Woolard George Key Words for Fluency Pre Interm. Core Fluency Thesaurus by Kev Nair, 2nd Edition - p. 3 Key Words for Fluency Upper-Intermediate. Key Words for Fluency. Intermediate collocation practice learning and practising the most useful words of English. George Woolard. THOMSON. United Kingdom. Key words for fluency: intermediate: collocation practice: learning and DOWNLOAD PDF Texts for Fluency Practice Level C (Texts for Fluency Practice).
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Key Words for Fluency Pre-Intermediate. BoteSekreterligi Ytu. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking. Key Words for Fluency: Learning and Practising the Most Useful Words of English , 3 vols. Author: George Woolard (, ). Publisher. PDF | Although fluency and pronunciation are often discussed together in the Keywords (10 max) fluency; pronunciation; accent; intelligibility;.
On fluency. Fillmore, D.
New York: Academic Press. Google Scholar Jordan, R. Pyramid discussions. ELT Journal, 44 1 , 46— Fluency and spoken English.
Moreno Jaen, F. London: Equinox.
Google Scholar Lennon, P. Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantitative approach. Language Learning, 40 3 , — The fluency workshop. Google Scholar Nation, I.
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Improving speaking fluency. System, 17 3 , — A system of tasks for language learning.
Anivan Ed. The four strands.
Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1 1 , 1— Vocabulary learning through experience tasks. There are also other foreign language pronunciation flashcard resources to help you kick start your learning.
But if you want to make the pronunciation or minimal pair flashcards on your own, then this post and the resources in it will help you do it all yourself. Use the alphabetic list to get good translations for all of your words in a matter of minutes.
Images: Once you have your translations, go to Google images and look up the word you found in your target language. There are three things that can happen here:I.
Add them to Anki. Skip that word for now, or try a different translation. Russian has separate words for light blue and dark blue.
Memory-wise, this is the best case scenario. What pictures are you going to see when you look up the next word? Intensively learning the wrong words for things is something you should try to avoid at all costs. For languages like these and dead languages, like Latin or Ancient Greek , you may need to resort to looking up pictures in English, based upon translations.
Add those recordings to your Anki deck until you start feeling pretty confident about pronunciation. Make your flashcards: Add the words to Anki with their images and recordings, and without their translations. For the statistical analyses of the data, ANOVA was used in order to compare, differences between the decades of life for all of the studied variables. The Tukey test was used for multiple comparisons. Results Table 1 shows the mean and standard deviations, by age range, for the variables of analysis of the Speech Fluency Profile total of typical disfluencies, total of atypical disfluencies, words per minute, syllable per minute and percentage of speech discontinuity.
The ANOVA shows significant statistical differences between age ranges only for syllables per minute.
The Tukey test was used for the multiple comparisons and did not show differences between age ranges. The mean age of the GI is The mean age of the female participants is Nevertheless, the Aged group represents As shown in Table 5.
It can be observed an increase in the rate of disruptions total of OD and percentage of speech discontinuity and a decrease in speech rate for words and syllables per minute.
For a better comprehension of this fact, the aging groups were compared for each of the OD and SLD that occurred in the data collected Table 5. The most frequent OD is interjection, followed by hesitation.
The OD that differentiates the groups is hesitation. Among the SLD, the most occurring was prolongation that did not differentiate the groups.
Following is the pause being the only SLD that differentiates them. Discussion The study conducted here had the general aim of verifying the specificities of aging for the variables analyzed in the Speech Fluency Profile of healthy elderlies. Clinically, it becomes increasingly important to understand the typical speech fluency in older people, as with the increase in life expectancy the speech pathologists are facing a greater number of aging clients.
These "new" clients, mainly those over years, present more risk of chronic diseases, hospitalization and institutionalization . Thus, speech pathologists need to know the speech fluency pattern of the healthy aging to distinguish between typical and deviant processes of speech. Ramos [20,21] states that the great part of elderlies present at least one kind of a chronic disease. Also, these elderlies can be considered healthy if compared to others with the same diseases but without their control, with sequels and associate disabilities.
According to the author, autonomy is what is in risk with oldness, that is, the capacity of determining and executing their own tasks. In this context, communication is an important tool for the autonomy of elderlies.
It consists of another reason that speech pathologists and other medical professionals need to pay attention about the characteristics of communication of healthy and non-healthy elderlies. The statistical analysis of the age ranges, comparing each of the decades of elderlies did not differentiate them in relation to rate of speech disruptions total of typical disfluencies, total of atypical disfluencies and percentage of speech discontinuity.
Concerning the speech rate, it is observed a decrease along the decades not only for words per minute but also for syllables per minute. However, only the fluctuation of syllables per minute showed statistical differences although the statistical test used did not find in which decade s this difference occurred.
So, it is observed regarding the transmission of information that the healthy elderlies did not differentiate along the decades of life. Difference observed for rate of articulation may be related to oral conditions as bad adaptation of dental prosthesis or as an evidence that aging is more expressive in the motor control of speech compared to others motor processes as walking. Deviation of other aspects of fluency is more subtle during the decades of life.
Comparison between Aged and Aged, 80 and over showed significant statistical differences for all variables analyzed of the Speech Fluency Profile, except for the total of atypical disfluencies.
It is worth to mention that the mean of this variable is very low, indicating that the fluent elderlies present a speech marked by the occurrence of disruptions indicating stuttering. This significant variation between groups may be justified by the size of the sample as the grouping almost doubled the size of the sample and the tendency observed along the decades increasing of the disruptions rate and decreasing of the speech rate appears significantly as the beginning and the end of the aging process are compared.
Both groups of elderlies were compared regarding the typical and atypical typologies of great occurrence. In general, the typology of great occurrence was interjection, corroborating with two previous studies, among others, with elderlies  and adults  fluent participants. As shown in the results the only disfluencies that differentiate the groups are hesitation and pause.
Summarizing, in relation to the typologies of disruptions there is an increase in the use of hesitation short pauses and pauses during the discursive tasks with aging. According to Pretti , in the speech of "old elderlies" over 80 years the excess of pauses determine a rhythm constructed by jerks in which short segments are pronounced quickly loosing their strength in the end and the voice become unintelligible, giving the listener the impression of tiredness. For the author, the disfluencies transmit the feeling of insecurity, which seems to be the most characteristic mark of the speech of "old elderlies".
Pauses occur in uncommon places of the utterances due to hesitations caused by failures of memory and the uncertainty of what to say and how to say. Moreover, according to the author, with the advance of age pauses tend to increase meanwhile the duration of articulation tends to decrease, indicating that in old age not only the motor aspects but also the cognitive aspects of the speech behavior become weakened.For this screening a simple protocol was used during the first interview.
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During the closure period a range of banners were shown to users, including a countdown banner in the final month. It can be observed an increase in the rate of disruptions total of OD and percentage of speech discontinuity and a decrease in speech rate for words and syllables per minute. Get to Know Us. Lincolnwood, IL: Jamestown Publishers.
Christoffel words and repetitions in words. Google Scholar Wright, A. This is not suitable for crammed studying.