PDF | Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal. PDF | Alpinia calcarata, a member of Zingiberaceae family, is commonly found in Bangladesh and has been used for many years in traditional. Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka.

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PLANT REVIEW Alpinia calcarata Roscoe: A potential phytopharmacological source of natural medicine Md Atiar Rahman, Md Shahidul Islam1 Department of . Alpinia galanga Willd. (Family-. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as galangal, is an important cultivated medicinal crop of India. It is well known official. Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Results: This review provides a comprehensive report on Alpinia galanga having anti-proliferative, apoptotic, anti PDF ( KB).

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Thus, these oils may show repellant as well as toxic effects on insects. The electrophysical responses of the A. In the behavioral bioassay, the essential oil elicited significantly higher repellant properties in P. Fertility was determined in a separate group with the highest dose using a noncompetitive copulation test.

Sexual behavior study noted that the hot water extract of A. Moreover, the counts for rats mounting and intromitting, and the latencies for mounting and intromission were inhibited. These observations collectively noticed a strong aphrodisiac action of A. However, a high dose of hot water extract slightly impaired the sexual motivation in a partner preference test. In fertility test, profound oligozoospermia was induced although fertility was uninhibited.

With the administration of the highest dose of hot water extract, the serum testosterone level was elevated.

The number of spontaneous penile erections was also elevated rapidly and markedly. The study concluded that rhizomes of A. The toxic effects of host were not very serious to be recovered gradually towards normal within a few days after treatment. This research concluded the potent cytotoxic activity of rhizome ethanol extract of A. The data suggested that the plant could be recommended as a newer and potential source of antitumor agents. Enzymatic effect of A.

Among thirty isolates of endophytic fungi of A. Ac-7 showed highest amylolytic activity and was taken for further study. Influence of various physical and chemical factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on amylase production in liquid media were studied. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, maltose at 1. An effective but unsafe drug, nonetheless, becomes abandoned.

Due to many important and effective uses, an evaluation has been made whether A. Experimental rats did not show any acute or chronic toxic effects as evident from their effects on hepatic function, nephritic function, RBC count, WBC count and hemoglobin concentration. Even no toxicity was noticed on external morphology and wet weights of selected organs. Apart from these, no evidence was appeared to mediate any unacceptable effects on water and food intake, body weight gain, consistency of feces and color of urine by both the extracts.

The researchers concluded that hot ethanol extract and hot water extract of A. Genetic diversity of A.

Calcarata Plant polyphenols contribute as valuable secondary metabolites containing a wide spectrum of biological activities. Most of the genes coding for the biosynthetic machineries of plant secondary metabolism are encoded by small families of genes originated via the duplication over evolutionary time. The amino acid residues forming these pockets are located mostly within the second exon.

However, the genomic distribution of the PKS superfamily in medicinal plants is still little investigated; Radhakrishnan et al. This forms gateway information of distribution of novel PKSs in Zingiberaceae. The sequence analysis of the second exon of A.

The sequence identified in this study opens a perspective for further molecular investigation, their metabolite richness, the distribution of structurally diverse phenolic compounds throughout the A. The study concluded the higher probability that PKSs in Zingiberaceae might have been subject to remarkable genomic changes. Standardization of A. An investigation was carried out to standardize the rhizomes of A. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in A.

The percentages of moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, ethanol extractable matter and water extractable matter were of 5. To detect the improper handling and adulteration of drugs their physicochemical analysis is very important. The total ash is especially important for the evaluation of quality and purity of drugs.

Usually the total ash includes both the physiologic and non-physiologic ash such as carbonates, phosphates, silicates, and silica. High ash value indicates an adulteration, contamination, substitution or carelessness in preparing the crude drug for marketing. Comparison of the values for total ash and acid-soluble ash of the same sample will differentiate between contaminants and variations of the natural ash of the drug.

Water soluble ash indicates the water soluble salts in the drug. The water soluble extractive value can help the best to identify the quality, adulteration, or incorrect processing of the crude drug during the process of storage and drying. Insufficient drying can lead to spoilage of the plant materials by molds and bacteria. It also makes possible the enzymatic destruction of active principles. Clonal propagation of A. Moreover, it is impractical and uneconomic to utilize the rhizomes for cultivation purposes as it constitute the raw material for the drug preparation.

Furthermore, improvement through conventional breeding is difficult due to its rare flowering and lack of seed set. Prolonged maturity period is yet another barrier for the continuous availability of propagules for cultivation.

In vitro propagation techniques through resident meristems favor the production of true plants. It is well accepted and proven technology to generate genuine raw materials of medicinal plants. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites are advantageous for the micropropagation of medicinal plants and it has been reported for many medicinal plant species.

Research has shown well as in the national herbarium, Mirpur, Dhaka, antibacterial 21, anthelmintic 27, antifungal 43, Bangladesh for further reference. This water mixture was placed Rhizomes, roots and leaves of A.

Calcarata in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus , have been studied and revealed the presence of Hospital Equipment Mfg. The collected oil was dried over methyl cinnamate and several diterpenes 7,29,35, However, we extended was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass the GC-MS analysis of essential oil only to Spectroscopy GC-MS with electron impact describe best the role of compounds in anti- ionization EI method on a gas chromatograph inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects.

A Chemicals and drugs fused silica capillary column 30 m x 2. Acquisition parameters were provided by GlaxoSmithKline Ltd. Concentrated formalin amu. All animals were fed herbarium of BCSIR Laboratory, Chittagong as with a commercial rat pellet diet during the entire experimental period.

Animals were maintained kg was intraperitoneally injected to the mice of and experiment was carried out according to the EOSO and DS groups 30 min later of essential rules and regulations of the Institutional Animal oil injection in all groups. Anti-inflammatory activity test The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil Formalin-induced pain test was determined by using carrageenan-induced The formalin-induced pain model was paw edema test in the hind paw of Wistar Albino conducted following the protocol reported by rat as reported previously Briefly, the animals Gaertner et al.

Mice pre- group. The essential oil of A. The duration of time the animal spent licking were administered intraperitoneally to all groups the injected paw was measured with a just 30 min before the subplantar injection of chronometer and was considered as severity of carrageenan. The volume of right hind paw was pain. The inhibition of paw Hot plate method edema was calculated as described by Olajide et The thermal pain test in mice was carried out al.

Prior to dosing test substances, the reaction times were measured deviation of 5 animals in each test group. The and were used as pre-drug latency.

Mice were data were analyzed by a statistical software ingested with essential oil to all groups. After a package SPSS, version The values were considered significantly latency. Post-treatment latency - Pre-treatment latency The data for the increase of paw edema due to carrageenan injection are presented in Table 2. GS-MS composition of A. Calcarataessential oil No. Increase of paw thickness in the 3rd hour of ingestion. EOSO group showed no responses are shown in Table 4.

EOSO groups, due to acetic acid were The data for the inhibition of paw thickness significantly inhibited compared to DS 20 group. The maximum 2. Table 3. The data for formalin test results are presented Discussion in Table 5.

Analgesic action of essential oil was Carrageenan induced paw edema test has been found in both the earlier and late phase of found very suitable to evaluatethe anti- formalin induced pain. In the early phase of inflammatory properties of natural drugs for its licking time, EOSO group produced a highly promising sensitivity in detecting active anti- significant reduction Carrageenan induced licking, EOSO group produced the highest rat paw edema model has also been documented reduction The initial phase the control value throughout the period of observed during the first hour was attributed to observation.

Superscripta-eover the lines is significantly different from each other SPSS for windows, version Table 6. This release of mediators 17, All these have shown a good compound- leads to a dilation of the arterioles and venules to activity relationship between essential oil increase vascular permeability for fluid and constituents and the observed effect. Alone or in model is a sensitive procedure to establish appropriate combination, AAs are capable of nociceptive action because acetic acid provokes producing the characteristic signs of a stereotypical behavior in mice characterized by inflammation.

The highest inhi-.

A Review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Alpinia galanga

In this model, nociceptive mechanism is bition was observed with relatively lower or directed by the release of AA, via cyclooxygenase moderate doses at the shorter time period. This enzyme, which exacerbates the synthesis of phenomenon is usually explained by hormetic prostaglandins that are sensitive to pain sensing effect where the existence of the hormesis, nerve endings When prostaglandins are nonsaturable stimulatory responses 11, is not released, the nerve endings respond to it through dependant on understanding the molecular prostaglandin E2 receptor by picking and mechanism s responsible for the observed transmitting the pain and injury messages to the effects.

Therefore, it has been suggested that the defined and finite range below the inhibitory inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis is threshold. The inhibition of paw edema by remarkably an efficient analgesic mechanism that essential oil in the third and fourth hour of is attributed by many natural products and investigation might have followed the hormesis bioactive compounds Essential oil components to display an inverted dose-response relationship.

The lead to the possible anti-inflammatory and test is sensitive for various classes of analgesic antinociceptive effects because many of essential drugs of two distinct phases. The initial phase is oil components e. The terpene oxide, 1,8-cineol, histamine, prostaglandin, serotonin and present in many essential oils are shown to inhibit bradykinin by formalin 37, The initial phase, leukotrines LTB4 and prostaglandins PGE2 starting immediately after the formalin injection, leading to both pathways of AA metabolism.

This result could further be supported by the fact that the oil, by liver enzymes, with morphine, a centrally acting drug morphine inhibits the initial prototypical opioid analgesic produces central phase more than the late phase while a antinociceptive action through its major peripherally acting drug only inhibits the late metabolite morphineglucuronide M3G and phase However, administration of essential oil morphineglucuronide M6G.

However, the reduced the time spent in licking and biting of antinociceptive ability of essential oil in these injected paw in both the phases of this study. In mice models of our rhizome against inflammation and nociception study, the antinociceptive action of essential oil suggests a rational basis of its use as folk and is measured with latency time, which was traditional medicine in inflammatory ailments.

This increase of latency leading to the could be extensively studied in further antinociceptive activity may be partially mediated research. The nociceptive effect was concluded by the Acknowledgement maximum possible effect MPE achieved in The authors wish to thank Bangladesh Council different time intervals for individual dose.

References 1. Abbott, F. Effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine precursors on morphine analgesia in the formalin test. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Arambewela, L. Traditional treatment in Sri Lanka for chronic Arthritis. Colombo, Sri Lanka. Antinoci- ceptive activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes in rats.

Gastropro- tective activity of hot ethanolic extract of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes in rats. Ceylon Journal of Medical Sciences. Effect of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes on ethanol - induced gastric ulcers in rats.

Pharmacognosy Magazine. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of the aqueous and the ethanolic extracts of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes in rats. Antioxidant and antifungal acti- vities of essential oil of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe rhizomes. Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine.

Asongalem, E. Anti-inflam- matory, lack of central analgesia and antipyretic properties of Acanthusmontanus Ness T. Bars, D. Animal models of nociception. Pharma- cological Review.


Boots, A. In vitro and ex vivo anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin in healthy volunteers. Calabrese, E. U-shaped dose-responses in biology toxicology, and public health. Annual Review of Public Health. Chopra, R. Nayar, S. Glossary of indian medicinal plants.

Cornu, A. Compilation of Mass Spectral Data, Vols. Crunkhon, P. Mediators of inflammation induced in the rat paw by carrageenan. British Journal of Pharmacology. Davies, P. The role of arachidonic acid oxygenation products in pain and inflammation. Annual Review of Immunology. DiRosa, M. Studies of the acute inflammatory response induced in rats in different sites by carrageenan and turpentine. Dung, N. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil isolated from the buds of Cleistocalyxoperculatus Roxb Merr and Perry.

Food and Chemical Toxicology. Ferreira, S. Thehyperalgesic effects of prosta- cyclin and PGE2. Franzotti, E.

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and acute toxicity of Sida cadifolia L. Gaertner, M.Results: This review provides a comprehensive report on Alpinia galanga having anti-proliferative, apoptotic, anti angiogenic as well as cytotoxic efficacy and their mode of action in vitro as well as in vivo condition.

Seibert, K. Investigations on plant antibiotics part IV. Anti-inflam- matory, lack of central analgesia and antipyretic properties of Acanthusmontanus Ness T.

Some articles were component of crude drugs, which must be eliminated as far found through tracking citations from other publications or by as practicable.

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