# LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB MANUAL PDF

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAB MANUAL by bestthing.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Linear Integrated Circuits Lab Manual - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File ( .pdf) or read online. Linear Integrated Circuits. This Laboratory Manual for Operational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory and. Application, Third Edition is copyrighted under the terms of a.

LAB MANUAL. LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB. STATE INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS TRAINING AND RESEARCH. Select the values of R & C in such away that the condition T >> τ is satisfied. 2. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 3. Apply 10V p-p Square wave at 1KHz from. 4. pulse and digital circuits lab manual PDF Op-Amps and Linear. Integrated Circuits: Lab. Manual. “Ramkant. Multiplexer and Demultiplexer PDF. XII.

## LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAB MANUAL by PRABHU.pdf

How is phase shift oscillator different from RC phase shift oscillator? What are the applications of phase shift oscillator? How is Wein bridge oscillator different from RC phase shift oscillator?

What are the applications of Wein bridge oscillator?

What is the condition for the bridge to be balanced? Multivibrators are group of regenerative circuits. They are widely used in timing applications. An electronic circuit that generates square waves or other non-sinusoidal such a rectangular, saw tooth waves is known as a multivibrator.

A multivibrator is a switching circuit, which depends for operation on positive feedback. It is basically a two-stage amplifier with output of one feedback to the input of the other. Multivibrators are classified as Bistable multivibrator Monostable multivibrator Astable multivibrator.

Astable circuits are used to generate square waves. It is also known as free running multivibrator. The circuit has two quasi stable states no stable state. Thus, there is an oscillation between two states and no external signals are required to produce the change in state.

In a free running mode, the two states of the multivibrator are momentarily stable and the circuit switches respectively between these two states. In one state the amplifier output goes to positive saturation level while in the other state it goes into negative saturation.

Get the required components and check the condition of them. Switch on the power supply and look at the output with CRO. Measure the width and time period of the output waveform. Look at the voltage across the capacitor, an exponentially rising and falling wave between 5V and 10V is noted. After completing the experiments, reduce the supply to zero potential and disconnect the circuit diagram.

## EC8462-Linear Integrated Circuits Lab Manual

It generates a single pulse of specified duration in response to each external trigger signal. A mono-stable multivibrator exits only one stable state. The circuit remains in a quasistable state for a fixed interval of time and then reverts to its original stable state. An internal trigger signal is generated which produces the transition to the stable state. Usually, the charging and discharging of a capacitor provides this internal trigger signal. Figure 5. What is a multivibrator?

Give the principle of operation of Multivibrators? What is another name for astable multivibrator? What do you mean by astable multivibrator? Differentiate astable and monostable multivibrator? Give the application of astable multivibrator. An improved filter response can be obtained by using a second order active filter. The high pass filter is the complement of the low pass filter. Thus the high pass filter canbe obtained by interchanging R and C in the circuit of low pass configuration.

A high pass filterallows only frequencies above a certain bread point to pass through and it terminates the lowfrequency components. The range of frequencies beyond its lower cut off frequency fL is calledstop band.

The BPF is the combination of high and low pass filters and this allows a specified range of frequencies to pass through.

## See a Problem?

It has two stop bands in range of frequencies between 0 to fL andbeyond fH. Hence its bandwidth is fL-fH. This filter has a maximum gain at the resonant frequency fr which is defined as. Transfer function of second order Butterworth LPF as: Design the second order high pass filter at a cut off frequency of 1khz with passband gain of 2. Design a second order low pass filter at high cutoff frequency of 1kHz.

Figure 6. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram. The signal which has to be made sine is applied to the RC filter pair circuit with the noninverting terminal.

Calculating Gain through the formula and plotting the frequency response characteristics using Semi-log graph sheet and finding out the 3 dB line for fc. What is pass band and stop band? What has to be done in the circuit, if you want your filter to exactly follow the cut-off frequency? Can a Band pass filter be constructed just by coupling a low pass filter and high pass filter, how?

Why do we draw a line at 3 dB below the peak gain to calculate the pass band of a filter? Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Switch on the power supply.

Give voltage to the IC. Note the sequence of LED blinking. The input to a digital to analog converter is a binary signal available in parallel form.

These digital signals are available at the output of the latches or registers and correspond to logic 0 and logic 1. These voltages are not directly applied to the converter but are used to operate digitally controlled switches. The switch is put into two positions depending on the digital signal 1 or 0, which connect the fixed voltages. Let us suppose we want to convert the binary form the processing unit to a 0 to 3 volts output. We must first set up a truth table for all possible situations.

Switch ON the power supply. Set the digital input by using switches SW1 to SW8 4. The output analog equivalent for the digital data can be viewed from pin6 5. Verify the analog output theoretically by sing the formula given below 6. Figure 7. To design, construct and test the astable multivibrator and monostable multivibrator using IC IC is a combination of linear comparators and digital flip flops. The output FF circuit is brought out through an amplifier stage.

The FF output is also give to a transistor to discharge a timing capacitor. When IC is to be configured as an astable multivibrator, both the trigger and threshold inputs pins 2 and 6 to the two comparators are connected together and to the external capacitor. The capacitor charges toward the supply voltage through the two resistors, R1 and R2. The discharge pin 7 connected to the internal transistor is connected to the junction of those two resistors.

Monostable operation:. When a negative-going trigger pulse is applied to the trigger input, the threshold on the lower comparator is exceeded. The lower comparator, therefore, sets the flip-flop. That causes T1 to cut off, acting as an open circuit. The setting of the flip-flop also causes a positive-going output level which is the beginning of the output timing pulse. The capacitor now begins to charge through the external resistor.

That terminates the output pulse which switches back to zero. At this time, T1 again conducts thereby discharging the capacitor. Whenever a trigger pulse is applied to the input, the will generate its singleduration output pulse.

Figure 8. Observe the voltage across the capacitor and note down the amplitude. Tabulate the readings 5. Plot the graph. Thus the design of Astable multivibrator and Monostable multivibrator was done and output was verified. What are the modes of operation of timers?

Explain the function of reset. Define duty cycle. Mention the applications of IC Give the methods for obtaining symmetrical square wave. What is the other name for monostable multivibrator? Explain the operation of IC in astable mode. Explain the operation of IC in monostable mode. Why negative pulse is used as trigger? What is the charging time for capacitor in monostable mode? Figure shows the block diagram of a frequency multiplier using the PLL.

The frequency counter is inserted between the VCO and the phase comparator. Since the output of the divider is locked to the input frequency fIN, the VCO is actually running at a multiple of the input frequency. The desired amount of multiplication can be obtained by selecting a proper divide by N network, where N is an integer. The 4 bit binary counter is configured as a divide by 5 circuit.

The transistor Q is used as a driver stage to increase the driving capability of the NE C3 is used to eliminate possible oscillation. C2 should be large enough to stabilize the VCO frequency. Connect the circuit as shown in figure. The free running frequency fOUT of VCO is varied by adjusting R1 and C1 and the output frequency is determined and it should be 5 times the input frequency.

Determine the output frequency for different input frequency of 1 KHz and 1. The frequency multiplier using PLL principle is studied and the output waveform is observed. What are the other applications of PLL?

Explain the working of the transistor 2N? What is VCO? Explain its working. What are the characteristics of PLL? What is IC ? An instrumentationamplifier is a type of differential amplifier that has been outfitted with input buffers, which eliminate the need for input impedance matching and thus make the amplifier particularly suitable for use in measurement and test equipment.

Although the instrumentation amplifier is usually shown schematically identical to a standard op-amp, the electronic instrumentation amp is almost always internally composed of 3 opamps. The most commonly used instrumentation amplifier circuit is shown in the figure. The gain of the circuit is.

The two amplifiers on the left are the buffers. The buffer gain could be increased by putting resistors between the buffer inverting inputs and ground to shunt away some of the negative feedback; however, the single resistor Rgain between the two inverting inputs is a much more mo elegant method: This increases the common common-mode mode rejection ratio CMRR of the circuit and also enables the buffers to handle much larger common common-mode signals without clipping than would be the case if they were separate and had the same gain.

Another benefit of the method is that it boosts the gain using a single resistor rather than a pair, thus avoiding a resistorresistor matching problem although the two R1s need to be matched , and very conveniently allowing the gain of the circuit to be changed by changing the value of a single resistor. A set of switchswitch selectable resistors or even a potentiometer can be used for Rgain, providing easy changes to the gain of the circuit, without the complexity of having to switch matched pairs of resistors.

The ideal common-mode mode gain of an instrumentation amplifier is zero. In the circuit shown, common-mode mode gain is caused by mismatches in the values of the equally equally-numbered numbered resistors and by the mis-match match in common mode gains of the two input op op-amps.

Obtaining very closely matched resistors is a significant difficulty in fabricating these circuits, as is optimizing the common mode performance of the input op op-amps.

Design the instrumentation amplifier having overall gain of Stage1: Designing the resistor values:. Design Design the instrumentation ampl amplifier having overall gain of Design the instrumentation ampl amplifier having overall gain of Patch the connections and connect the design resistance Rg extending to have the desired gain.

Measure the input voltage at Vin1 and Vin2 using digital multimeter. Check the theoretical value with the experimental value. Thus the instrumentation amplifier with digital indication was designed and the working of this was studied. Why the above circuit is called Instrumentation amplifier?

What would happen if the Op-amps were fed back positively, in the above circuit? What changes would you get if you increase or decrease the Rgainvalue? What happens to the output when you change the values of R1, R2, and R3 separately?

What is the difference between Instrumentation amplifier and Differential amplifier? The LM is an extremely common positive voltage regulator - many laboratory supplies and other equipment are based on it.

It can produce any amount between 1. The internal circuitry of the LM can only handle 1. The LM is a linear regulator. This means that it dissipates the excess voltage as heat, with more heat produced as the voltage is set lower and lower.

Thus heat sink must be mounted on the regulator that is capable of dissipating the heat produced. By itself, it will supply output currents up to mA;. The circuit features extremely low standby current drain, and provision is made for either linear or fold back current limiting.

Vout 1.

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Make the circuit connection as per the circuit diagram. Set the amplitude of input signal as 12 Volt 3. Vary the DRB value. Measure the output voltage. Tabulate the readings. Figure DC Power supply using LM Thus voltage regulator circuit is constructed and verified. What is regulated power supply? What is series voltage regulator? What is negative voltage regulator. Study the power supply SMPS and their voltage levels by multi-meter with proper attention to measure various voltage.

Switch mode power supplies SMPS have become the architecture of choice for power conversion because of their economy, higher efficiency and lighter weight. In this lab you will investigate the basic operating principles of a switch mode power supply, and then design, build and test a simple supply given a few basic components. A considerable amount of background theory and design advice is included following the Procedure description below. Design Objective: If the available components are such that you must design for a slightly different output voltage, discuss this change in objective with your supervisor.

It is more important that you understand the design process and characterize the supply you build than to have a specific output voltage.

Note that you will also have to test your supply to verify the specifications, and to characterize other parameters such as its response to step changes in load current and how long it can maintain the output if the input supply is interrupted.

The restrictions you will be required to work within are as follows: While these vary slightly in specifications, they are all designed for approximately the same output power and voltages. Remaining components must be from laboratory stock A reasonable selection of suitable components is available. Some parameters may have to be adjusted slightly to conform to component specs. Arrange the parts in the work area the way they appear. The parts in the circuit that require setting new attributes are the two dc supplies, five resistors, two capacitors, and VAC.

A parts attribute is changed by first double-clicking on the part of the label and then entering the new value.

To set up VAC attributes double-click on the symbol and then in pop-up window change magnitude and as shown below. Save the circuit as a file. Aworning will appear if there are any errors. Type inVo and click on Ok. Print the circuit schematics and the plot. The spice model of low pass filter and the output waveform are shown respectively.

Frequency Response Characteristics:. Active filter are simulated by using Pspice and Characteristics are observed in the out put. By using an amplifier between the phase detector and the VCO, the actual error between the signals can be reduced to very small levels. However some voltage must always be present at the control terminal of the VCO as this is what puts onto the correct frequency. The fact that a steady error voltage is present means that the phase difference between the reference signal and the VCO is not changing.

As the phase between these two signals is not changing means that the two signals are on exactly the same frequency. Connect the circuit in Figure 2. Display the signal waveforms pins 9 and 4 on theoscilloscope; the waveform pin 4 will be referred to as Vo t.

Use Graph 1 to plotboth displays. Measure w. Notethat when the VCO is in the free-running mode, both voltages are equal, and are referredto as Vref. Apply a 1V p-p sinusoid 4 kHz to pin 2; this signal will be referred to as Vi t.

Display Vi t and Vo t on the oscilloscope, with Vi t as the trig. Note that the traceswill synchronize only when the PLL is in hold-in tracking condition. The PLL is now in hold-in condition.

Measure the dc voltage pin 7; this voltage will be referred to as VD.In closed loop configuration, gain can controlled by feed back resistance Rf and input resistance Rin. The range of frequencies beyond its lower cut off frequency fL is calledstop band. Non inverting input of the opamp is grounded using resistor Rm. Capacitors 8. R and 2R. What is regulated power supply? By itself, it will supply output currents up to mA;.

Viva Questions: Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. To design a high current.

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