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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Tran Phong. Trinh Phan Trong. Hoang Quang Vinh. Le Tung. Ngo Van Liem. Nguyen Tuc. Vy Hai. Phan Trinh.
Bui Thao. This paper presents velocities ofpresent-day tectonic movement and strain rate in the East Vietnam Sea South China Sea and surroundings determined from GPS campaigns between and In Western plateau, the first result from - GPS measurement shows that the velocities to the east vary from The velocities to the south vary from GPS solutions determined from our campaigns are combined with data from various authors and international projects to determine the strain rate in the East Vietnam Sea.
Ngô Vũ Sâm
East Vietnam Sea is considered to belong to the Sunda block. Present-day movement, tectonic gradient, velocity, subduction zone, extension, principal strain rate, maximum slip rate, Western plateau. Mastering expression. It is bounded by active process along the Sunda subduction zone subduction zones like Philippine, Australian, between the Indian-Australian plate and the and Indian submerged plates represented by Eurasian plate.
For the assessment of tsunamis large earthquakes and the majority of in Vietnam, we have to study not only Manila seismicity. Sundaland bock is bounded to the subduction zone, but also local sources of north by the southeasterly part o f the India- tsunami such as NW Borneo subduction zone Eurasia collision zone and the South China and fault system at the margin o f the East block.
Sunda interior is represented by a real Vietnam Sea. These fracture zones are marked low and shallow seismicity. This suggests by some workers [2, 8, 13]. We have to answer Sundaland block moves as a rigid lithosphere 2 questions related to the existence of an active block, although its tectonic origin is not subduction zone at NW Borneo and how fast monolithic .
Recent study of Simons et al. Previous studies figure 1.
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This fault zone has a long story in demonstrated that there is no difference in the evolution of the East Vietnam Sea. Some present day movement between Sundaland and workers suggested that WMFZ is a large active South China blocks [3, 5] Sundaland is shown fault zone that is a main source of earthquake to move independently with respect to South and tsunami in East Vietnam Sea .
China, the eastern part o f Java, the island o f Sulawesi, and the northern tip of Borneo. To In this study, we give a novel solution to the northeast, the southeastern part of the Red present-day tectonic movement in Vietnam Sea River fault  makes a geological boundary and adjacent field on the footing of our data between the Sundaland and South China blocks from - GPS campaigns in the East figure 1.
The Red River fault which are known as the highest seismogenic ends in the Red River Basin, characterized by a potential faults in the East Vietnam Sea. The determine the formal errors in their covariance GPS data were firstly calculated independently matrices.
Each point position was based on coordinates should result in more realistic the ionosphere free combination o f the zero- velocity uncertainty estimates. In general, the difference GPS observable at 5 minute daily coordinaterepeatswere 2 - 3 mm in the intervals.
Troposphere delays and gradients north and east horizontal positions, were stochastically estimated at each interval. The figure 2. The campaign fiducially-free individual point positions were merged into network solutions were transformed into the daily fiill-network solutions.
The daily IGS05 using the coordinates and velocities of ambiguity-fixed solutions were combined with well determined global IGS stations to estimate multiday averaged solutions using a seven- seven-parameter Helmert transformations. In with the local network. The velocities to the south and transferred to the principal strain rate and vary from Maximum In Western plateau, the first result sites in Vietnam based on data from four from GPS measurement shows that campaigns over the years , , and the velocities to the east vary from Table 2.
We will BALO Velocities from [2, 18] were CAD1 The results of strain CUJU The errors of principal DATO Extensive principal strain rate HLEO The compressive principal QUYN Maximum shear strain rate is To calculate the strain rate o f the East from 1.
This result is consistent with moving direction of Hainan, Guangxi, Guangdong as well as all Southeast China margins. This implies that deformation o f the East Vietnam Sea is mainly controlled by collision between the Indian- Australian plate and the Eurasian plate figure 5. Le Huy Minh et al. The values Fig. Distribution of maximum and of longitudinal velocity defined by the two minimum strain rates in East Vietnam methods are This value is North East Vietnam Sea block subducting quite compatible with the rate of The trench.
The East Vietnam Sea closing along the longitudinal velocities determined by two Manila subduction zone occurs at different methods are Second value The eastern implies that geodynamic regime in the south of velocity in Lang is too high in comparision the East Vietnam Sea differs that in from the with the result Le Huy Minh et al.
Irregular subsidence of the at the north. The East Vietnam Sea is not being building causes the tilt of building and the closed at the south figure 5.
In comparison formation of cracks o f NS direction. In general, the south and southwest of the East Vietnam Sea are rarely deformed. This is contrary to the results o f neglecting the physical correlations in the Simons et al.
North Borneo and the boundary of the Sunda A number o f the GPS processing softwares block is shifted to the south of Borneo because consider the variance-covariance matrix o f the there is a great change of velocities across the observations without correlation, or simply deal boundary. No existence o f an active subduction with the diagonal components only.
As a result, zone at NW Borneo is justified by the absence the quality assessment of the estimation could of inverse earthquake focal mechanisms in this be too optimistic. The optimistic variance area. Local deformation in the East fact that physical correlations are normally Vietnam Sea is identified thanks to denser GPS neglected , Formal accuracies derived from network in this study. The compression at NW both softwares need to be scaled by applying a Borneo recognized by Simons et al.
In order to test the Borneo and the center o f Sunda; 2 Our reliability and the validity of the variance- measurement is in post-seismic time after covariance matrix in both softwares, Kashani et Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.
The effect of al. Co-seismic jumps of mm were Bernese. After the Sumatra earthquake, the Bernese. However, CDA1 is Simons, personal communication, Simons et al. The distance compressive component. To fault zone are consistent with the left lateral estimate the error produced from the displacement o f this fault zone. The represented in table 4. We note that the earthquake focal mechanisms in this area are coordinate of T 11, T 12, and T 13 in table 2 is compatible with the distribution o f the direction quite different from to the coordinate of T 11, of principal strain rates.
The earthquakes T12, and T13 in table 3. This means the large extension in T14 is I 0 I -w mainly from regional tectonics. Cost yong if: Continuous GPS solution from to move to the east at the rate from 1.
The distance between Sumatra with compressive component. Maximum left earthquake epicenter and Yong is similar to the lateral slip rate of this fault zone is less than distance between this earthquake epicenter and 2. In maximum rate of dextral shear along the Red particular, this study makes in evidence a local River fault being less than 0. Feigl extension at NW tip of Borneo, instead o f an et al. The result of this study suggests that and Michel et al.
Due to short time of showed no significant differential motion investigation, the error o f relative movement of between the Sunda and South China blocks. WMFZ is larger than 1.
Maximum Our result in the East Vietnam Sea also left lateral slip rate o f this fault zone is less than presents no significant variation of 2.
However, Acknow ledgm ents: We thank Dr.
In order to improve the quality of higher education in Vietnam, first we have to find out causes of negative aspects of this gloomy situation.
This tendency can be considered dangerous for education and training in particular, and for sciences in general. Quantitatively, evaluation is based on the quantity of scientific articles published in international scientific journals.
Qualitatively, evaluation is based to a large extent on citation statistics registered in citation indices. According to statistics in , Vietnamese scientists published about 1, scientific papers in international peer-reviewed journals, and in , they published 1, In addition, Vietnam is 50 years behind Thailand on scientific publication, even though the number of top graduates is large: Table 1: Index H 1 Taiwan 1, 7, 9.
However, this is common for all non-English speaking countries. It affects directly the quality of education and training in Vietnamese universities. Tran Van Tho Waseda University, Tokyo , who has collaborated for many years with Vietnamese universities in economics, made the following remarks about PhD theses of Vietnamese students: The choice of subject of Vietnamese students makes the PhD theses lack academic characters and of originality.
Therefore, the contents and level of those theses are still far from the minimum standards of the world, and people who have this PhD can hardly have discussions with foreign experts. Tran Van Tho, I have read many PhD theses of medicine throughout the Vietnam, and I think that the majority are just a collection of several reports of a single study.
Its contents are simple, and largely an inventory of clinic cases like the statistical exercises, and the enumeration of cases. Nguyen van Tuan, c.
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Darriulat also talked about Vietnamese PhD training degrees in these words: A recent article published in the newspaper An Ninh Thu Do reports on a number of dysfunctions of the Vietnamese system in awarding PhD degrees.
Such a major dysfunction is illustrated by the case of students downloading their dissertation at prices reaching up to million VND […]. A second dysfunction is the inability of the panels supposed to evaluate the skills and knowledge of such students to do a job, tacitly that their members are either incompetent or corrupted or both. Darriulat, Many scientific works and PhD. A lot of professors are incompetent, and well below international standards.
Hoang Tuy The majority of scientific works that we have led are the application of world achievements in the specific conditions of Vietnam.
Problems that we have chosen as research objectives are often outdated up to 20 years, even 30 or 40 years. Vu Tho In educational sciences, the Ministry of Education and Training recently made some official comments on the actual situation of scientific research: Research methods, procedures and research techniques are relatively backward, therefore we often commit systematic errors and results of research lack convincingness, due to dearth of generalisation.
Ministry of Education and Training, , p. Objectives of this research This short description leads me to focus on the causes of this situation.
Many analyses show principal causes such as: However, besides these causes, we are interested in procedures of scientific activities of Vietnamese scientists in general, and those of dissertation directors in particular. We suggest that the most important cause of weakness of Vietnamese scientists is lack of knowledge of research methods.
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At this time, only the titles and subject matter of dissertations were examined with the purpose of exploring the feasibility of this research. Some basic principles of scientific research Whether it is natural sciences or social sciences, or educational sciences, whether it is fundamental research or applied research, there are basic principles of scientific research that people recognise as postulates: Researching this kind of phenomenon consists of understanding the essence, attributes, and origins of the phenomenon.
In educational sciences, research mainly consists of finding out deep causes of educational phenomenon, in order to build solutions. In this manner, scientific research involves solving the research problems theoretically.
In other words, researchers have to use scientific methods, i. Research data: It comprises dissertations from more than 90 fields of knowledge and training, and includes dissertations in educational sciences and educational management.
Our research data contain dissertations. By referring to the titles of dissertations, two categories were identified: We call empirical research all works based on empirical data, and applied research all works consisting of applying some theories to professional fields of practitioners. Table 2. Solutions, measures 96 Examination 77 The goal is to build a primary database in order to find out research problems and to prepare intensive research works in the future.
As they are the first stage of scientific research, their results are only raw data, they lack scientific significance. Thus, they must be utilised in order to make a scientific contribution.
In this way, solutions proposed are only based on personal experiences, or on causes that people have known. In educational sciences, this descriptive approach is less useful than the explanatory approach, because it cannot detect causes that induce problems.
As the dissertation titles indicate, the aims of these works are to apply theoretical knowledge to a situation in order to improve problematic situations. Preliminary interpretation In principle, the title of scientific work has to reflect its content, and the dissertation director has to help students formulate the title as well as possible.
However, there is probably clumsiness in this task. In any event, such clumsiness does not compromise the results of this exploratory research, because the analysis in this study focused on both quantitative and qualitative data. It is the first step of scientific research therefore, results from this investigation are only raw data, and need further treatment.
Thus, this fieldwork is in incomplete works and does not have scientific significance, particularly in the educational sciences. In reality, it is possible to transform this fieldwork into research subjects if they are undertaken on a large scale, but they cannot constitute the full research process as is found in the natural sciences. These measures are often based on experiences and known knowledge because they are not findings of new causes, nor premises of new knowledge.
Thus, these are daily tasks that people often do in their life, not scientific activities.
These do not involve a scientific process because they consist of describing a problematic situation, making a list of known causes, and then choosing measures. This is the process of solving problems of practitioners in the service or problems of day-to-day living, because it follows the cycle of operations: Process of solving problems of practitioners and problems of day-to-day living. In empirical research, the researcher has to find out deep causes of the problematic situation, and justify and generalise results in order to build knowledge so that it can explain the same phenomena.This will be one of the aims of future work.
Quang Tran is very clean and rather sterile on the inside. Simons, w, J. Pham Toan.
Process of solving problems of practitioners and problems of day-to-day living. Recent study of Simons et al.