The Enuma Elish (which are the first two words of the epic and mean simply “ When on high”) is the creation myth of ancient Mesopotamia. This is the Babylonian. ENUMA ELISH THE EPIC OF CREATION L.W. King Translator (from The Seven Tablets of Creation, London ). A more complete etext of the Seven Tablets. Enuma Elish. Babylonian Creation Myth. From Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Translated by N. K. Sandars. This long poem was written principally in the twelth .
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(Enūma Elish). Benjamin R. Foster. The so-called epic of Creation preserves a relatively late Babylonian conception of the creation of the physical world . it is due to the fact that Enuma elish presents quite a number of analogies to the first two chapters of the Book of Genesis. THE DISCOVERY OF THE TABLETS. The Enuma Elish. Otherwise known as. THE SEVEN BABYLONIAN TABLETS OF CREATION. Rewritten and Revised by. Denny Sargent.
In the Enuma Elish, as almost all other near eastern creation myths, creation is accomplished through conflict and warfare with lots of noise. In the Genesis account, however, we find a profound sense of peace and quiet. In the Enuma Elish, magic incantations are the ultimate source of power, thus making the gods subject to nature or magic.
In Genesis, power is manifest in the commands fiat of God, and nature is one of His obedient subjects.
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Babylonian gods are identified with nature, but God, in Genesis, is Creator of, and distinct from, all creation. The Genesis account systematically includes all general realms of nature. The Enuma Elish omits major aspects of creation such as vegetation, animals, the sun and light.
In Genesis, God forms the heavens and the earth on the first three days. This does not take place until the fourth tablet of Enuma Elish.
Gender and Power Dynamics
In Genesis, man is created from clay to rule over the creation. In Enuma Elish, man is created from a god's blood to be slaves of the gods.
The first chapters of Genesis are clearly a creation epic. Enuma Elish, within its historical context, was clearly not primarily a creation story, but rather a hymn of praise to Marduk. It was in essence mythological propaganda to put Marduk at the head of the pantheon so as to exalt the city of Babylon and enhance Hammurabi's power.
After comparing the two accounts, it becomes clear that if one is to base a conclusion off of the similarities alone, then some important differences are being ignored. In the Genesis account, Moses purposefully portrays a monotheistic God who operates within the parameters of organization and peace.
The Enuma Elish is polytheistic and the gods operate within the parameters of war and violence. It is also important to note that the Enuma Elish is a Mesopotamian myth, influenced heavily by the surrounding region which consisted of two rivers feeding into a Gulf.
These two rivers feed into the Persian Gulf, which is a salty water mass. This is important because the Enuma Elish begins with Apsu god of fresh water and Tiamat goddess of salt water giving birth to the other gods and goddesses. His son Enki , or Ea, proposed to create man to bear the labour, and so, with the help of his half-sister Ninki , he did. A god was put to death, and his body and blood was mixed with clay.
From that material the first human being was created, in likeness to the gods. You have slaughtered a god together With his personality I have removed your heavy work I have imposed your toil on man.
In the Epic of Gilgamesh , Eden is mentioned as the garden of the gods and is located somewhere in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Sumerian tablet depicting Enki in the creation myth. Thus, Adapa was created as a fully functional and independent human being.
Enlil became the adversary of man, and the Sumerian tablet mentions that men served gods and went through much hardship and suffering. Opinions vary on the similarities between this creation story and the biblical story of Adam and Eve in Eden. Top image: Sumerian chaos monster and sun god.Naturally, a thorough enumeration of intertextual examples would be far beyond the scope of this section.
Then advanced Tiamat and Marduk, the counselor of the gods; To the fight they came on, to the battle they drew nigh.
George Smith had consulted in , had not been identified by subsequent workers. Tiamat, hearing of their plan, warns her eldest son, Enki sometimes Ea and he puts Apsu to sleep and kills him. BSOAS Furthermore, the choice of a god list with explanations to close the composition carries further complexities because this kind of list displays certain features of lexical texts beyond the mere arrangement of names, and these features are accordingly to be found in the list of Marduk's names in Enuima elis.
For instance, STC 2 plates lxi and lxii contains two fragments of a tablet K. Webster, Michael. It is true that the Babylonian legends which had been recovered and were first published by him were very fragmentary, and that the exact number and order of the Tablets, or sections, of which they were composed were quite uncertain; and that, although they recorded the creation of the heavens and of the heavenly bodies, they contained no direct account of the creation of man.
Marduk's identity is thus established by means of ancestry.