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- What is Positive Psychology: A Definition
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Personality Psychology book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Personality Psychology. Test-Bank-for-Personality-Psychology-Foundations-and-Findings-1st-Edition-by- bestthing.info - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File. Personality psychology: foundations and findings/Stephen Porter (The University of British Columbia), Marianne. Miserandino (Arcadia University).
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A major goal of Moral Foundations Theory is to expand the range of phenomena studied in moral psychology so that it matches the full range of moral concerns, including those found in non-Western cultures, in religious practices, and among political conservatives. Here we present what we have learned about the content and structure of the moral domain using the Moral Foundations Questionnaire.
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What is the Moral Domain? A great variety of scales are used in moral psychology to measure stages of moral reasoning e.
Although these scales measure different aspects of morality, they all share the assumption explicit or implicit that the moral domain is limited to concerns about individuals harming or unfairly treating other individuals. Both sides agreed that morality was about how well or poorly individuals treated other individuals. Turiel , p. Definitions of morality in philosophy also frequently stress rules or codes of conduct that reduce harm to others e.
With sufficient opportunities for role-taking, adolescents were said to move beyond stage 4 and to begin using post-conventional reasoning based on an understanding of justice.
What is Positive Psychology: A Definition
Moral psychology is currently experiencing a renaissance as social psychologists, neuroscientists and behavioral economists begin to treat moral judgment and decision-making as a central topic of inquiry see Haidt, , for a review. Yet even today, research is still largely limited to issues of harm and fairness including rights. Major literatures include decision-making about runaway trolleys, in which participants must make tradeoffs between harm and rights Greene et al.
Whether carried out in a scanner, on a website, or in a business school lab room using real money, morality is still usually operationalized as helping vs. And before the Enlightenment, philosophers routinely considered a much broader moral domain. Much of ancient moral philosophy, from Greece to India to Japan, was virtue-based. Western inquiry into ethics must therefore be seen as having made a sharp turn away from the full spectrum of moral concerns addressed by thinkers of the past and valued in folk moralities around the world See Appiah, , ch.
Should psychologists follow philosophers in this turn to quandary ethics? Or should we keep our eyes focused on what is, rather than on the Enlightenment conception of what ought to be? Illustrative of this breadth are open-ended responses participants in our studies gave when asked to define morality in their own words.
However, others made reference to moral issues beyond justice, rights, and welfare, and to morally valuable entities that were not individuals e. Others made reference to duty, obedience, respect, and preserving tradition e.
And some made reference to God or religious norms, decency, the soul, and maintaining purity of mind e.
Scales that attempt to measure morality by assessing attitudes about harm and fairness are thus leaving out much of what people—even Westerners—explicitly and spontaneously include in their descriptions of the moral domain. If morality really does vary by culture, class, politics, and era, then psychologists need a definition of the moral domain that is not based on a list of specific content areas e.
To meet this need, Haidt and Kesebir , p. First, in its emphasis on moral systems it encourages psychologists to look outward, beyond individual minds and psychological mechanisms. Moralities emerge as large numbers of people interact with each other, constrained and enabled by culturally and historically specific sets of institutions and technologies.
Decide what you value most and commit to keeping these values in focus as you work, learn, love, and live.
Do things that are fulfilling, at work if you can and in your free time. Make sure you are living a life that is authentic to your values. None of these steps are easy, but the end result is worth it. It provides a good overview of positive psychology, how it came to be, and how you can use the findings from this area of research to improve your own health, happiness, and well-being.
In addition to the actions outlined in this lecture, there are five other general qualities that set apart those who just get along from those who flourish. Consider these qualities carefully and think about how you tend to behave; do you embody these qualities, or could you do more to emulate them?
These five qualities are: The ability to direct and re-direct your attention. Just as we must carefully manage our time and our financial resources, we should also carefully manage our attention.
Attention that is focused towards worrying, fretting, anger, revenge, and sadness is generally wasted attention; instead, focus your attention on analysis, imagination, investigation, compassion, and growth. The tendency to shape your time with intention and for impact.
Parkinson c. Twin d. Syphilis Difficulty: Syphilis 1. The principle that researchers should do no harm to research subjects is known as a. The Common Rule mandates that institutions that conduct research maintain a. Briefly describe the various building blocks of personality discussed in the textbook.
Describe the general source of information for different types of personality data.
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Personality Psychology: Foundations and Findings, Pearson New International Edition
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Self-Determination Theory: Also: summary of articles showing IAT validity in "real-world" samples. Individual variation among group members plays a key role in the dynamic of how willing people will be to conform.
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