A classic in its field, Human Osteology has been used by students and professionals Download as PDF Juvenile Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual. Human Osteology Jessica Kaiser I n , the Osteology and Bioarchaeology concentra- tion in the second AERA-arce Advanced Field School was the. ANT /L M/W / F Bldg 13, Rm Human Osteology Fall Instructor: Course Description Dr. Kristina Killgrove Bldg 13, Rm
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Osteology of the Human Body. Without the skeletal system, you would be unable to engage in activities such as walking or grasping objects in your hand. PDF | On Jan 1, , Nielsen-Marsh and others published Human Osteology in Archaeology and Forensic Science. Human Osteology - 3rd Edition - ISBN: , View on ScienceDirect. Human Osteology DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi).
In the lower part of the nasal aperture, The orbits and the mandible will be considered in the midline, the maxillae show a sharp forward separately. The part of the maxilla that bears the teeth is called the Articulations alveolar process. Each maxilla bears eight teeth. Lateral to the orbit the frontal bone ends in the Beginning from the midline there are two incisors, zygomatic process which joins the frontal process one canine, two premolars and three molars.
Just of the zygomatic bone at the frontozygomatic above the canine tooth the maxilla shows a vertical suture. The nasal part of the frontal bone projects elevation produced by the root of this tooth: this is downwards between the two orbits.
On either side the canine eminence. Medial to this eminence and of the midline it meets the frontal process of the above the incisor teeth there is a depression called maxilla at the frontomaxillary suture, and the nasal the incisive fossa; and lateral to it there is another bone at the frontonasal suture.
The nasal bones depression, the canine fossa.
Below the nasal aperture the right and left At the junction of the medial one-third and the maxillae meet at the intermaxillary suture. Laterally, lateral two-thirds of the upper margin of the orbit 10 Human Osteology for Dental Students Fig. Compare with Figure 2. For details within the orbit see Figure 2. Medial to it a The anterior nasal aperture is a pear shaped open- smaller frontal notch or foramen is often seen. On ing Fig. On either side its margin is formed the lateral surface of the zygomatic bone we see the mainly by the nasal notch of the maxilla.
Its upper zygomaticofacial foramen which is sometimes part is bounded by the lower borders of the nasal double.
About a centimeter below the inferior mar- bones. In the depth of the aperture we can see the gin of the orbit there is a large infraorbital foramen nasal septum separating the right and left nasal on the anterior surface of the maxilla. Its upper part is formed by a part of the The Skull as a Whole 11 Fig. The orbital part of the orbicularis oculi Lateral to the septum we see two curved plates muscle arises from the nasal part of the of bone projecting into each nasal cavity from the lateral side.
These are the middle and inferior nasal frontal bone, and from the frontal process conchae. The middle concha is a part of the ethmoid of the maxilla. The lacrimal part of the bone while the inferior concha is an independent orbicularis oculi arises from the part of the bone that is attached to the maxilla. The corrugator supercilii arises from the through the region of the nasal cavity and the orbit medial end of the superciliary arch.
In particular, note the orientation of the 3. The zygomaticus major arises from the lateral ethmoid bone in relation to these cavities, and to surface of the zygomatic bone in front of the the floor of the anterior cranial fossa.
Orbital Margins 5. The levator labii superioris arises from the The upper margin of the orbit is formed by the lower margin of the orbit, partly from the frontal bone Fig. The lateral margin is formed maxilla and partly from the zygomatic bone. The levator anguli oris arises from the canine formed by the zygomatic process of the frontal fossa of the maxilla below the infraorbital bone.
The inferior margin is formed in its lateral foramen. The levator labii superioris alaeque nasi arises by the maxilla. The medial margin is formed mainly from the frontal process of the maxilla. The procerus arises from the lower part of the is formed by the nasal part of the frontal bone.
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The nasalis has two parts. The transverse Walls of the Orbit part arises from the maxilla just lateral to the Each orbit is shaped like a pyramid. The orbital nasal notch; and the alar part from the maxilla opening represents the base of the pyramid, while below and medial to the transverse part. The orbit has a The depressor septi arises from the maxilla roof, a floor, a medial wall and a lateral wall; but just above the central incisor tooth.
The incisivus labii superioris arises from the The roof is formed mainly by the orbital plate maxilla above the lateral incisor tooth. Posteriorly, a small part of it In the Figure 2. Note attachments of the temporalis, the masseter and the that these bones also form the floor of the anterior buccinator. These are better seen from the lateral side.
The anterolateral part of the roof has The Skull as a Whole 13 Fig. Close to the orbital The floor is formed mainly by the maxilla This margin, at the junction of the roof and medial wall, part of the maxilla is its orbital surface. The antero- there is a small depression called the trochlear fossa. Posteromedially, a small part of the floor is the lacrimal sac. The groove is bounded anteriorly formed by a part of the palatine bone called the by the anterior lacrimal crest on the frontal process orbital process.
The by the zygomatic bone, and in its posterior part by suture joining the maxilla and the lacrimal bone runs the greater wing of the sphenoid.
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The The medial wall is formed mainly by the orbital groove is continuous, inferiorly, with the nasolac- plate of the ethmoid. Posterior to the ethmoid a rimal canal, the lower end of which opens into the nasal cavity. Anterior to the ethmoid the wall is formed Apertures in the Orbit by the lacrimal bone, and still further anteriorly by the frontal process of the maxilla.
The region of The superior orbital fissure is a prominent cleft the medial wall formed by the lacrimal bone and that separates the posterior parts of the roof and by the maxilla shows a deep lacrimal groove for lateral wall Fig.
It is bounded above and Fig. The figure is schematic to the extent that all features shown cannot be seen from one fixed angle of viewing The Skull as a Whole 15 medially by the lesser wing of the sphenoid; and zygomaticofacial foramen; and that of the other canal below and laterally by the greater wing.
Medial to opens on the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone it, at the apex of the orbit, there is the opening of as the zygomaticotemporal foramen Fig. This canal lies between the body of the sphenoid, and its lesser wing. It is bounded above and laterally by the already been mentioned. Some additional features greater wing of the sphenoid, and below and medially may now be noted Fig. The fissure is The point where the coronal and sagittal sutures continuous anteriorly with the infraorbital groove on meet is called the bregma, while the point where the maxilla.
Anteriorly, the groove ends in a canal the sagittal suture meets the lambdoid suture is which passes through the bony substance of the called the lambda.
In the fetal skull and for a few maxilla to open on the surface through the infraorbital months after birth there are gaps in the bones of foramen. At the junction of the roof and the medial the skull in these situations, these being filled by wall, on the suture separating the orbital plate of the membranes.
These gaps are called the anterior and ethmoid from the frontal bone, we see the anterior posterior fontanelles. Examination of the parietal and posterior ethmoidal foramina.
On the lateral wall bone shows that in one area in its posterolateral there are two small foramina on the orbital surface part it is more convex than at other places: this of the zygomatic bone: they open into canals within area is called the parietal tuber or eminence. Near the bone. The other end of one of these canals opens the posterior part of the sagittal suture each parietal on the external surface of the zygomatic bone as the bone has a parietal foramen which may sometimes Fig.
The zygomatic process of the temporal bone has been removed, and a coronal section cut through the middle cranial fossa 16 Human Osteology for Dental Students Fig. The temporal lines can be seen on the the posterior part of the vault of the skull; and a lateral part of the parietal and frontal bones. A little above the lambda Fig. Below the external extremely complicated, and sometimes small occipital protuberance there is a median ridge, the pieces of bone are completely surrounded by parts external occipital crest.
Running laterally from the of the suture: these are called sutural bones. Below crest there are the right and left inferior nuchal lines. We also see the parietomastoid Articulations suture that unites the posterior part of the parietal bone to the mastoid part of the temporal bone.
The lower margin of the frontal bone articulates The part of the occipital bone seen from behind with several bones forming the frontonasal, fronto is the squamous part. It can be subdivided into an maxillary, frontolacrimal, frontoethmoid and upper triangular part which is smooth, and forms frontozygomatic sutures Fig. These have The Skull as a Whole 17 Fig. Behind the pterion lies 4 cm above the zygomatic arch, and frontozygomatic suture the frontal bone articulates 3.
This with the upper border of the greater wing of the fact is of surgical importance. We have already sphenoid at the frontosphenoid suture. The posterior seen that the frontal process of the zygomatic bone end of this suture meets the coronal suture. The bone also gives off the parietal bone meets the posterior border of the a temporal process that runs backwards to join the frontal bone at the coronal suture.
Other articulations zygomatic process of the temporal bone to form of the parietal bone are as follows. Its anteroinferior the zygomatic arch. Posteriorly, the frontal process angle joins the greater wing of the sphenoid at the of the zygomatic bone articulates with the anterior parietosphenoid suture.
Further back the inferior margin of the greater wing of the sphenoid This border articulates with the squamous and mastoid suture is hidden from view by the frontal process: parts of the temporal bone at the parietosquamous it is indicated in dotted line in Fig. The posterior border of The temporal bone articulates with the parietal the bone is joined to the occipital bone through the bone above; in front with the greater wing of lambdoid suture.
Each parietal bone articulates with the sphenoid, and through its zygomatic process the the parietal bone of the opposite side through with the zygomatic bone; and behind through its the sagittal suture.
Near the anteroinferior angle of mastoid part with the occipital bone. Inferiorly, it the parietal bone the sutures form an H shaped bears a fossa for articulation with the head of the arrangement.
Four bones, the parietal, frontal, mandible to form the temporomandibular joint. Lower down encloses parts of all these bones.
The area enclosed it articulates with the mastoid part of the temporal by the circle is called the pterion. The centre of the bone. It then runs backwards across the Foramina parietal bone. Anteriorly a single ridge is seen, but The parietal foramen and the zygomaticofacial fora- posteriorly it is usually possible to make out two men have already been identified. The zygomatico- lines, superior and inferior. The superior line fades temporal foramen is present on the temporal surface of away on the posteroinferior part of the parietal the zygomatic bone Fig.
The inferior line curves forwards on to the men is situated on or near the occipitomastoid suture. This crest separates Other Named Features the squamous and mastoid parts of the temporal Note the following in the Figure 2.
The late bone, and is continuous anteriorly with the posterior ral side of the vault of the skull is marked by a root of the zygomatic process.
Just below this root Fig. Also see figures 2.
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Remnants of this suture may be the external acoustic meatus. This meatus forms visible in the adult. We have noted that the mastoid part of the external ear. The point at which these two sutures meet is called the fossa. In its floor we see parts of the frontal and parietal asterion. Just behind the external acoustic meatus bones; of the squamous part of the temporal bone; the mastoid part of the temporal bone shows a large and of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.
The downward projection called the mastoid process anterior wall of the fossa Fig. The styloid process by the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone. It projects downwards and forwards from the sphenoid, and from the frontal bone.
The mastoid part of the temporal bone lies A number of additional features, located in the behind the external acoustic meatus. In the young region of the zygomatic arch, are shown in Figure it is separated from the squamous part by the squa- 2. Note the following. The posterior part of the arch is formed by be seen when the arch is cut away Fig. The the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. At its temporal surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid posterior end the zygomatic process of the temporal has been seen in the floor of the temporal fossa.
The Inferiorly, this surface ends in a sharp ridge called posterior root passes backwards along the lateral the infratemporal crest. Medial to the crest we see margin of the mandibular fossa, and then above the infratemporal surface of the greater wing; this the external acoustic meatus to become continuous surface faces downwards.
The anterior root of Further medially, we see another part of the the zygomatic process passes medially in front of sphenoid called the pterygoid process. This process the mandibular fossa. Two projections are seen in projects downwards from the junction of the body relation to the roots of the zygomatic process.
At and the greater wing. When viewed from behind the junction of the anterior root with the process Fig.
The other teriorly, but meet anteriorly to enclose the pterygoid projection is seen just behind the mandibular fossa: fossa. When viewed from the side Fig. Below The bone around the opening of the external and medial to the mandibular fossa we see another acoustic meatus is rough and serves to give attach- projection from the sphenoid called the spine. Part The irregular space lying lateral to the pterygoid of this area which forms the anterior margin, the process is called the infratemporal fossa.
Its roof inferior margin and the lower part of the posterior is formed mainly by the infratemporal surface margin of the meatus belongs to the tympanic part of the greater wing of the sphenoid, with a small of the temporal bone, also called the tympanic plate.
More Posteriorly, the tympanic part joins the mastoid laterally the fossa communicates with the temporal part of the bone. The tympanic plate has a broad fossa through the gap between the zygomatic arch anterior surface which lies behind the mandibular and the side of the skull.
The anterior wall of the fossa which is formed by the squamous part of infratemporal fossa is formed by the posterior the temporal bone. The two are separated by the surface of the maxilla Fig. The lowest part of squamotympanic fissure. Its the maxillary tuberosity. The medial wall is formed upper border is formed by the supramastoid crest. Its by the pterygoid process, but in its lower part it is anteroinferior border is formed by the posterosuperior formed by a small part of the palatine bone called part of the external acoustic meatus.
Its posterior the pyramidal process. The anterior and medial border is an imaginary vertical line touching the walls of the infratemporal fossa meet below, but posterior margin of the meatus. The importance of the they are separated in the upper part by the pterygo- triangle is that an important cavity, the mastoid antrum, maxillary fissure. The fissure is continuous above lies deep to it in the substance of the petrous part of with the inferior orbital fissure.
The triangle itself is, however, The pterygomaxillary fissure leads into a space formed by bone belonging to the squamous part of called the pterygopalatine fossa which is described the temporal bone. The Skull as a Whole 21 Fig. Below this there is the see. They are shown somewhat schematically Fig.
The posterior 2. The fossa has an anterior wall formed by the end of this canal opens on the anterior wall of the posterior surface of the maxilla; a posterior wall foramen lacerum. The medial bone called the perpendicular plate which separates wall of the fossa shows a large sphenopalatine the fossa from the nasal cavity. The uppermost part of foramen through which the fossa communicates the medial wall is formed by the body of the sphenoid with the nasal cavity. Inferiorly, the fossa is closed bone.
Laterally, the pterygopalatine fossa opens into on the surface by meeting of the maxilla and the the infratemporal fossa through the pterygomaxillary pterygoid process, but at a deeper plane there is an fissure. Above, the fossa communicates with the orbit opening in the floor of the fossa which leads into through the inferior orbital fissure.
The posterior wall the greater palatine canal which opens inferiorly of the fossa presents three openings. The upper and on the posterior part of the palate. It includes parts of the frontal, parietal, and squamous temporal bones; and 1. In the anterior part of the skull we see the of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.
The sternocleidomastoid muscle is inserted These have already been described Fig. The masseter arises from the zygomatic arch line; and into the lateral surface of the mastoid lower border and deep surface. The buccinator arises from the lateral aspect 8.
The trapezius arises from the medial one of the maxilla a little above the three molar third of the superior nuchal line, and from teeth. Note that this muscle also arises from the external occipital protuberance The the mandible. The lateral pterygoid arises by two heads. The 9. The occipitalis or occipital belly of the lower head arises from the lateral surface of occip itofrontalis arises from the lateral the lateral pterygoid plate.
The upper head part of the highest nuchal line and from the arises from the infratemporal surface and crest mastoid process. The splenius capitis is inserted into the mastoid process and into the occipital bone 5.
The superficial slip of the medial pterygoid just below the lateral one-third of the superior muscle arises from the lateral aspect of the nuchal line deep to the sternocleidomastoid.
The longissimus capitis is inserted into the from the maxillary tuberosity The main part mastoid process deep to the splenius capitis. The styloid process gives attachment to the of the lateral pterygoid plate. The temporalis arises from the whole of the a.
The stylohyoid muscle arises from its temporal fossa. The area of origin is bounded posterior aspect. The Skull as a Whole 23 Fig. The styloglossus muscle arises from its the base have been identified Fig. We shall anterior aspect near the tip. The stylopharyngeus muscle arises from these bones when the skull is viewed from below. Note the following in the Figure 2. Bilezikian, Lawrence G. Rodan Academic Press, 2 ed. Principles of Bone Biology provides the most comprehensive, authoritative reference on the study of bone biology and related diseases.
It is the essential resource for anyone involved in the study of bone biology. Bone research in recent years has generated enormous attention, mainly because of the broad public health implications of osteoporosis and related bone disorders.
Louise Scheuer: Buckwalter, et al.: Datta, W. Ng, J. Walker, et al.: The cell biology of bone metabolism , Journal of Clinical Pathology , 61 , Nadia Rucci: Brendan F. Wright, et al.: Rauner, W.
Osteoimmunology , International Archives of Allergy and Immunollogy , , Lorenzo, M.
Walsh, N. Kim, Y.Search In terms of according to AERA procedure, we carry out a large part of mortuary archaeology, the skeletal assessment aims to de- the skeletal analysis in situ, due to the fragmentary nature termine age, sex, and stature, as well as any pathological of the remains.
Remember me Forgot password? Three additional jars and a large dish Thus, these southern burials are probably poor outliers of were placed to the north and south of the coffin color the more elite cemetery to the southwest. Lower Buried New Kingdom:
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