts 1 and Struts 2 components. POJO Forms. There are also some advanced features which are added in the new Struts 2 version.
This comparison is important as both. Struts 2 provide a base. Similarity between Struts 1 and Struts 2 Both Web applications framework. Comparing Struts 1 with Struts 2 Struts 2 Framework is a new framework. OGNL support. This is a common problem in Struts 1 to program abstract classes rather than interfaces In Struts 2. If required. Whenever needed custom stacks can be created and used with different Actions Control Action Execution of Struts 2 — Advancement in Web Technology Table 1.
Servlet contexts are represented as simple Maps that allow Actions to be tested in isolation. Act ionSupport class to implement the commonly used interfaces. Reuse of views to a range of types that may have same property name but different property types are allowed by using ValueStack strategy Servlet Dependency When an Action is invoked the HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse are passed to the execute method.
Thus Struts 1 Actions are singleton and must be thread-safe. Action interface is not required. Also the dependency injection support also makes the testing simpler Struts 1 supports separate Request Processors life-cycles for each module.
The singleton strategy places restrictions on what can be done by using Struts 1 Actions and thus requires extra care to develop There are no thread-safety issues because Action objects are instantiated for each request in Struts 2 Testability The execute method exposes the Servlet API.
Rich object types.
The chapter concludes with the comparison of Struts 1 and Struts 2. This chapter embarks with Struts 2 Framework and Web application Frameworks.
This Action property is accessed from the web page via the taglibs. The EL is more powerful and very flexible. All ActionForms must extend a base class. Input properties may be rich object types with their own properties.
Chapter 1 Table 1. This explains where Struts 2 is different from Struts 1 and what makes it preferred over Struts 1. Since other JavaBeans cannot be used as ActionForms. Struts 1 uses an object of ActionForm. The next chapter covers the essentials for the development of Struts 2 based Web applications— downloading required APIs.
The XWork Validation framework supports the chaining validations into the sub-properties by using the validations defined for the properties class type and the validation context Type Conversion The type-conversion is performed by Commons-Beanutils. DynaBeans can be used for creating conventional ActionForm classes. See page: Any framework comes with its own set of APIs which can help you to create different components to be used within the framework.
But as the work flow is quite simple in Struts 2 through the different components development and their execution in the application.
The standard directory structure of Struts 2 Framework should also be explained earlier to any component development. Results and other configuration techniques to be used in Struts 2 quite new and difficult when used for the first time. Setting Struts 2 Environment Before getting started with your Struts development.
The way different components are designed and configured in Struts 2 Framework makes Web application development faster. But the flexibilities introduced and support for the concepts of Interceptor. You might find the interfaces.Struts 2 is a Web application Framework which involves tools and libraries for the creation of Web applications.
Interceptor interface or by extending com. There are no warranties which extend beyond the descriptions contained in this paragraph. Service-oriented Web applicationsService-oriented Web applications are generally implemented as an end point of a Web service and provide services to the presentation-oriented applications.
Hence, we need to create different action classes in a single Struts 2 based Web application. The login. These are JavaBeans like classes with validate and reset methods. The custom RequestProcessor class can be used to execute some business logic at any point during the request-processing phase.
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