PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS. Service provider: REA Kvarner d.o.o.. Comissioning party: IRENA- Istrian regional energy agency. Prepared by: Approved by. PDF | The spectrum of solar energy is quite wide and its intensity varies according to the timing of electricity with particular emphasis on photovoltaic systems. Classifying solar energy technologies and types of PV systems. ▻ Recognizing the benefits and limitations of PV systems compared to other generation sources .
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You can install as small or as large a PV system as you need. Example: One put a PV system on a house or building and supply as much energy as wanted. information on the installation requirements for solar PV systems, operations and recommended .. bestthing.info%bestthing.info design of PV solar cells and systems. It is written to address the basic elements of photovoltaics-the individual electricity-producing cell. The reader is told why.
Yet high-quality PV system performance data and optimization routines are normally closely-guarded trade secrets. This results in sub-optimal PV system deployment and concomitant reductions in solar electricity generation and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The partnership contains both academic and industry stakeholders, as seen in Table 1. Representative image of the first test field located at the roof of the Wind Turbine and Trades building at St.
Representative image of second test field located on a flat rooftop at St. This paper documents how the teamwork between educational institutions and industry has resulted in one of the largest systems in the world as seen in figures for this detailed level of analysis of PV systems performance in real-world conditions. The challenges to this approach will be addressed, and appropriate models for garnering industrial team work will be discussed.
Conclusions will be drawn on how to scale other opportunities for the sharing of data to assist in improved optimization of socially beneficial appropriate technologies. Lawrence College and which has room for 60 commercial PV panels, which are divided between eight angles of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 degrees as seen in Figure 1. The second test field is located on a flat rooftop at St.
Lawrence Col- lege and consists of two commercial flat roof ballasted systems as seen in Figure 2. Here open source is further expanded to ideas con- cerning experimental designs and protocols, systems design, data, and even hardware designs. From small scale residential to large multi-MW ven- World Radiometric Reference in Davos, tures, developers are interested in the effect of snow on the performance of different types of panels and on the optimization of racking Switzerland, fitted with an adjustable angles.
There have been very few comprehensive studies performed which attempt to quantify the effects of snowfall, and none which shadow band. Thus, the first goal of the study is to Albedo directly traceable to the World Radiometric attempt to gain a better understanding of the effects of snowfall on PV performance, and to provide some recommendations for reducing Reference in Davos, Switzerland. By monitoring panel output, solar influx, snowfall, and meteorological factors, a loss due to snowfall can be determined for a general system at a variety of angles.
A series of analysis algorithms have been developed which allow for constant data mining to determine factors such as snow cover- Direction monitor direction sensor. This type of intellectual straightjacket is particularly impor- pulses. Finally, the application of open sourcing in fields such as nanotechnology Bruns ; Mushtaq and Pearce System CR environmental monitoring. However, there has been no examination of the application of openness in the technology of measurements.
Innovations in the PV industry, in camera array at 5 minute intervals. Photos megapixel general, are created within the research and development labs of universities and research centres, turnkey suppliers, and manufacturers.
Although IP has been accumulation rate, sliding rate. Temperature thermocouple using Special Limits of Error T-type thermocouple wire. Attached to solid-state However, evidence that patents may start to act as barriers to innovation is apparent in the recent patent ruling against the Swiss firm multiplexers with integrated cold-junction Oerlikon Solar AG. Oerlikon had exclusive rights on a patent covering the manufacturing process for micromorph thin film modules.
The compensation. This is because these two materials have nearly optimal bandgaps Monitoring with MPPT proprietary DC power transducer, calibrated for a double junction solar cell under AM1. Oerlikon filed a patent infringement lawsuit against a module using instrumentation traceable to NIST. If the patent had not been challenged and overturned, research and innovation would This transducer measures Vmp and Imp at have slowed down in the amorphous silicon thin film PV field significantly, due to the large monopoly that Oerlikon would have held over the regular collection intervals.
The use of all companies. It is possible that as the thin film industry matures, more cases of patent infringements will arise, hindering rates of innova- a The largest barrier to entry of all the industry partners was concern over a negative result, which could be derived from the open sourced data set of the OSOTF.
In response to this challenge, a hybrid open source methodology was used, where data which would allow the test site to be 4 utilized for academic research are released openly, while keeping proprietary information that could be utilized for commercial purposes confidential for each company.
In this way, the public, academia, and the industry benefits from a rich data set containing all the information required for academic study Heller, Michael A. The Anticommons in Biomedical Research. In this way, open academic research International Energy Agency. Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy.
Kapczynski, A. Chaifetz, Z. Katz, and Y.
Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States
The open source approach has challenges in bringing valuable and critical data to the public domain to promote innovation and improve products and processes. This is mainly due to industrial concerns about sharing proprietary information and losing competitive advan- Kirkegaard, J.
Hanemann, L. It has been recorded that a group from The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems have created a cell that can reach Photovoltaic cell electrical output is extremely sensitive to shading.
The effects of this shading are well known. If the current drawn from the series string of cells is no greater than the current that can be produced by the shaded cell, the current and so power developed by the string is limited. If enough voltage is available from the rest of the cells in a string, current will be forced through the cell by breaking down the junction in the shaded portion. This breakdown voltage in common cells is between 10 and 30 volts.
Instead of adding to the power produced by the panel, the shaded cell absorbs power, turning it into heat. Since the reverse voltage of a shaded cell is much greater than the forward voltage of an illuminated cell, one shaded cell can absorb the power of many other cells in the string, disproportionately affecting panel output. For example, a shaded cell may drop 8 volts, instead of adding 0. Several methods have been developed to determine shading losses from trees to PV systems over both large regions using LiDAR ,  but also at an individual system level using sketchup.
The main job of the bypass diode is to eliminate hot spots that form on cells that can cause further damage to the array, and cause fires.
Sunlight can be absorbed by dust, snow, or other impurities at the surface of the module. This can reduce the light that strikes the cells.
In general these losses aggregated over the year are small even for locations in Canada. Solar insolation is made up of direct, diffuse, and reflected radiation.
The absorption factor of a PV cell is defined as the fraction of incident solar irradiance that is absorbed by the cell. As such, PV arrays can track the sun through each day to greatly enhance energy collection. However, tracking devices add cost, and require maintenance, so it is more common for PV arrays to have fixed mounts that tilt the array and face solar noon approximately due south in the Northern Hemisphere or due north in the Southern Hemisphere.
The tilt angle, from horizontal, can be varied for season,  but if fixed, should be set to give optimal array output during the peak electrical demand portion of a typical year for a stand-alone system. This optimal module tilt angle is not necessarily identical to the tilt angle for maximum annual array energy output. In addition, later work has shown that spectral effects can play a role in optimal photovoltaic material selection.
For example, the spectral albedo can play a significant role in output depending on the surface around the photovoltaic system  and the type of solar cell material. Modules are assembled into arrays on some kind of mounting system, which may be classified as ground mount, roof mount or pole mount.
For solar parks a large rack is mounted on the ground, and the modules mounted on the rack. For buildings, many different racks have been devised for pitched roofs. For flat roofs, racks, bins and building integrated solutions are used. Side-of-pole mounts are suitable for situations where a pole has something else mounted at its top, such as a light fixture or an antenna.
Pole mounting raises what would otherwise be a ground mounted array above weed shadows and livestock, and may satisfy electrical code requirements regarding inaccessibility of exposed wiring. Pole mounted panels are open to more cooling air on their underside, which increases performance.
A multiplicity of pole top racks can be formed into a parking carport or other shade structure. A rack which does not follow the sun from left to right may allow seasonal adjustment up or down. Due to their outdoor usage, solar cables are specifically designed to be resistant against UV radiation and extremely high temperature fluctuations and are generally unaffected by the weather.
A number of standards specify the usage of electrical wiring in PV systems, such as the IEC by the International Electrotechnical Commission , in section "Solar photovoltaic PV power supply systems" , the British Standard BS , incorporating regulations relating to microgeneration and photovoltaic systems, and the US UL standard , in subject "Photovoltaic Wire".
A solar tracking system tilts a solar panel throughout the day. Depending on the type of tracking system, the panel is either aimed directly at the sun or the brightest area of a partly clouded sky.
In diffuse light i. Because most concentrated photovoltaics systems are very sensitive to the sunlight's angle, tracking systems allow them to produce useful power for more than a brief period each day.
First, when a solar panel is perpendicular to the sunlight, it receives more light on its surface than if it were angled. Second, direct light is used more efficiently than angled light. Accounting for clouds, and the fact that most of the world is not on the equator, and that the sun sets in the evening, the correct measure of solar power is insolation — the average number of kilowatt-hours per square meter per day.
For the weather and latitudes of the United States and Europe, typical insolation ranges from 2.
For very large systems , the added maintenance of tracking is a substantial detriment. For high-concentration photovoltaic systems, dual axis tracking is a necessity.
As the pricing, reliability and performance of single-axis trackers have improved, the systems have been installed in an increasing percentage of utility-scale projects.
This represents growth of 32 percent year-over-year, with similar or greater growth projected as large-scale solar deployment accelerates. Systems designed to deliver alternating current AC , such as grid-connected applications need an inverter to convert the direct current DC from the solar modules to AC. Grid connected inverters must supply AC electricity in sinusoidal form, synchronized to the grid frequency, limit feed in voltage to no higher than the grid voltage and disconnect from the grid if the grid voltage is turned off.
A solar inverter may connect to a string of solar panels. In some installations a solar micro-inverter is connected at each solar panel. AC output may be connected through an electricity meter into the public grid. As of , conversion efficiency for state-of-the-art converters reached more than 98 percent. While string inverters are used in residential to medium-sized commercial PV systems, central inverters cover the large commercial and utility-scale market.
Market-share for central and string inverters are about 50 percent and 48 percent, respectively, leaving less than 2 percent to micro-inverters. Maximum power point tracking MPPT is a technique that grid connected inverters use to get the maximum possible power from the photovoltaic array.
In order to do so, the inverter's MPPT system digitally samples the solar array's ever changing power output and applies the proper resistance to find the optimal maximum power point. Anti-islanding is a protection mechanism that immediately shuts down the inverter preventing it from generating AC power when the connection to the load no longer exists.
This happens, for example, in the case of a blackout. Without this protection, the supply line would become an "island" with power surrounded by a "sea" of unpowered lines, as the solar array continues to deliver DC power during the power outage. Islanding is a hazard to utility workers, who may not realize that an AC circuit is still powered, and it may prevent automatic re-connection of devices.
Although still expensive, PV systems increasingly use rechargeable batteries to store a surplus to be later used at night. Batteries used for grid-storage also stabilize the electrical grid by leveling out peak loads , and play an important role in a smart grid , as they can charge during periods of low demand and feed their stored energy into the grid when demand is high. Common battery technologies used in today's PV systems include the valve regulated lead-acid battery — a modified version of the conventional lead—acid battery , nickel—cadmium and lithium-ion batteries.
Compared to the other types, lead-acid batteries have a shorter lifetime and lower energy density. However, due to their high reliability, low self discharge as well as low investment and maintenance costs, they are currently the predominant technology used in small-scale, residential PV systems, as lithium-ion batteries are still being developed and about 3.
Furthermore, as storage devices for PV systems are stationary, the lower energy and power density and therefore higher weight of lead-acid batteries are not as critical as, for example, in electric transportation : PV systems with an integrated battery solution also need a charge controller , as the varying voltage and current from the solar array requires constant adjustment to prevent damage from overcharging.
More advanced charge controllers will incorporate MPPT logic into their battery charging algorithms. Charge controllers may also divert energy to some purpose other than battery charging.
Rather than simply shut off the free PV energy when not needed, a user may choose to heat air or water once the battery is full. The metering must be able to accumulate energy units in both directions or two meters must be used.
Many meters accumulate bidirectionally, some systems use two meters, but a unidirectional meter with detent will not accumulate energy from any resultant feed into the grid.
This is done where more solar power is being generated than can be accommodated by the utility, and the excess can not either be exported or stored. Grid operators historically have needed to provide transmission lines and generation capacity. Now they need to also provide storage. This is normally hydro-storage, but other means of storage are used. Initially storage was used so that baseload generators could operate at full output.
With variable renewable energy , storage is needed to allow power generation whenever it is available, and consumption whenever it is needed. The two variables a grid operator have are storing electricity for when it is needed, or transmitting it to where it is needed. If both of those fail, installations over 30kWp can automatically shut down, although in practice all inverters maintain voltage regulation and stop supplying power if the load is inadequate.
Grid operators have the option of curtailing excess generation from large systems, although this is more commonly done with wind power than solar power, and results in a substantial loss of revenue.
Photovoltaic systems need to be monitored to detect breakdown and optimize their operation. There are several photovoltaic monitoring strategies depending on the output of the installation and its nature.
Monitoring can be performed on site or remotely. It can measure production only, retrieve all the data from the inverter or retrieve all of the data from the communicating equipment probes, meters, etc. Monitoring tools can be dedicated to supervision only or offer additional functions. Individual inverters and battery charge controllers may include monitoring using manufacturer specific protocols and software.
A third-party data acquisition system can monitor multiple inverters, using the inverter manufacturer's protocols, and also acquire weather-related information.
Independent smart meters may measure the total energy production of a PV array system. Separate measures such as satellite image analysis or a solar radiation meter a pyranometer can be used to estimate total insolation for comparison. This section includes systems that are either highly specialized and uncommon or still an emerging new technology with limited significance. However, standalone or off-grid systems take a special place. They were the most common type of systems during the s and s, when PV technology was still very expensive and a pure niche market of small scale applications.
Only in places where no electrical grid was available, they were economically viable. Although new stand-alone systems are still being deployed all around the world, their contribution to the overall installed photovoltaic capacity is decreasing.
In Europe, off-grid systems account for 1 percent of installed capacity. In the United States, they account for about 10 percent. Off-grid systems are still common in Australia and South Korea, and in many developing countries.
Concentrator photovoltaics CPV and high concentrator photovoltaic HCPV systems use optical lenses or curved mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto small but highly efficient solar cells. Besides concentrating optics, CPV systems sometime use solar trackers and cooling systems and are more expensive.
Especially HCPV systems are best suited in location with high solar irradiance, concentrating sunlight up to times or more, with efficiencies of 24—28 percent, exceeding those of regular systems.
However, ongoing research and development is taking place. Both technologies favor locations that receive much sunlight and are directly competing with each other. A hybrid system combines PV with other forms of generation, usually a diesel generator. Biogas is also used. The other form of generation may be a type able to modulate power output as a function of demand. However more than one renewable form of energy may be used e. The photovoltaic power generation serves to reduce the consumption of non renewable fuel.
Hybrid systems are most often found on islands. Pellworm island in Germany and Kythnos island in Greece are notable examples both are combined with wind.
In , a case-study conducted in seven countries concluded that in all cases generating costs can be reduced by hybridising mini-grids and isolated grids. However, financing costs for such hybrids are crucial and largely depend on the ownership structure of the power plant.
While cost reductions for state-owned utilities can be significant, the study also identified economic benefits to be insignificant or even negative for non-public utilities, such as independent power producers.
This theory was reconfirmed with numerical simulations using per second solar flux data to determine that the necessary battery backup to provide for such a hybrid system is possible with relatively small and inexpensive battery systems.
Floating solar arrays are PV systems that float on the surface of drinking water reservoirs, quarry lakes, irrigation canals or remediation and tailing ponds. These systems are called "floatovoltaics" when used only for electrical production or "aquavoltaics" when such systems are used to synergistically enhance aquaculture. The systems are said to have advantages over photovoltaics on land.
The cost of land is more expensive, and there are fewer rules and regulations for structures built on bodies of water not used for recreation.
Unlike most land-based solar plants, floating arrays can be unobtrusive because they are hidden from public view. They achieve higher efficiencies than PV panels on land, because water cools the panels. The panels have a special coating to prevent rust or corrosion. In the case of the Far Niente Winery, it saved three-quarters of an acre that would have been required for a land-based system. The floating PV array also reduces the amount of water lost through evaporation and inhibits the growth of algae.
Utility-scale floating PV farms are starting to be built. The multinational electronics and ceramics manufacturer Kyocera will develop the world's largest, a DC grids are found in electric powered transport: A few pilot plants for such applications have been built, such as the tram depots in Hannover Leinhausen, using photovoltaic contributors  and Geneva Bachet de Pesay. A stand-alone or off-grid system is not connected to the electrical grid.
Standalone systems vary widely in size and application from wristwatches or calculators to remote buildings or spacecraft. If the load is to be supplied independently of solar insolation , the generated power is stored and buffered with a battery. In non-portable applications where weight is not an issue, such as in buildings, lead acid batteries are most commonly used for their low cost and tolerance for abuse.
A charge controller may be incorporated in the system to avoid battery damage by excessive charging or discharging. It may also help to optimize production from the solar array using a maximum power point tracking technique MPPT. However, in simple PV systems where the PV module voltage is matched to the battery voltage, the use of MPPT electronics is generally considered unnecessary, since the battery voltage is stable enough to provide near-maximum power collection from the PV module.
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In small devices e. In larger systems e. To convert the DC from the modules or batteries into AC, an inverter is used. In agricultural settings, the array may be used to directly power DC pumps , without the need for an inverter. In remote settings such as mountainous areas, islands, or other places where a power grid is unavailable, solar arrays can be used as the sole source of electricity, usually by charging a storage battery.
Stand-alone systems closely relate to microgeneration and distributed generation. Solar panels on a small yacht to charge 12 volt batteries up to 9 amps. A mobile charging station for electric vehicles in France. Artist's concept of the Juno spacecraft orbiting Jupiter - furthest spacecraft to be powered by solar cells.
A lateral mark , Otago Harbour , NZ. Solar pathway lighting in winter Steamboat Springs , US.
Solar powered lighthouse in Scotland. Solar car. A solar cell phone charger. Solar powered watch. A solar-powered trash compactor, Jersey City , U. A solar sewage treatment plant in Santuari de Lluc , Spain. Solar Impulse , an electric aircraft. Rental station for shared bicycles, Budapest , Hungary. The cost of producing photovotaic cells have dropped due to economies of scale in production and technological advances in manufacturing.
Although they are reduced in energy conversion efficiency from single crystalline "siwafers", they are also much easier to produce at comparably lower costs. The table below shows the total average cost in US cents per kWh of electricity generated by a photovoltaic system. This varies by geographic region because the average insolation depends on the average cloudiness and the thickness of atmosphere traversed by the sunlight.
It also depends on the path of the sun relative to the panel and the horizon.
Panels are usually mounted at an angle based on latitude, and often they are adjusted seasonally to meet the changing solar declination. Solar tracking can also be utilized to access even more perpendicular sunlight, thereby raising the total energy output.
The calculated values in the table reflect the total average cost in cents per kWh produced. Normally, photovoltaic modules have a year warranty.
In its edition of the "Technology Roadmap: Increasing use of photovoltaic systems and integration of photovoltaic power into existing structures and techniques of supply and distribution increases the value of general standards and definitions for photovoltaic components and systems.
While article of the National Electric Code provides general guidelines for the installation of photovoltaic systems, these guidelines may be superseded by local laws and regulations. Often a permit is required necessitating plan submissions and structural calculations before work may begin. Additionally, many locales require the work to be performed under the guidance of a licensed electrician. Electrical installation practices must comply with standards set forth within the National Electrical Code NEC and be inspected by the AHJ to ensure compliance with building code , electrical code , and fire safety code.
Jurisdictions may require that equipment has been tested, certified, listed, and labeled by at least one of the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories NRTL. Despite the complicated installation process, a list of solar contractors shows a majority of installation companies were founded since In the UK, PV installations are generally considered permitted development and don't require planning permission.
In the US, many localities require a permit to install a photovoltaic system. A grid-tied system normally requires a licensed electrician to make the connection between the system and the grid-connected wiring of the building. PV has been a well-known method of generating clean, emission free electricity.
PV modules are mainly made of PV cells, which has no fundamental difference to the material for making computer chips. The process of producing PV cells computer chips is energy intensive and involves highly poisonous and environmental toxic chemicals. This measure greatly reduces the carbon footprint during the manufacturing process. Managing the chemicals used in the manufacturing process is subject to the factories' local laws and regulations.
With the increasing levels of rooftop photovoltaic systems, the energy flow becomes 2-way. When there is more local generation than consumption, electricity is exported to the grid. However, electricity network traditionally is not designed to deal with the 2- way energy transfer. Therefore, some technical issues may occur. The famous Californian duck curve appears very often for a lot of communities from onwards.
An over-voltage issue may come out as the electricity flows from these PV households back to the network. There are often limitations and costs related to these solutions. There is no silver bullet in electricity or energy demand and bill management, because customers sites have different specific situations, e.
Electricity tariff may have a few elements, such as daily access and metering charge, energy charge based on kWh, MWh or peak demand charge e.
PV is a promising option for reducing energy charge when electricity price is reasonably high and continuously increasing, such as in Australia and Germany. However, for sites with peak demand charge in place, PV may be less attractive if peak demands mostly occur in the late afternoon to early evening, for example residential communities.
Overall, energy investment is largely an economical decision and it is better to make investment decisions based on systematical evaluation of options in operational improvement, energy efficiency, onsite generation and energy storage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Photovoltaic power systems and components: Main article: Grid-connected photovoltaic power system. Photovoltaic power station. Rooftop photovoltaic power station. Building-integrated photovoltaics. Further information: PV module. Photovoltaic mounting system. Main articles: Solar cable and Electrical wiring.
Solar Energy and PV Systems
Solar tracker. Solar inverter , Solar micro-inverter , and Power inverter. Rechargeable battery and Battery electricity. Net metering , Energy metering , and Smart meter. Concentrator photovoltaics. An isolated mountain hut in Catalonia , Spain. Solar parking meter in Edinburgh , Scotland.The challenges to this approach will be ad- dressed and appropriate models for garnering industrial teamwork will be discussed.
In exceptionally irradiated locations, or when thin-film technology is used, the so-called energy payback time decreases to one year or less. There is no silver bullet in electricity or energy demand and bill management, because customers sites have different specific situations, e. Competing in the energy sector". In addition, a CPV system requires optical lenses or mirrors and sometimes a cooling system. Temperature thermocouple using Special Limits of Error T-type thermocouple wire.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons.
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