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Bibliografia: Tissoni F. La prima convenzione di codifica e formattazione dei caratteri greci fu ideata da David W. Borgna-Musso , p. Greek Beta code converter. Musso, Le sfide di una biblioteca digitale del latino tardoantico. Mastandrea , Venezia , pp.

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Metacodifica: Beta code, pp. Digital Library. Maria C. Basili-Pettenati La studiosa, in un successivo contributo Borgman ; ma cfr. Le successive formulazioni definitorie — quali quella di Oppenheim-Smithson e di Arms —, al contrario, puntano soprattutto alla valorizzazione della dimensione informativa.

An Italian National Curriculum on ICT for Schools

Bibliografia Arms, M. More recently, the issue has been taken up by Kromann et al. This means primarily two things: giving a real translation and taking into consideration phraseology and meaning in context.

Figure 2 shows the comparison between both types of dictionaries. Passive Dictionary Active Dictionary Source language term Translation into Translation into target language with: target language grammar information, technical sometimes technical information, collocates, examples, information given quotations Target language term Source language term Source language term with: sometimes technical grammar information, technical information given information, collocates, examples, quotations Figure 2.

Passive versus active dictionaries in specialized contexts. In recent years, the issue of grammatical information in dictionaries has been the focus of growing interest among lexicographers and linguists. Although this has been implemented in some monolingual dictionaries, bilingual metalinguistic activity has lagged far behind, doing no more than touch the surface of the topic.

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In this respect, Kromann et al. In recent years it has also been shown that the need for grammatical information in dictionaries, including bilingual dictionaries, is greater than one might immediately assume. Jackson 54 summarizes the grammatical items that should be present in a dictionary as follows: a. This concern for grammar in the bilingual dictionary has been expressed by others in terms of presenting the above-mentioned dichotomy as active versus passive dictionaries.

As pointed out earlier, culture, situation and function have much to say in the outcome of a translation. The importance we have placed on collocates by including many of them in our dictionary, along with numerous examples, is simply a reflection of a concern that comes from experience.

Obviously, syntax should be our main guide in order to avoid making simple errors in the ordering of words, but also to combine them in such a way that we do not incur in solecisms, a term which can be interpreted as combining words improperly or, to put it another way, as establishing erroneous collocates.

Latin and Greek philosophers had already placed a keen eye on their relevance. Hyman 5 , speaking about the difference between a barbarism and a solecism, brings to mind a quotation from St.

Augustine De Doctrina Christiana 2.

It is true that in providing these near-equivalents, however, lexicographers may simplify reality to generate definitions and to select terms in the target language which may not fully recall all the shades of meaning of the original source language term. Here the pragmatic relevance of context may help the lexicographer to, up to a certain extent, diminish the negative effect of not providing completely accurate semantic equivalents.

They are used in free speech, they are linked into utterances and these utterances are linked up with the other human activities and the social and material environment. The whole manner which I have adopted for the presentation of my linguistic and ethnographic material brings the concept of context to the fore. Not only have I tried in the definition of technical terms to show how these terms form groups of kindred entities, not only have I tried, by placing the linguistic account against an outline of real activities, to give them life and body; but the division of the linguistic material under headings which closely correspond to the chapters of the descriptive account keeps every word, every phrase and every text within its proper context of culture.

Malinowski, 22 6. Dictionaries may respond to different purposes.

There are general dictionaries, on one hand, typically monolingual and for the purpose of language learning, basically polysemic with information on orthography, on the meaning of words and aiming at offering linguistic correction in language use; and we may find specialized dictionaries basically monosemic, on the other.

The question arises, however, whether this dichotomy can be established so clearly. The problem of borrowings in computer science in languages other than English has become a crucial one. The obstacles and difficulties we have just mentioned above in regard to grammar and context seem to become diluted and gradually diminished when compared to borrowings.

The effort of dealing with this issue has produced more than one long discussion within our translation team. There is no end in sight to the trend of admitting neologisms in information technology; they increase as computing science evolves and develops.

However, the integration of newly created words into English is not equally corresponded by their acceptance in other languages; their inclusion in Spanish dictionaries, therefore, does not fully comply with this need and demand. Word selection was based, following Alcaraz and Hughes X-XI , on the criteria of relevance, clarity and economy. By relevance we refer to the selection of terms in the specific field —Computing and the Internet in our case—, along with more general words and collocates that, although non- discipline specific, are frequently used in these contexts.

By clarity we address the meaning of words illustrating how they may be used in collocates, phrases, examples in complete sentences, including technical explanations and quotations from books and specialized publications when necessary.

Finally, by economy we refer to a certain limitation in terms of words currently in wide use or not.

Corpus description and management The initial corpus emerged from the set of PCP monolingual dictionaries on Information Technology, Computing and the Internet Collin, , , , To these corpora new entries related to IT and the Internet were added, along with extra material particularly for the Spanish-English section of the dictionary. This compilation resulted in the following sub-corpora: a a corpus of English technical IT texts from PCP dictionary terms and their corresponding definitions of , words; b a complementary corpus from online glossaries 51, words ; c a complementary corpus of specialized English texts of , words; d a corpus of specialized IT texts in Spanish of 68, words for the Spanish- English section; and e a corpus of parallel texts English-Spanish of 85, words.

The sum of these sub-corpora makes a total of 1,, words. This software was applied to organize the material and to extract the key terms in each of the sub-corpora described above. Finally, a Peter Collin specifically designed software was used in the translation process of the terms selected for the dictionary. The translation process Once this material had been established as our working corpora, each head letter in the dictionary underwent a systematic process of translation, updating of new entries, addition of examples and quotations, correction, galley editing and final revision.

In the translation process, new entries, collocations, examples, and quotations were added, and each head letter would follow then a process of revision by other members of the team.

Once revised, the translated bilingual version of the head letter was sent to the University of Surrey-Roehampton where it was again revised. All this process was carried out on encoded versions of the head letters which were returned in printed form for final revision.

The final revision was then returned to the central office in London where it was stored as a final version for publication. The same process took place with each head letter until the English-Spanish section was complete.

Once this section was completed, a reversed draft Spanish-English version was automatically produced at PCP headquarters and then edited at the University of Surrey-Roehampton. This new complete, still encoded, Spanish-English version was then returned to PCP to obtain the print- out copy for final revision at the three universities.

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The same process was repeated for each head letter in this second section. Translated entries A few examples of entries will suffice to exemplify both issues: grammatical information on the one hand, along with examples and collocates, and suggested possible integration of new words in the specialty. In the first place, figure 3 shows an entry from the English-Spanish section of the dictionary in which the basic components in regard to grammatical information, collocates and examples can be clearly established, following the description of dictionary components provided by Bergenholtz and Tarp This encoded version was then converted into print-out easy-to-read format in the final editing process, as shown in figure 4.

Computing Figure 4. Computer Hoy Figure 6. Language in general keeps accepting new terms at the same rate as society and technology advance. Computer science is a paradigmatic example of this trend, since it has become one of the fastest-moving disciplines. A dictionary, therefore, is bound to collect words that had no meaning to our grandparents, such as chip, software and hardware.

In a recent paper, Posteguillo and Gallench classified terms into three categories: integrated borrowings i. To conclude, the problem is not only the enormous speed at which new terms are incorporated into English, but also the careless introduction of a large number of disguised English terms into Spanish by computer engineers and researchers.

This generates a constantly widening gap between computer science texts and computer users who will have to struggle through often incomprehensible Spanish texts in which the so-called Spanglish has filtered in or Cyberspanglish, derived from Internet language use.

Perhaps it is time we made our own language a bit more flexible. Alcoy: Marfil.

Barcelona: Ariel. PINA and M. Louvain-la-Neuve: Duculot.As pointed out earlier, culture, situation and function have much to say in the outcome of a translation. Avalle, F. I web browser entrano in comunicazione con i web server principalmente tramite il protocollo http che gli permette di inviare informazioni e recuperare le pagine che contengono tali informazioni.

Table 1 unfolds some of the existing bilingual dictionaries in the area of computer science and their current limitations. Cardelli, L.

In: Amadio, R.

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