The Classical Period. Time Line. • Seven Years' War • Louis XVI in France • Am. Declaration of Independence • French. Most prominent ~ to ~ - Wide range of pitch, dynamics, & tone color. - Sound produced by air being directed to pipes. • Pipe sets of various materials. music: an appreciation by roger kamien author: robert elliott subject: an appreciation 11th edition by roger kamien textbook pdf download.
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InformationResource , genont: Early stages in the development of musical notation. The notation of popular sheet music. The notation of avant-garde concert music. The student is introduced to the practice of indicating the larger and smaller formal units of a work by means of capital and lowercase letters. Between this section and the last, several familiar old songs have been introduced, and all can be discussed with regard to phrases, cadences, and form.
Consider especially incomplete and complete cadences, drawing an analogy with interruptive and terminal punctuation marks.
Discuss also conjunct and disjunct melodies, and illustrate with the simple folksongs. Both melodies are primarily staccato. Sequence is defined in this section, and imitation is discussed under texture in I To clarify the distinction between the two, have the students sing simple sequences such as vocal exercises , and then imitate each other or the instructor.
Describe the manner in which musical phrases may be unified. Discuss the symbols used in analyzing musical phrases and sections. Contrast the effect of stepwise melodies with those that move mostly by leaps.
Phraseology in music and language. The prevalence of aa'ba' form in familiar tunes. Repeated rhythmic patterns in familiar tunes.
The concept of harmony is explained, as are harmonic progression, consonance and dissonance, and the resolution of dissonances. The functions of the tonic and dominant triads are explained, as is the use of broken chords arpeggios.
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Since the text includes an illustration of Taylor Swift accompanying herself on the guitar, perhaps one of her recordings might prove of interest to the students in discussing harmony. Illustrate the various concepts introduced in the section, such as consonance, dissonance, and triads.
Explain the concept of harmonic rhythm the rate of chord change , and ask about this factor in the Prelude. Which performance do the students find more expressive? Consider contrasts in tempo, dynamic range, and balance between melody and accompaniment.
There was a time when half the class would have been interested in the guitar, but those times seem to have faded into the past. There may still be a few students, however, who could discuss the chords they have been learning to play.
Ask them which chord they learned first, and then which second. Chances are they were tonic-dominant, with the third chord a sub-dominant, allowing many opportunities for classroom discussion and demonstration of what you can do with just three chords.
Describe the functions of the tonic and dominant triads. Discuss the effects of consonances and dissonances. The acoustical basis for consonance and dissonance. The concept of dissonance in music history.
Harmonization traditions of folksongs. KEY Objectives This section defines and illustrates various terms concerning key. Topics covered include tonic and tonality, the major, minor, and chromatic scales, whole and half steps, key signatures, and modulation.
Suggestions 7 IM-Part 1 1. Using America, ask the class to sing the first phrase to give them a feeling of tonality and the tonic. Intervals can then be introduced, with a reference to the piano octave illustrated previously in the text.
After introducing the concept of major tonality with America or other simple songs, play or sing the same song in minor, introducing the concepts of minor tonality and key signatures. For clarification and reinforcement, sing or play the C major and minor scales, then the C major and A minor for comparison.
By comparing C major with A minor, for example, you can also introduce the concept of relative keys. Joshua Fought the Battle of Jericho is presented as an example of a song in minor, and the same technique as above could be used: first have them sing it in minor, and then again in major.
Chromaticism and modulation can be demonstrated simply on the piano, or by referring to the examples played in previous classes.
Music An Appreciation, Brief 8th Edition by Roger Kamien (eBook PDF)
With modulations, it might be helpful to have the class hum the tonic to help them identify the change of key or mode. Listening Outlines for all three selections are in the text. Compare the interval patterns of the major and minor scales.
Discuss the factors that contribute to a sense of tonality. Discuss the structure and expressive effect of the chromatic scale.
The historical evolution of the major scale as the basis of western music. Scale patterns other than major, minor, or chromatic. Tonality in nonwestern music. Imitation is defined and illustrated by the familiar round Row, Row, Row your Boat, and then the song is presented with chordal accompaniment. The most common, and the original meaning of the word texture deals with the weaving of fibers. Using this analogy of weaving strands of melody into a cloth of sound, we can develop the three possibilities of musical texture.
The text uses Row, Row, Row your Boat as an example, and the class could sing the song in unison to demonstrate monophonic texture the acceptance of octaves must be explained in this regard, assuming there are men and women singing. The song can then be performed as a round, demonstrating polyphonic texture.
Some additional examples of musical texture from the recordings: monophonic: Gregorian chant Alleluia: Vidimus stellam, Bach, Little Fugue opening polyphonic, with imitation: Josquin, Ave Maria, Bach, Little Fugue polyphonic, with different melodies: Bach, Wachet Auf, fourth movement homophonic, rhythmic accompaniment different from melody: Chopin, Prelude in E Minor homophonic, rhythmic accompaniment same as melody: Tchaikovsky, Romeo and Juliet 3.
Explain the difference between contrapuntal texture and imitation. Discuss the varying functions of the accompaniment in homophony.
Polyphony in jazz. Texture as an element of variety in supply one of the works previously discussed in class. The text refers to some simple melodies that introduced the concepts of form, repetition, and contrast. At this time you can discuss a basic problem inherent in all creative endeavors: how to provide variety, and yet maintain unity in a work, whether it be musical, architectural, sculptural, literary, or any other phase of human creativity.
Using the simple ABA form, one can show variety through the contrasting section, and unity by the return. One can deal similarly with other forms, such as theme and variations, rondo, or the minuet and trio. In introducing ABA form, you might ask the students individually or as a class to sing a simple song such as Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, and identify the form. From a practical point of view, especially if the students are more mature, ask them to sing the Alphabet Song as heard in school or on Sesame Street.
Chances are most of them will get through the alphabet and then break down on the return section, having run out of letters.
Helping them to learn the song will encourage them to help their own children learn the alphabet in a pleasant and musical way. If not confusing to the students this early, there are several video cassettes available of The Nutcracker that can be used to reinforce form, and also introduce ballet. Discuss the functions of repetition, contrast, and variation in musical form. Compare and contrast binary and ternary form. Discuss the difference between literal and developmental repetition. Problems in perceiving form.
Solutions to the creative problem of variety versus unity. An analysis of contemporary rock forms. Approximate dates are given for the major style periods of western music, and the role of music in society is briefly touched.
Music: An Appreciation
Style is quite difficult to put into words, and you might consider approaching style visually before aurally. Whether you use the terms classical-romantic, Apollonian-Dionysian, or ethos-pathos, the contrast is the same, and many examples can be found without too much difficulty.
In music, for example, contrast the Dies Irae section of the Mozart Requiem with the same section in other Requiems, such as the ones by Verdi, Berlioz, or Brahms. The text is the same, but the style of composition is obviously quite different.
Videos are available for the Mozart and Verdi Requiems. Another approach to style would be to compare the treatments given the same song by different artists.
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You might ask the students which they prefer, musically speaking, and then discuss the message each is trying to convey.Phraseology in music and language. Highlighted terms in the text are also defined in the Glossary. Explain the difference between contrapuntal texture and imitation. Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.
The text contains other simple musical examples that can be used as further examples of printed notation. An important section deals with new technologies in electronic instruments, including brief discussions of the tape studio, synthesizers, analog synthesis, digital frequency modulation synthesis, effects devices, sampling, MIDI, and the use of computers.