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SQL Server Query Performance Tuning Distilled presents a direct trouble– shooting methodology for identifying poorly-performing stored procedures and. Grant Fritchey's book SQL Server Query Performance Tuning is the answer to your SQL SQL Server Query Performance Tuning Distilled (eBook, PDF). SQL Server functionality, tips, and tricks are emphasized in each Who this book is for SQL Server Query Performance Tuning Distilled is.
Understand what an index is, what it does, and how to build one. Use industry accepted best practices and understand how to develop your own to arrive at optimal database performance.
Database Workload. Performance vs Price. Server Memory KB. Clause Column. Blocking Analysis.
Deadlock Analysis. Chronological Order. SQL Query. Criteria Columns.
Clustered Index. Bookmark Lookup Analysis.
SQL Server Query Performance Tuning Distilled
Using a Clustered Index. Statistics Analysis.
Nonindexed Column. Stored Procedure Recompilation. Stored Procedure. Query Design Analysis. Cursor Cost Analysis. Analyzing the Workload.
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Performance Analysis. Optimization Checklist. Integrity Constraints. Memory Bottleneck Analysis.
Execution Plan Caching. As an example, adding an index may fix the performance of a specific query, but it could cause other queries to run more slowly, as explained in Chapter 4.
Consequently, it is preferable to conduct a performance analysis in a test environment to shield users from your diagnosis attempts and intermediate optimization steps. In such a case, evaluating one change at a time also helps in prioritizing the implementation order of the changes on the production server, based on their relative contributions. You can keep on chipping away at performance bottlenecks and improving the system performance gradually. Initially, you will be able to resolve big performance bottlenecks and achieve significant performance improvements, but as you proceed through the iterations, your returns will gradually diminish.
Therefore, to use your time efficiently, it is worthwhile to quantify the performance objectives first for example, an 80 percent reduction in the time taken for Download at Boykma. Com a certain query, with no adverse effect anywhere else on the server and then work toward them.
Both the amount and distribution of workload and data change over time, and differing data can cause SQL Server to execute SQL queries differently.
The performance resolution applicable for a certain workload and data may lose its effect over a period of time.
Therefore, to ensure an optimum system performance on a continuing basis, you will need to analyze performance at regular intervals.
Performance tuning is a never-ending process, as shown in Figure Com Figure Figure shows the steps involved in the optimization of the costliest query. Figure Optimization of the costliest query Download at Boykma. It is important to use a solid process like this in performance tuning to focus on the main identified issues. Having said this, it also helps to keep a broader perspective about the problem as a whole, since sometimes you may believe that you are trying to solve the correct performance bottleneck when in reality something else is causing the problem.
Performance vs. Price One of the points I touched on earlier is that to gain increasingly small performance increments, you need to spend increasingly large amounts of time and money.
Therefore, to ensure the best return on your investment, you should be very objective while optimizing performance. Performance Targets To derive maximum efficiency, you must realistically estimate your performance requirements.
You can follow many best practices to improve performance—for example, you can have your database files on the most efficient disk subsystem. However, before applying a best practice, you should consider how much you may gain from it and whether the gain will be worth the investment.
Sometimes it is really difficult to estimate the performance gain without actually making the enhancement. That makes properly identifying the source of your performance bottlenecks even more important.
Are you CPU, memory, or disk bound? Is the cause code, data structure, or indexing, or are you simply at the limit of your hardware? Be sure you can make these possibly costly decisions from a known point rather than guessing. A scalable application will proportionately benefit from an incremental increase of the resource, if the resource was truly causing the scalability bottleneck.
If the results appear to be satisfactory, then you can commit to the full enhancement.
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Experience also plays a very important role here. The cost investment after such a point usually increases exponentially in comparison to the performance gain. The rule works very well: by investing 20 percent of your resources, you may get 80 percent of the possible performance enhancement, but for the remaining 20 percent possible performance gain, you may have to invest an additional 80 percent of resources.
It is therefore important to be realistic when setting your performance objectives. A business benefits not by considering pure performance but by considering price performance.
However, if the target is to find the scalability limit of your application for various Download at Boykma.
Even in such cases, using a third-party stress test lab may be a better investment decision.
Performance Baseline One of the main objectives of performance analysis is to understand the underlying level of system use or pressure on different hardware and software subsystems. Why would a company downsize?
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Well, in the past, some companies leased very high-end systems expecting strong growth, but because of poor growth, they are now forced to downsize their system setups. And consolidation? Companies may sometimes download too many servers or realize that the maintenance and licensing costs are too high. This would make using fewer servers very attractive. This information can be used to effectively distribute database administration activities, such as full database backup and database defragmentation during nonpeak hours.
Similarly, you may baseline the SQL Server workload using the SQL Profiler tool, which can help you understand the average resource utilization and execution time of SQL queries when conditions are stable. You can also get snapshots of this information by using dynamic management views and dynamic management functions.
You will learn in detail how to use these tools and queries in Chapters 2 and 3. Numerous third-party tools are available. Many third-party tools are available that can also help with this. If your system is not yet in production, using one of these tools to simulate a load to test the system is a very good idea. You will usually find that you can positively affect performance in the application layer far more than if you spend an equal amount of time figuring out how to tune the hardware, operating system, or SQL Server configuration.
Although a proper configuration of hardware, operating system, and SQL Server is essential for the best performance of a database application, these fields have standardized so much that you usually need to spend only a limited amount of time configuring them properly for performance. Application design issues such as query design and indexing strategies, on the other hand, are application dependent. Consequently, there is usually more to optimize in the application layer than in the hardware, operating system, or SQL Server configuration.
Thus, for a unit of time spent in each area, work in the application layer usually yields the maximum performance benefit, as illustrated in Figure Time spent vs. Sure, if you concentrate on hardware configuration and upgrades, you may obtain a satisfactory performance gain. However, a bad SQL query sent by the application can consume all the hardware resources available, no matter how much you have. Therefore, a poor application design can make the hardware upgrade requirements very high, even beyond your limits.
In the presence of a heavy SQL workload, concentrating on hardware configurations and upgrades usually produces a poor return on investment. The best measures for this are the various wait states.Performance vs. He also works closely with the application development teams and vendors, including Microsoft, in analyzing and resolving performance bottlenecks. Emphasis is always put upon or placed upon practical methods that you can put to immediate use in your day—to—day work.
Please ensure that you take the performance optimization techniques into consideration at the early stages of your database application development. In such a case, evaluating one change at a time also helps in prioritizing the implementation order of the changes on the production server, based on their relative contributions. Because performance tuning can be time consuming and tiresome, you should ideally take a preventive approach by designing the system for optimum performance from the outset.
For example, the query executed by the application may be highly optimized, but the database connection used to submit this query may add considerable overhead to the query performance. This can be done using the SQL Profiler tool and various dynamic management views, as explained in Chapter 3.
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