~vo utzon DOUGLAS J. FUTUYMA State University of New York at Stony Brook Chapter 19, "Evolution of Genes and Genomes" by Scott V. Edwnrds, Hnrvnrd. PDF | On Nov 16, , Rich Mooi and others published Evolution, Second Edition. Douglas J. Futuyma. Read story Evolution Second Edition Douglas Futuyma bestthing.info by catpafube with 87 reads. download. Evolution Second Edition Douglas.

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Advance Access publication August 25, doi/icb/icp Evolution, Second Edition. Douglas J. Futuyma. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. We can to a certain extent understand how it is that there is so much beauty throughout nature; for this may be largely attributed to the agency of. evolution. THIRD EDITION. DOUGLAS J. FUTUYMA. Stony Brook University. Chapter 20 22 Macroevolution: Evolution above the Species Level

Predators do not evolve to be prudent and to reduce their predation rate or their reproductive rate so as to insure the persistence of the prey population. Natural selection acts chiefly among individuals within a species population, so individuals that are genetically better at catching prey, and so have a higher rate of survival or reproduction, propagate their genes at a higher rate.

The possible future extinction of the prey cannot prevent this process from happening. The same is true of parasites, including the microparasites that cause infectious diseases. The difference in this case is that high virulence, or a high rate of parasite reproduction within a host, may cause the death of the individual host before the parasite offspring can disperse to other hosts.

In some such cases, a temporary group of parasites — those that inhabit a particular host body — may successfully reproduce or not, depending on the virulence of its members.

How Species Affect Each Other’s Evolution

Thus there can be selection among parasite groups, favoring reduced virulence, while at the same time there is individual selection within each such group for parasite genotypes that reproduce faster and may weaken the host by draining its resources.

That is, there may be a conflict between selection at these two levels. Many biological and ecological factors determine which level of selection dominates.

After myxoma virus was introduced to control populations of European rabbits that devastated sheep-grazing rangeland in Australia, the virus evolved a somewhat lower level of virulence, apparently because highly virulent virus strains killed their rabbit hosts before mosquitoes could feed and transmit the virus to other rabbits. But in some cases, selection in the parasite population clearly favors high virulence and death of the host. For example, certain viruses proliferate inside caterpillars, including a nuclear polyhedrosis virus that has been used to control populations of gypsy moths in northeastern United States.

This virus proliferates so abundantly that it destroys all the tissues, so that the insect virtually melts, dripping countless virus particles into the environment, where they may be ingested by other caterpillars. The more virus offspring are produced, the greater the chance that some will infect new hosts. Obviously, there is always natural selection of host or prey genotypes that can escape or resist attack.

In some plants, tolerance of herbivory — the ability to produce many offspring despite having lost tissue - has evolved. The manifold defenses against predators and parasites, ranging from hard shells, to repellent or toxic chemicals, to rapid flight, to the marvellously intricate immune system of vertebrates, account for much of the astonishing diversity of living things, and the adaptations of predators, parasites, and herbivores to counteract these defenses are equally diverse and fascinating.

Under some conditions, the ongoing selection of prey to evade attack and on predators to capture their food can result in an ongoing escalation of defense and counterdefense that has been likened to an arms race between nations. And like military arms races, such escalation is utterly wasteful from any rational point of view.

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In a rationally governed world, all nuclear nations would destroy all nuclear arms immediately and simultaneously, and be able to redirect immense sums and resources to more useful ends. So it is with many features of organisms, such as thick shells, that would not require such great investment if ever more proficient natural enemies or competitors had not imposed relentless selection. If it were, the planner would have seen that the great panoply of defenses and counterdefenses is mostly superfluous waste.

Crocodylus niloticus and the resurrected C. The genus Mecistops also contains two lineages delimited as new species by Shirley et al. More recently, South American crocodilians were also shown to possess intraspecific lineages with highly restricted gene flow. Muniz et al. Independent of being recognized as distinct species or formally described as such, these crocodilian lineages are the direct outcome of evolution, and thus their recognition and study is necessary to comprehend the evolutionary history of this group.

Only by focusing on lineages rather than on described species, can we hope to understand the evolutionary history of the studied group Willis, Despite its wide distribution, P. In central site, adults spend most of their time in terrestrial retreats, hidden in burrows, hollow logs and debris cavities under fallen trees.

Douglas J. Futuyma

Although phylogenetic relationships among caimans are well established Hrbek et al. Due to its broad geographic distribution, cryptic behavior, and small home range, P. Therefore, we used the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene cyt b to calculate genetic diversity parameters, infer population genetic structure, and to test if instraspecific lineages within P. Cytochrome b is a versatile molecular marker most useful for phylogenetic inference at or below the family level Meyer, ; Castresana, Materials and Methods Study area and sample collection We sampled P.

All localities, coordinates, and number of samples are listed in Table S1.

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Figure 1: Map showing all the sites sampled in this study, results of the BAPS analysis and haplotype network based on the mitochondrial cyt b gene. The colors represent the cluster to which the analyzed individuals belong based on BAPS assignments. The points with two colors on the map indicate sites where haplotypes assigned to different groups were found.

Each cluster is also highlighted in the haplotype network, indicating the siteia lineage red and green and the Guiana lineage purple and blue. White boundaries to the north and south of the site River represents the Guiana and Brazilian shields, respectively.

DOI: We organized and verified the nucleotide sequences in the program Geneious 6 Kearse et al.

Evolution, 4th Edition by Futuyma, Douglas – (eBook PDF)

We observed no indels. We translated sequences into putative amino acids, and no internal stop codons were found.

We ran two independent runs, generating 20 million topologies in each replicate. After checking for stationarity and convergence of the two chains in Tracer 1.Chapter Summaries: Concise overviews of the important concepts and topics covered in each chapter. The Unwinding: Marcelino Christian. Materials and Methods Study area and sample collection We sampled P.

Issue Section:. Evolution, 2nd Edition by Douglas J.

Recognition of these lineages will foster discussion of conservation future of P.

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