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JavaFX 8: Introduction by Example shows you how to use your existing Java skills to create graphically exciting client applications with the JavaFX 8 platform. It is sold on the understanding that the. Robert W. Allan, Samer Z. Al-Quran, Ying Li, and Raul C An Introduction to Islamic Finance: Theory and Practice. bestthing.info For your convenience Apress has placed some of the front .. in This Book The title of the book says it all: JavaFX 8: Introduction by Example.
Lambdas and Properties Layouts and UI Controls Graphics with JavaFX Custom UIs Media with JavaFX JavaFX on the Web JavaFX 3D JavaFX and Arduino JavaFX on the Raspberry Pi JavaFX and Gestures Introduction by Example. What is JavaFX? Built from the ground up, JavaFX takes advantage of modern GPUs through hardware-accelerated graphics while providing well-designed programming interfaces enabling developers to combine graphics, animation, and UI controls.
The goal of JavaFX is to be used across many types of devices, such as embedded devices, smartphones, TVs, tablet computers, and desktops. JavaFX leverages these attributes to improve execution efficiency and UI design flexibility. Our initial goal is to give architects and developers of enterprise applications a set of tools and APIs to help them build better data-driven business applications.
VP of Development, Java Client Platform Before the creation of JavaFX, the development of rich client-side applications involved the gathering of many separate libraries and APIs to achieve highly functional applications. Because integrating these APIs together can be rather difficult, the talented engineers at Oracle created a new set of JavaFX libraries that roll up all the same capabilities under one roof.
But one fact remains; the users will always demand better content and increased usability from GUI applications. In light of this fact, developers and designers often work together to craft applications to fulfill this demand. JavaFX provides a toolkit that helps both the developer and designer in some cases, the same person to create functional yet aesthetically pleasing applications. Hopefully, this book will lead you in the right direction by providing practical, real-world examples.
August 14, 2. The following are the new APIs and tools: March 18, 8.
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JavaFX 8: In this book you will be learning the new JavaFX 8 capabilities by following practical examples. These examples will, in turn, provide you with the knowledge needed to create your own rich client applications.
Because JavaFX 8 is written entirely in Java the language, you will feel right at home. Most of the examples can be compiled and run under Java 7. An example of a new Java 8 language feature used throughout is called lambda expressions and is www. While working through this book with JavaFX 8 and Java 8, you will see that the new APIs and language enhancements will help you to become a more productive developer. Having said this, we encourage you to explore all of the new Java 8 capabilities.
Who This Book Is For If you are a Java developer looking to take your client-side applications to the next level, you will find this book your guide to help you begin creating usable and aesthetically pleasing user interfaces. How This Book Is Structured This book is arranged in a natural progression from beginner to intermediate and advanced level concepts. For the Java developer, none of the concepts mentioned in this book should be extremely difficult to figure out.
This book is purely example-based and discusses major concepts before demonstrating applications. Each example can be easily adapted to meet your own needs when developing a game, media player, or your usual enterprise application.
However, any Java developer can progress through the book and learn the skills needed to enhance their everyday GUI applications. Once you are comfortable with the development environment, we will walk through the JavaFX Hello World source code. Finally, you will get a glimpse of how to package your application as a standalone application to be launched and distributed.
In the first method you will be using the Netbeans IDE and in the second method you will learn how to use the command line terminal window to compile and launch JavaFX applications. The second method is an approach for those who are not fond of fancy IDEs.
Get it from the following URL: You want the development kit, not the runtime. Follow the steps outlined in this section to download and install Java 8.
Download the Java 8 JDK from the following location: The steps are similar on other operating systems and JDK versions; however, if your environment is different, please refer to http: The following are steps to install the Java 8 JDK: Install the Java 8 JDK. Launch the binary executable. Typically other operating systems will pop up a similar warning dialog box to alert you of risks of installing or running binary files.
Click the Run button to proceed. Typically you will need administrator rights on the machine to install software. On Windows you can right-click the executable and run as Administrator.
Figure The Windows Security Warning dialog window www. Getting Started 3 2. Begin the setup of the Java 8 JDK. The screen in Figure will appear, to begin the installation process. Click the Next button to begin installation.
Java SE Development Kit 8 setup 3. Select optional features such as additional development tools, source code, and the Java runtime environment. Accept the default selections and click the Next button to install software components.
Figure shows the screen for optional features to install. Getting Started Figure Java SE Development Kit 8 optional features 4. The installation process will display a progress bar, as shown in Figure Java SE Development Kit 8 installation in progress www. Getting Started 5 5. Change the installation directory of the Java runtime. Accept the defaults and click Next to proceed.
Figure shows the Destination Folder dialog, where you can change the Java runtime installation directory. The Java 8 runtime destination directory 6. Click the Close button to exit. Java 8 runtime destination directory Setting Environment Variables Now you need to set a couple of key environment variables. How you set them and the values they should be set to vary depending on your choice of operating system.
The two variables to set are: Tells your operating system where the Java installation directory lives.
Specifies where the Java executable directory resides. This environment variable lets the system search paths or directories containing executable files. Following are the variables to set in bit Windows: The following examples show how to set the needed variables for the Bash and Bourne, and the CSH shells: Depending on your operating system you will need to be able to edit environment variable names and values. Next, click Environment Variables. This is where you can add, edit, and delete environment variables.
Shown in Figure is the Environment Variables dialog on the Windows operating system.
Install NetBeans 8 or later. On the Windows platform you will receive a security warning to inform the user about installing software. Windows security warning 3. Click on the Run button to proceed. Figure shows a Windows security warning prompt that appears before launching binary files. Click the Next button. Figure prompts the user to begin the installation process. Getting Started 9 Figure NetBeans IDE installer 5.
Read and accept the NetBeans license agreement. Figure shows the NetBeans License Agreement. NetBeans license agreement 6. Read and accept the JUnit license agreement. JUnit is a Java unit testing library. Getting Started 11 Figure JUnit license agreement 8.
However, you will need to select the correct JDK. You will select the Java 8 JDK. NetBeans IDE installation The next stage is choosing the installation directory folders for NetBeans and the JDK; accept the defaults and click Next to proceed with installation. Getting Started 13 Figure On the Summary screen the Check for Updates option allows the installer to retrieve any updates or patches to the current NetBeans version and any other plug-in dependencies.
Accept the defaults and click the Install button. As shown in Figure , the installer defaults to having Check for Updates selected. Check for Updates Shown in Figure is the installation progress bar.
Getting Started 15 Figure Installation progress To complete the setup, in Figure you will be prompted for an optional check box to contribute to the NetBeans team anonymous data usage to help diagnose issues and enhance the product. Once you have decided whether to contribute, click the Finish button to complete the installation. Setup complete You should see the opening page shown in Figure Getting Started 17 Figure On the File menu, select New Project.
Getting Started 5. Specify HelloWorld for your project name. Change or accept the defaults for the Project Location and Project Folder fields.
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New JavaFX Application wizard 7. On this screen click the Manage Platforms button. Once you have verified them, click the Close button. Getting Started 19 Figure In Figure make sure the Create Application Class option is selected.
Then click Finish. In a few seconds NetBeans will generate all the necessary files for the HelloWorld project. After NetBeans finishes, the project will show up on the left Projects tab.
Figure shows a newly created HelloWorld project. By doing this it allows a project to run just by clicking on the green arrowed button. Assuming the project is selected on the left in the Projects tab. See step 10, following. Click Sources under Categories. Getting Started 21 Figure Project Properties To run and test your JavaFX Hello World application, ensure the project folder is selected left Projects tab , then click on the green Run button to execute the HelloWorld project.
This will ensure the HelloWorld or any other project can run without having to be so explicit. This frees the developer to switch projects quickly. Setting the HelloWorld project as the Main Project You can also click the green arrow icon on the tool bar. After you hit the Run option, the output should look like Figure Because of the new additions to the Java language in Java 8, such as lambdas, most of the source code in this book will rely on the new syntax and therefore will not be backward-compatible with prior versions of Java 8.
Typically, developers have prior versions of the Java development kit such as JDK 7. NetBeans allows you to switch between different JDKs when projects require older versions. An important thing to note is that in early releases of JavaFX 2. Thank goodness it is now just one download JDK 8! Using the Command-Line Prompt The second method of developing JavaFX 8 applications is to use a common text editor and the command line prompt terminal.
By learning how to compile and execute applications on the command-line prompt you will learn about the classpath and where the executable files reside. Working from the command line you will basically use popular text editors such as vi, Emacs, or Notepad to code your JavaFX Hello World application.
An example is shown in Listing Listing Application; import javafx. ActionEvent; import javafx. EventHandler; import javafx. Group; import javafx. Scene; import javafx. Button; import javafx. Following are the steps to create a JavaFX Hello World application to be compiled and run on the command-line prompt.
Copy and paste the code from Listing into a text editor, and save the file as HelloWorldMain. After saving the file named HelloWorldMain. Change directory on Windows operating systems using the following command: Compile the source code file HelloWorldMain. Type the following command: The dot denotes the current directory. The —d option destination directory lets the Java compiler know where to put compiled class files based on their package namespace.
Getting Started 25 When finished compiling, your directory structure should resemble the following: Assuming you are located in the same directory as the HelloWorldMain.
Application class. The Application class provides application life cycle functions such as initializing, launching, starting, and stopping during runtime.
The code in Listing is a skeleton of the JavaFX Hello World application, having a main method and an overridden start method. Getting Started Listing A skeleton version of the file HelloWorldMain. To access any arguments passed into the launch method you can invoke the getParameters method of the Application class. Please see the Javadoc documentation for details on various ways to access named and raw arguments. After the Application. At this point, the program execution occurs on the JavaFX application thread and not on the main thread.
When the start method is invoked, a JavaFX javafx. Stage object is available for the developer to use and manipulate. Following is the overridden Application start method: Later in this book, you will learn how to create background processes to avoid blocking the JavaFX application thread. When you know how to build applications to avoid blocking the GUI, the user will notice that your application is much more responsive snappy under heavy usage. Mastering responsiveness in GUI applications is an important concept in enhancing usability and the overall user experience.
The designers of the API have modeled things on the idea of a theater or a play in which actors perform in front of an audience. In this analogy, a play consists of one-to-many scenes that actors perform in. And, of course, all scenes are performed on a stage. Depending on the device, such as a Raspberry Pi Raspbian , there may be only one stage.
Getting Started 27 Proceeding with our example, in the start method we see that for a JavaFX desktop window stage you can set the title bar using the setTitle method. Next, you create a root node Group , which is added to the Scene object as the top-level surface for the application window. The following code snippet shows how to set the title and create the scene: The following graphics capabilities can be applied to Nodes: Some of the most commonly used nodes are UI controls and Shape objects.
Similar to a tree data structure, a scene graph will contain children nodes by using a container class such as the Group or Pane class. By default the window will allow a user to minimize, maximize, and close exit the application. Following is the code to set the scene and display show the JavaFX application window Stage: HelloWorldMain -srcdir. Table HelloWorldMain Specifies the fully qualified name of the class containing the main method.
The top-level location of the parent directory holding the compiled classes current directory. To run the jar executable on the command line, you simply type the following and press Enter: After learning two methods of compiling and running a JavaFX application, you did a quick code walkthrough of the source file HelloWorldMain. You also learned to package a JavaFX application as a standalone jar executable. Next, in Chapter 2 you will learn the fundamentals of JavaFX 8 such as drawing and coloring shapes as well as drawing text and changing text fonts.
Because of this, I have always made it a point to focus on the fundamentals. In order to render graphics on the JavaFX scene, you will need basic shapes and colors.
Expanding upon your knowledge of the JavaFX scene graph, which you visited toward the end of Chapter 1, you will learn in this chapter how to draw and manipulate 2D shapes on the JavaFX scene graph. Node class. The Node class is a fundamental base class for all JavaFX scene graph nodes. The Node class provides the ability to transform, translate, and apply effects to any node. Many examples in this chapter involve the javafx.
Shape class, which is a descendant of the Node class. In this chapter you will explore many derived classes that inherit from Shape. JavaFX Lines Rendering lines in JavaFX is conceptually similar to Euclidean geometry in that two x, y coordinate points connect to draw a segment into space.
When drawn on the JavaFX scene graph, lines are rendered using the screen coordinate space system. In geometry, a line is defined as a segment connected by two points in space, although it lacks a width thickness and color value.
Does this mean that the line is invisible? In the computer world, physical devices plot pixels and shapes that occupy real surfaces. Monitors and printers are examples of such surfaces.
Because of this method of production, modern graphics programming has adopted the standard screen coordinate system. In this system, lines that are drawn are visible and have attributes of width and color. In a nutshell, the standard screen coordinate system places 0, 0 at the upper-left corner; this differs from the Cartesian coordinate system, where 0, 0 is placed at the center of the graphing area or the point at which the x and y axes converge.
In both coordinate systems, the x coordinate has the same effect when moving a point along the x axis. However, when using the screen coordinate system to move along the y axis, the effect is opposite that of the Cartesian system. Figure illustrates shapes drawn using the screen coordinate system.
Also note that using negative values will plot objects off the screen. JavaFX Fundamentals 0, 0 x y Figure The screen coordinate system As you learn more about JavaFX, you will discover many scene graph objects, such as lines, circles, and rectangles. These objects are derived classes of the Shape class. All shape objects can perform geometric operations between two shaped areas, such as subtract, intersect and union. By mastering the Shape API, you will begin to see endless possibilities.
To draw lines in JavaFX, you will use the javafx. Line class. When creating a Line instance you need to specify a start x, y coordinate and an end coordinate to draw a line. There are two ways to specify the start and end points when creating Line nodes. The first method is to use a constructor with the parameters startX, startY, endX, and endY. The data types of all the parameters are double values, which provide floating-point decimal precision. The following line has a start point , 10 and end point 10, created using a constructor.
According to the Javadoc, all shapes have a stroke color of null no color except Line, Polyline, and Path nodes. JavaFX Fundamentals 33 Now that you know how to draw lines on the scene graph, you are probably wondering how to be more creative with lines.
Creating different kinds of lines is simple; you basically set properties inherited from the parent class javafx. Table shows the properties you can set on a line Shape. To retrieve or modify each property, you will use its appropriate getter and setter methods.
The table lists each property name and its data type, with a description. Please refer to the Javadoc documentation for more details. The javafx. Paint A color to fill inside a shape. StrokeLineCap The cap style on the end of a line or path. There are three styles: StrokeLineJoin Decoration when lines meet.
There are three types: Used along with the miter join decoration StrokeLineJoin. StrokeType Where to draw the stroke around the boundary of a Shape node. Figure is the output of Listing , the DrawingLines. The JavaFX application in the listing draws three lines with various properties modified. Some common properties used in this example are stroke dash offset, stroke line cap, stroke width, and stroke color. JavaFX Fundamentals In Figure you can see that the first line top is a thick red line with a dashed stroke pattern.
The second line is a thick white line having rounded end caps line cap. Last is an ordinary blue line having the same thickness as the others. The label control displays the dash offset value as the slider control moves.
Drawing lines Listing shows the source code for DrawingLines. ObservableValue; import javafx. Slider; import javafx. Color; import javafx. Line; import javafx. StrokeLineCap; import javafx. Text; import javafx. GRAY ; www. RED ; redLine. ROUND ; root. BLUE ; blueLine. JavaFX Fundamentals primaryStage. Then it creates a root node javafx. Group for the Scene object. All root nodes those extending javafx. Parent have a method getChildren. By default the Scene object will be filled with a white background; however, because one of our lines is white, the code will set the scene to have a color of gray Color.
This will allow some contrast in order to see the white line. Next is the code that creates the three lines red, white and blue. In the first line, the code sets the common properties of a Line node. The common properties are stroke color, stroke width, and stroke line cap. To set the stroke color you can use built-in JavaFX colors by using the javafx. Color class.
For instance, for the color red you will use Color. All three methods also have the ability to specify alpha value transparency. Later, you will see additional methods for coloring shapes. Please refer to the Javadoc to learn more about color javafx. Shapes also have a stroke line cap property.
This property specifies the style of the ends of the line. For instance, specifying the stroke line cap as butt StrokeLineCap.
ROUND style will appear with a rounded end. BUTT ; After setting the common properties on the red Line node, the example code creates a dashed pattern. To form a dashed pattern you would simply add double values to the getStrokeDashArray.
Each value represents the number of pixels for a dash segment. To set the dash segment array, the first value 10d is a visible dash segment 10 pixels wide. Next is a five-pixel empty segment not visible. Following that is a visible dash segment 15 pixels wide, and so on. Because the array has an odd number of values, you can see that as the pattern repeats itself, the first value 10d becomes a pixel empty segment not visible.
Following is the code to create a dashed pattern for a Line node: JavaFX Fundamentals 37 By default the dash offset property value is zero. To see what happens when the offset property changes, the user can drag the slider thumb to the right to increase the offset.
The stroke dash offset is the distance into the current pattern to begin the line drawing. Because the other two lines are pretty much the same in the way they modify common properties, I will not explain them any further. I trust you now understand the fundamentals of creating lines. One last thing to mention about this example is the Slider control and the way it is wired up using binding. We will discuss binding further in Chapter 3.
Notice in Listing also that after the three lines just discussed, the slider control has handler code that updates a Text node dynamically to display the dash offset value. Also notice the invocation to the addListener method, containing concise code added as a change listener. This may look odd to you; however, it reflects a new Java 8 feature called lambda expressions, which you will learn more about in Chapter 3.
The following code snippet creates a change listener using lambdas instead of an anonymous inner class ChangeListener. These important concepts will allow you to create any kind of shape styled the way you see fit. In this section you will be exploring basic shapes, complex shapes, and custom shapes. I will not demonstrate all of the shapes available to JavaFX, because of space limitations. To see all the available shapes, refer to the Javadoc documentation for details.
As stated earlier, JavaFX has common shapes such as lines, rectangles and circles. Knowing these skills will be useful throughout this chapter. Drawing rectangles on the scene graph is quite easy.
Just as you learned in a geometry classroom, you specify a width, height, and an x, y location upper-left corner to position the rectangle on the scene graph. To draw a rectangle in JavaFX you use the javafx. Rectangle class. In addition to common attributes, the Rectangle class also implements an arc width and arc height.
This feature will draw rounded corners on a rectangle. Figure shows a rounded rectangle, which has both an arc width and an arc height. Drawing Complex Shapes Learning about simple shapes is great, but to create more complex shapes you need to see what other built-in shapes that the JavaFX API has to offer.
Exploring the Java documentation javafx. The following are all the currently supported shapes: Normally cartoon drawings have a thick stroke width, similar to a penciled-in outline.
The first shape in the example is a sine wave; the second an ice cream cone, the third a smile, and the last a donut. Before studying the code you may want to see the shapes drawn onto the scene, so you can visualize each shape as you look at the code listing. Figure is the output of Listing , depicting four complex shapes. Drawing complex shapes www. The first complex shape involves a cubic curve CubicCurve that is drawn in the shape of a sine wave.
The next shape is an ice cream cone; it uses the Path class, which contains path elements javafx. Our final shape is a delectable donut; to create this donut shape you will create two Ellipse shapes one smaller and one larger and subtract one. For brevity, Listing shows just the start method, containing the main JavaFX elements. WHITE ; root. BLACK ; quad. WHITE ; www.
Each shape will be detailed further in the following sections, which describe the code and the reasoning behind the creation of each of the four shapes.
The Cubic Curve In Listing the first shape, drawn as a sine wave, is really a javafx. CubicCurve class. To create a cubic curve, you simply look for the appropriate constructor to be instantiated.
Figure shows a cubic curve with control points influencing the curve. JavaFX Fundamentals 43 Figure Cubic curve The startX, startY, endX, and endY parameters are the starting and ending points of a curved line, and controlX1, controlY1, controlX2, and controlY2 are control points. The control point controlX1, controlY1 is a point in screen space that will influence the line segment between the start point startX, startY and the midpoint of the line.
The point controlX2, controlY2 is another control point that will influence the line segment between the midpoint of the line and its end point endX, endY. A control point is a point that pulls the curve toward the direction of itself. A definition of a control point is a line perpendicular to a tangent line on the curve. In our example, we simply have a control point 1 above the line to pull the curve upward to form a hill and control point 2 below the line to pull the curve downward to form a valley.
Note All older JavaFX 2. Be advised that the previous edition of this book used Builder classes. Shape classes using deprecated builder classes should be converted in favor of constructors and setter methods when specifying properties.
The bug fixes would later cause binary compatibility issues that would break the builder classes. Knowing this will allow you to recognize older JavaFX 2.
The first edition of this book used Builder classes quite frequently, and they are an elegant way to create JavaFX objects. Path class.
Each path element is created and added to the Path object. Also, each element is not considered a graph node javafx. This means that path elements do not extend from the javafx. Shape class and they cannot be child nodes in a scene graph to be displayed. Figure shows an ice cream cone shape.
PathElement class, which is used only in the context of a Path object. Just remember that the classes with To as a suffix are path elements, not Shape nodes. For example, the MoveTo and LineTo object instances are Path elements added to a Path object, not shapes that can be added to the scene. Following are Path elements added to a Path object to draw an ice cream cone: QuadCurve class.
This is similar to the cubic curve example described earlier in the first shape. Instead of two control points you only have one control point. Again, a control point influences a line by pulling the midpoint toward it. Shown in Figure is a QuadCurve shape with a control point below its starting and ending points to form a smile. Quadratic curve The following code draws a quadratic curve with a stroke thickness of three pixels filled with the color white: This custom shape was created using geometric operations such as subtract, union, intersection, and so on.
With any two shapes you can perform geometric operations to form an entirely new shape object. All of the operations can be found in the javafx. JavaFX Fundamentals Figure A donut shape created by using shape subtraction To create the donut shape, you begin by creating two circular ellipse javafx. Ellipse instances. Subtracting the smaller ellipse donut hole from the larger ellipse area creates a newly derived Shape object, which is returned using the static Path.
The following code snippet creates the donut shape using the Path. A common technique is to draw the shape filled black while the original shape is laid on top slightly offset to appear as a shadow. However, in JavaFX the code will be drawing the donut shape once and use the setEffect method to apply a DropShadow object instance. To cast the shadow offset, call the setOffsetX and setOffsetY methods. Typically if the light source is from the upper left, the shadow is shown from the lower right of the shape.
One last thing to point out is that all shapes in the example are initially drawn to be positioned underneath one another. As each shape is rendered beneath another in this example, you may invoke the getBoundsInParent method to return the information about the bounding region of a node, such as its width and height. For example, a shape that has a drop shadow effect increases its width by including the shadow. Figure is a dashed red rectangle surrounding a Rectangle node inside a parent node better known as the bounding rectangle in parent Bounds in Parent.
You will notice that the width and height calculations include transforms, translates, and effects applied to the shape. In the figure, the transform operation is a rotation and the effect is a drop shadow. Drawing programs also provide the ability to paint shapes, using a color palette.
Typically, paint programs have a paint bucket tool to fill areas on the canvas. Often, photo editing software packages have the ability to fill using a gradient color or change the lighting of colors. In JavaFX you can also apply colors Paint to objects using similar techniques. In this section you will see an example of a JavaFX application that will showcase three shapes filled with colors Paint. An Example of Color To demonstrate common color fills, Figure illustrates an application that displays three shapes, with different color fills.
It depicts the following three shapes: Each shape has a gradient fill. The first shape, the ellipse, is filled with a red radial gradient. The second is a rectangle filled with a yellow linear gradient. Finally, the rounded rectangle has a green cycle reflect gradient fill. Colored shapes Note The example to follow touches on basic techniques for creating solid colors, gradient colors, and translucent colors. You can read about those, if you are interested, in the API documentation viewable through Javadoc.
In JavaFX, all shapes can be filled with simple colors and gradient colors. As a reminder, according to the Javadoc all shape nodes are filled with the color black by default except for Line, Polyline, and Path class descendents of java. Listing uses the following main classes that will be used to fill the shape nodes shown in Figure Color javafx. Stop javafx. RadialGradient javafx. LinearGradient Note In figure , the blackLine, rectangle, and roundRectangle shapes are all positioned by the setTranslateY method relative to the ellipse shape and to one another.
JavaFX Fundamentals 49 Listing BLACK ; ellipse. To create a color, the code uses the Color. This method takes three integer values, representing red, green, and blue components.
Another overloaded method takes three integer values and a fourth parameter with a data type of double. This fourth parameter is the alpha channel, which sets the opacity of the color.
This value is between zero 0 and one 1. Note Keep in mind that there are other ways to create color, such as by specifying hue, saturation, and brightness HSB. To create a color using HSB, you would invoke the Color.
Developers who are familiar with this convention can use the Color. JavaFX Fundamentals 51 After drawing the ellipse shape, the code invokes the setFill method using a radial gradient to give the appearance of a 3D spherical object.
Next, it creates a rectangle filled with a yellow semitransparent linear gradient. Added behind the yellow rectangle is a thick black line to demonstrate the semitransparent color. Finally, the code implements a rounded rectangle filled with a green-and-black reflective linear gradient resembling 3D tubes in a diagonal direction.
Each shape and its associated color fill will be discussed in more detail in the following sections. A starting point to begin the first stop color. The end point, representing the end stop color. The proportional property to specify whether to use standard screen coordinates or unit square coordinates. The Cycle method to specify one of the three enums: An array of stop Stop colors.
Each stop containing a color will begin by painting the first stop color, then interpolating to the second stop color, and so on.
When dealing with either linear or radial gradient color, pay special attention to the proportional attribute. By setting this attribute to false, you can draw a line the gradient axis having a beginning point start X, start Y and an end point end X, end Y based on standard screen x, y coordinates. However, if the proportional attribute is set to a value of true, the gradient axis line beginning and ending points will be represented as unit square coordinates.
This means that x, y coordinates for begin and end points must be between 0. This strategy is more compact and easier to define than screen coordinates on the scene graph. Radial Gradient The amazing thing about colors with gradients is that they can often make shapes appear three- dimensional.
Gradient paint allows you to interpolate between two or more colors, which gives depth to the shape. JavaFX provides two types of gradients: For our ellipse shape you will be using a radial gradient RadialGradient.
You can find this documentation at the following URL: JavaFX Fundamentals Table RadialGradient Properties Property Data Type Description focusAngle Double Angle in degrees from the center of the gradient to the focus point to which the first color is mapped.
In our example the focus angle is set to zero, the distance is set to. RED and black Color. These settings give a radial gradient to our ellipse by starting with the color red with a center position of 80, 45 upper left of the ellipse that interpolates to the color black with a distance of pixels radius.
Semitransparent Gradients Next, you will see how to create the rectangle, which has a yellow semitransparent linear gradient. For our yellow rectangle you will use a linear gradient LinearGradient paint. You can find the definitions also at the following URL: The start and end point coordinates denote where the gradient pattern begins and stops. To create the second shape in Figure , the yellow rectangle, you set the start X and Y to 0.
BLACK with an alpha transparency of. These settings give a linear gradient to our rectangle from top to bottom with a starting point of 0. This is a simple linear gradient paint that is the same as the linear gradient paint LinearGradient except that the start X, Y and end X, Y values are set in a diagonal position, and the cycle method is set to reflect CycleMethod.
When specifying the cycle method to reflect CycleMethod. The following code snippet implements the rounded rectangle having a cycle method of reflect CycleMethod. Text nodes allow you to display a string of characters onto the scene graph.
To create Text nodes on the JavaFX scene graph you will use the javafx. Text class. Because all JavaFX scene nodes extend from javafx. Node they will inherit many capabilities such as the ability to be scaled, translated, or rotated.
Shape class which provides even more capabilities than the Node class. Because a Text node is both a Node and a Shape object it is able to perform geometric operation between two shape areas such as subtract, intersect, or union.
You can also clip viewport areas with a shape similar to stenciled letters. To demonstrate drawing text, in this section you will look at a basic example of how to draw text nodes on the scene graph.
This example will touch on the following three capabilities: JavaFX Fundamentals To make things a little interesting, we will create Text nodes and produce random values for the three capabilities just mentioned.
Figure shows our drawing text example in action. Drawing text The DrawingText. The code first creates a loop to generate random x, y coordinates to position Text nodes. In the loop, it creates random RGB color components between 0 and to be applied to the Text nodes. Setting all components to zero produces black. Setting all three RGB values to produces the color white. According to the API documentation the setRotate method will rotate about the pivot point, which is the center of the untransformed layout bounds layoutBounds property.
Basically, the pivot point is the center of a node that has no transforms scaling, translating, shearing, rotating, and so on applied. Note If you need to use a combination of transforms, such as rotate, scale, and translate, take a look at the getTransforms. For more details on the difference between bounds in local, bounds in parent, and layout bounds, please see the Javadoc documentation. The following code is used in DrawingText. Each Text node maintains a text origin property that contains the starting point of its baseline.
In Latin-based alphabets, the baseline is an imaginary line underneath letters, similar to books on a bookshelf. However, some letters, such as the lowercase j, extend below the baseline. When specifying the x and y coordinate of the Text node you will be positioning the start of the baseline. Here you were able to position, colorize, and rotate text. In addition to the font styles I also added effects such as a drop shadow DropShadow and reflection Reflection. Changing text fonts Listing BLUE ; root.
BLACK ; root. JavaFX Fundamentals With Text nodes JavaFX takes a retained-mode approach, in which nodes are using vector-based graphics rendering instead of an immediate mode rendering. When will my order arrive? The Estimate Delivery Date is when your order is expected to arrive at your chosen delivery location. Once you have submitted your order you will receive confirmation and status update emails. If you order multiple items and they are not all in stock, we will advise you of their anticipated arrival times.
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Media with JavaFX Table Begin with the fundamentals of installing the software and creating a simple interface. Developers quickly realized they needed a better way to bind and unbind GUI controls to be wired up to properties.
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