Oracle Database Concepts, 11g Release 2 () adaptation of the programs, including any operating system, integrated software, any programs installed on. Database Systems Using Oracle: A simplified Guide to SQL & PL/SQL Nilesh Shah, PHI Publication, Second Edition. Bob Hughes and Mike Cotterell - Software project management - second edition McGraw Hill 2. Walker Royce - Software Project Management - Addison Wesley. Knowledge about basic database concepts, e.g., table and index. Basic knowledge of SQL. Learning Goals. Use the Oracle DBMS.
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database systems using oracle by nilesh shah pdf free download. Database Systems Using Oracle (2nd Edition) [Nilesh Shah] on bestthing.info database systems using oracle by nilesh shah pdf also commonly distinguished. Lesson Aim. In this lesson, you will gain an understanding of the relational database management system (RDBMS) and the object relational database.
Meeting all the requirements of third normal form and it should not have multi- valued dependencies. What is a View? A view is a virtual table which consists of a subset of data contained in a table.
Views are not virtually present, and it takes less space to store. View can have data of one or more tables combined, and it is depending on the relationship.
What is an Index? An index is performance tuning method of allowing faster retrieval of records from the table. An index creates an entry for each value and it will be faster to retrieve data.
What are all the different types of indexes? There are three types of indexes -. Unique Index. This indexing does not allow the field to have duplicate values if the column is unique indexed.
Unique index can be applied automatically when primary key is defined. Clustered Index. This type of index reorders the physical order of the table and search based on the key values. Each table can have only one clustered index. NonClustered Index. NonClustered Index does not alter the physical order of the table and maintains logical order of data. Each table can have nonclustered indexes. What is a Cursor?
A database Cursor is a control which enables traversal over the rows or records in the table. This can be viewed as a pointer to one row in a set of rows. Cursor is very much useful for traversing such as retrieval, addition and removal of database records.
What is a relationship and what are they? Database Relationship is defined as the connection between the tables in a database.
There are various data basing relationships, and they are as follows:. One to One Relationship. One to Many Relationship. Many to One Relationship.
Self-Referencing Relationship. What is a query? A DB query is a code written in order to get the information back from the database. Query can be designed in such a way that it matched with our expectation of the result set. Simply, a question to the Database.
What is subquery?
A subquery is a query within another query. The outer query is called as main query, and inner query is called subquery. SubQuery is always executed first, and the result of subquery is passed on to the main query.
DBMS vs RDBMS: Complete Difference between DBMS and RDBMS
What are the types of subquery? There are two types of subquery — Correlated and Non-Correlated. A correlated subquery cannot be considered as independent query, but it can refer the column in a table listed in the FROM the list of the main query. A Non-Correlated sub query can be considered as independent query and the output of subquery are substituted in the main query.
What is a stored procedure? Stored Procedure is a function consists of many SQL statement to access the database system. Several SQL statements are consolidated into a stored procedure and execute them whenever and wherever required. What is a trigger? A DB trigger is a code or programs that automatically execute with response to some event on a table or view in a database.
Mainly, trigger helps to maintain the integrity of the database. When a new student is added to the student database, new records should be created in the related tables like Exam, Score and Attendance tables. Commit and Rollback can be performed after delete statement.
Truncate operation cannot be rolled back. What are local and global variables and their differences? Local variables are the variables which can be used or exist inside the function.
They are not known to the other functions and those variables cannot be referred or used. Variables can be created whenever that function is called. Global variables are the variables which can be used or exist throughout the program.
Same variable declared in global cannot be used in functions. Global variables cannot be created whenever that function is called. What is a constraint? Constraint can be used to specify the limit on the data type of table.
Constraint can be specified while creating or altering the table statement. Sample of constraint are.
What is data Integrity? Data Integrity defines the accuracy and consistency of data stored in a database. It can also define integrity constraints to enforce business rules on the data when it is entered into the application or database. What is Auto Increment? Auto increment keyword allows the user to create a unique number to be generated when a new record is inserted into the table.
What is the difference between Cluster and Non-Cluster Index? Clustered index is used for easy retrieval of data from the database by altering the way that the records are stored.
Database sorts out rows by the column which is set to be clustered index. A nonclustered index does not alter the way it was stored but creates a complete separate object within the table.
It point back to the original table rows after searching. What is Datawarehouse? That means it can protect users and applications from needing to know where data is stored or having to be concerned about changes to the physical structure of data storage and hardware. As long as programs use the application programming interface API for the database that is provided by the DBMS, developers won't have to modify programs just because changes have been made to the database.
Columnar database management system CDBMS - well-suited for data warehouses that have a large number of similar data items.
Cloud-based data management system - the cloud service provider is responsible for providing and maintaining the DBMS. One of the biggest advantages of using a DBMS is that it lets end users and application programmers access and use the same data while managing data integrity. Data is better protected and maintained when it can be shared using a DBMS instead of creating new iterations of the same data stored in new files for every new application. The DBMS provides a central store of data that can be accessed by multiple users in a controlled manner.
Central storage and management of data within the DBMS provides: Data abstraction and independence A locking mechanism for concurrent access An efficient handler to balance the needs of multiple applications using the same data The ability to swiftly recover from crashes and errors, including restartability and recoverability Robust data integrity capabilities Logging and auditing of activity Simple access using a standard application programming interface API Uniform administration procedures for data Another advantage of a DBMS is that it can be used to impose a logical, structured organization on the data.
A DBMS delivers economy of scale for processing large amounts of data because it is optimized for such operations. A DBMS can also provide many views of a single database schema. A view defines what data the user sees and how that user sees the data. Sequence of Rows is Insignificant.
Top 50 SQL Interview Questions & Answers
Each Column has a common Name. RDBMs are the most popular databases. Object-Oriented Model In this Model we have to discuss the functionality of the object oriented Programming. It takes more than storage of programming language objects. I t provides full-featured database programming capability, while containing native language compatibility.
What should be top of mind when downloading a DBMS?
It adds the database functionality to object programming languages. This approach is the analogical of the application and database development into a constant data model and language environment. Applications require less code, use more natural data modeling, and code bases are easier to maintain. Object developers can write complete database applications with a decent amount of additional effort.
The object-oriented database derivation is the integrity of object-oriented programming language systems and consistent systems. The power of the object-oriented databases comes from the cyclical treatment of both consistent data, as found in databases, and transient data, as found in executing programs. Object-oriented databases use small, recyclable separated of software called objects. The objects themselves are stored in the object-oriented database. Each object contains of two elements: Piece of data e.
Instructions, or software programs called methods, for what to do with the data. JADE, and Informix. Disadvantage of Object-oriented databases Object-oriented databases have these disadvantages. Object-oriented database are more expensive to develop. In the Most organizations are unwilling to abandon and convert from those databases.For example an email system performing many of the functions of a general-purpose DBMS such as message insertion, message deletion, attachment handling, blocklist lookup, associating messages an email address and so forth however these functions are limited to what is required to handle email.
Several SQL statements are consolidated into a stored procedure and execute them whenever and wherever required. What is SQL? Constraint can be specified while creating or altering the table statement. Database Systems Using Oracle has 46 ratings and 4 reviews.
In , MongoDB , maker of the Atlas cloud platform, acquired mobile app database maker Realm to boost. A mobile database can be carried on or synchronized from a mobile computing device.