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Am J Clin Nutr. Published online Jan E-mail: ude. Received Sep 2; Accepted Dec Abstract Background: Research has shown that variety reduces the rate of habituation, or a general reduction in the rate of responding, for low-energy-density LED and high-energy-density HED foods.

Objective: We assessed whether the effects of variety on habituation of motivation to eat are different in overweight and lean children. Conclusions: Habituation is influenced by variety of foods, and overweight children increase energy intake more with variety than do leaner children.

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Research is needed to evaluate mechanisms of how variety influences the motivation to eat and energy intake, and how the variety effect can be used to influence intake across multiple eating occasions in children.

Repeated presentation of food results in a reduction in motivated responding to food, and introduction of a new food results in recovery of motivation to eat, which is characteristic of habituation 1 , 2.

Presentation of a nonfood stimulus, such as watching television, can serve to recover the motivation to eat after motivation to eat has been reduced 3 , which is consistent with the role of distractors in habituation 4 , 5. Differences in the rate of habituation are associated with differences in energy intake, with faster habituation related to lower intake.

Thus, it is not surprising that overweight adults 6 and children 7 , 8 habituate more slowly to repeated food cues than do leaner peers. It is well known that variety increases energy intake 9 — 11 , and it is possible that one factor that stimulates the increased motivation to eat in overweight children is responsiveness to food variety. Obese children are more motivated to eat and consume more food than are leaner children 12 , and one potential mechanism for this difference is slower habituation to food in obese children than in lean children 7.

Because variety may increase energy intake, one approach to reducing energy intake may be to reduce the variety of high-energy-density HED foods 13 — An alternative approach to treating obesity and improving health is to increase the variety of low-energy-density LED , high-nutrient-density foods 16 — 18 , while reducing access to HED alternatives.

For this clinical approach to work, it is important that the effects of variety are observed for both LED and HED foods. Previous research in children suggests that variety influences intake of LED as well as HED alternatives, but additional research is needed to assess the generalizability of this concept. Some subjects may sensitize, or increase responding, before habituating This pattern was observed for changes in motivated responding to food cues 8 , salivary responses to olfactory 20 and gustatory 21 , 22 cues, and facial muscle responses to gustatory cues in adults In previous research with children, those who first sensitized had a slower rate of habituation and consumed more energy than did those who did not sensitize, although overweight children were not more likely to sensitize responding than were leaner children 8.

The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether overweight and nonoverweight children differ in their response to variety, with the prediction that overweight children will consume more food when presented with a variety of food than when presented with one food.

This represents the first test of this hypothesis in children or adults.

Secondary goals are to assess the reliability of slower rates of habituation for overweight than for nonoverweight children, whether the effects of variety on slower habituation and greater intake are observed for both LED and HED foods, and whether the observation that children who sensitize before habituating show slower habituation as well as greater energy intake.

Exclusionary criteria included taking medications that might affect appetite eg, methylphenidate , medical or psychological conditions that might affect eating eg, eating disorders, upper respiratory illness, or diabetes , current developmental disability or psychological disorder, allergies or unwillingness to eat the foods in the study, or prior participation in a laboratory study that used similar methods.

Design and procedures The parents of 99 participants were screened with the use of a standardized telephone interview to ensure that children met the inclusion criteria. If eligible, they were scheduled for a 60—min visit to the laboratory on a weekday between and If participants were in the same food condition, children could work for access to their most highly rated favorite food on the basis of food ratings described below.

If they were in the variety condition, they worked for access to their 4 favorite foods presented in a randomized order, with the stipulation that the same food could not be presented consecutively. Parents were instructed to not have their child eat or drink anything except water 3 h before the experiment and to avoid the study foods on the day of the experiment.

On arrival to the laboratory, parents and children completed consent and assent forms along with a h food recall to ensure that the child had not eaten in the past 3 h and had avoided the study foods that day. Parents were escorted to the waiting room where they completed a demographics questionnaire. Families were called the day before they were to come to the laboratory to remind them of their appointment and the need to not eat within 3 h and avoid study foods that day.

On 4 occasions children did not meet the requirement of not eating within 3 h before coming to the laboratory.

No child reported eating study foods the day he or she came to the laboratory. Before the experimental task began, children rated their hunger. Next, they tasted samples of 6 foods either HED or LED , rated their liking, and ranked the foods from favorite to least favorite.

The experimental task involved the participant playing a computer game to earn points. After the computer task, participants rated their hunger and completed a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire DEBQ adapted for children to assess dietary awareness Height and weight were measured at the end of the experiment. To add to conference Books, lack torrent in artistic, or be up for a DeepDyve Website if you audit; programming Regardless 're one.

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