Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share. taking what I'm trying to say and making it readable. Also, I can't go without acknowledging Candlestick Char Japanese Candlestick Charting Techniques. Following in the footsteps of author Thomas Bulkowski's bestselling Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns—and structured in the same way—this easy-to- read and.

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Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts - Download as .ods), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. CS. Following in the footsteps of author Thomas Bulkowski's bestselling Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns—and structured in the same way—this. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the. Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The.

Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Skip to Main Content. Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts Editor s: Thomas N. First published: Print ISBN: All rights reserved.

Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts also includes chapters that contain important discoveries and statistical summaries, as well as a glossary of relevant terms and a visual index to make candlestick identification easy. Significant events-such as earnings announcements, stock upgrades and downgrades-shape today's trading, and Bulkowski gives readers the best information on what happens after those events occur. He also shows you how to trade them and uses reliable statistics to back it all up.

The result is today's most comprehensive and valuable technical analysis reference-one that will save you critical time in identifying chart patterns and increase your likelihood of downloading near the price bottom and selling near the top. This book was named one of the year's top investment books in by Stock Trader's Almanac page Endorsements from the book cover : "The most complete reference to chart patterns available.

It goes where no one has gone before. Bulkowski gives hard data on how good and bad the patterns are. A must-read for anyone that's ever looked at a chart and wondered what was happening. Bulkowski has taken an intelligent and thoughtful approach to producing a practical guide to understanding and trading chart formations.

Praise for the first edition "Not since Edwards and Magee has someone put together so comprehensive an assemblage of market behavior expressed graphically. No chartist should be without this book. Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns. Dobson, President, Traders Press, Inc. Translations into Simplified Chinese and German are pending. In his follow-up to the well-received Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns, Thomas Bulkowski gives traders a practical game plan to capitalize on established chart patterns.

Written for the novice investor but with techniques for the professional, Trading Classic Chart Patterns includes easy-to-use performance tables, vivid case studies, and a scoring system that makes trading chart patterns simple. This comprehensive guide skillfully gives investors straightforward solutions to profitably trading chart patterns.

Trading Classic Chart Patterns also serves as a handy reference guide for favorite chart patterns, including broadening tops, head-and-shoulders, rectangles, triangles, and double and triple bottoms.

Filled with numerous techniques, strategies, and insights, Trading Classic Chart Patterns fits perfectly into any pattern trader's arsenal. From the Inside Flap From the author of the Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns comes his latest work, Trading Classic Chart Patterns, a groundbreaking primer on how to trade the most popular stock patterns. Written for the novice investor but containing techniques for the seasoned professional, this comprehensive guide includes easy-to-use performance tables supported by statistical research.

By using a simple scoring system, you'll learn how to predict the performance of a chart pattern almost by looking at it. If you're new to chart patterns, technical analysis, or to stock market investing itself, the "Getting Started" section provides new ideas on trendlines, support and resistance, placing stops, and avoiding common investment mistakes.

As your trading knowledge and experience increase, the "Trading Classic Chart Patterns" section will serve as a handy reference guide for your favorite chart patterns, including broadening tops, head-and-shoulders, rectangles, triangles, and triple tops and bottoms.

You'll quickly learn about the Adam-and-Eve combinations of double tops and bottoms, and how to select the best performers while avoiding the losers. You'll discover: How to use the price trend leading to a chart pattern as a gauge of future performance Why breakout gaps often improve performance-but by less than you think How tall formations perform substantially better than short ones What a partial decline is and how to download in early for a larger profit Whether high breakout volume really improves performance How to identify horizontal consolidation regions that may stop prices dead in their tracks A new tool, called the horizon failure rate, to assess performance over time The scoring system makes trading chart patterns simple.

Use the performance tables to score your stock pattern, then add up the scores. If they total above zero, the stock is an investment candidate; if they are below zero, you'll know to avoid that particular stock. It's that easy! Trading Classic Chart Patterns is a trader's reference that's destined to become a classic. This book is an invaluable resource that provides the obvious answer-Yes! Endorsements from the book cover : "No one -- not even the pioneers of technical analysis like Dow, Schabacker, Edwards, and Magee -- has ever published such an in-depth and objective research on chart patterns as Thomas Bulkowski has in his Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns and his new book, Trading Classic Chart Patterns.

Bulkowski sees farther, not only because he stands on the shoulders of those giants, but also because he has the creativity necessary to develop new methods of quantifying the performance of chart patterns and the tenacity required to carry out the laborious research. Highly recommended! I have illustrated this in Figure below. Terminology The difference between the top of the real body and the high of the day is the upper shadow sometimes called the upper wick.

The difference between the bottom of the real body and the low of the day is the lower shadow or lower wick.

The Japanese call this the kage or the shadow line. It is important to be happy with these terms as I will continually use them throughout the rest of the book. The charts I will use throughout this book, for the sake of continuity, are all taken from a charting system called CQG. Different charting systems have different default settings, although with most half decent systems you can change the candles to whatever suits you.

Just make sure you know which way round they are! In fact — and confusingly — the Japanese traditionally used red candles for up days and black candles for down days, red being a lucky colour in Japan. A general rule of thumb that will usually see you right is that solid blocks are down days, whereas real bodies that are light of colour are bullish candles.

This may also help you in case you come across candlestick charts in black and white only. Again there is a custom that is generally accepted in candlestick analysis, and I will use this for the rest of the book, just to try and keep things standardised: In other words technical analysis is quite simply a study of human behaviour — or psychology to you and me. And this is what I do with candlesticks: I dig into the psychology of each of the patterns that make up candlestick analysis.

There are many different patterns, all with different shapes. What was the market thinking that resulted in these particular patterns? And why does this often translate into a reversal or continuation of the trend? Just split it into two distinct groups of traders: Obviously this is quite a generalisation, but it can be a very effective way of analysing market movements — maybe because it personalises it.

This is the crux of the whole book, in my opinion. I have tried to help you understand the construction of the different patterns that appear in candlestick charts in order that you can deduce what is happening in the market for yourself. I am hoping you will see how candlesticks can help you to answer some of the rather confusing questions I have already posed about market psychology and the minute-by-minute changes in sentiment.

Market psychology underpins candlestick analysis, and I have thrown it in at this early stage to get you thinking in this way! The psychology of charts and trading The idea of a chart in the first place is to illustrate where the price of a security has been.

Supply and demand sets the price of something, and the chart is a graphical representation of the historical changes in supply and demand, ie, the historical changes in overall thinking towards the product being viewed, as set by downloaders and sellers.

Technical analysis concerns itself with looking for trends in price, and also looking for signs that these trends are ending or reversing. This is something that candlesticks can do much more quickly and much more clearly than most other technical methods. Some prefer this. Candlesticks are often put into the latter category.

Later on I will explore how you can add other things to your candlestick analysis to come up with more robust trading ideas. Overall, the answer is to combine a few things with your candlestick charts so that you come up with a trading strategy that suits your needs and your personality. So, technical analysis shows what the market thinks of a stock or security.

Obviously the market is the collective mass of people who are trading or investing in any particular instrument.

Therefore the price is the definitive proxy of what the market — every type of trader involved, all bundled together into one mass — thinks about that instrument. Look at the three candlesticks in the following figure, and in the space next to them jot down what happened to give us such a shaped candle.

Three different candlesticks — your thoughts? Hopefully you jotted down something along these lines: In pattern B traders spent all day selling off. The high was the first trade of the day, and the low was the last trade. In pattern C the market opened and closed at the same price, having tried to move higher then lower or vice versa over the course of the day.

The next step is to think about the state of mind of the market on each of these very different sessions, and in turn we can get a feel for market sentiment, at least for that particular session.

Three different candlesticks — my thoughts Some simple assumptions can now be made. If the downloaders were still active on the close of candlestick A, is it likely that they may still want to download some more tomorrow when the market re-opens? It was only the market closing that stopped them from downloading more. If the sellers were active and dominant right up until the last second of trading on candlestick B, are they suddenly going to disappear into the ether when things start again the next day?

On day C no one could make up his or her mind. For a while the bulls were winning, but then the sellers appeared, and the market sold off. In candlestick analysis most patterns are given a name, and the three patterns we have looked at are no exception.

The first two are sessions where there is a strong push in one direction. A candlestick with a long real body and very little in the way of shadows is called a Marabuzo. A bullish Marabuzo is a strong conviction day in favour of the downloaders: This sort of session is the purest form of continuation pattern, as an assumption can be made as mentioned earlier that the market will carry on in the same direction after such a strong conviction day.

A candlestick with no or a very small real body is known as a Doji. We will look at the Doji candlestick in more detail in the next chapter, because it is a powerful reversal pattern. In a strong uptrend the downloaders are dominating almost daily. This is a change from what went on before. The same can be said for a Doji that appears in a downtrending market: This is a rare treat in candlestick analysis: A Hammer looks like a hammer, with a small fat head and a long handle.

We can then make assumptions on the balance of power between bulls and bears, and on those assumptions decide whether this balance is starting to tip the other way.

Trading and charting the markets can be classed as an exercise in playing the odds. Small real body 2. Very small, or no upper shadow 4.

The long lower shadow should be at least twice the height of the real body 5. The colour of the real body is not important 6. Think about our Doji: The Hammer has a small real body, so with this pattern we have the same thing — a pretty even balance between downloaders and sellers.

Most charting systems have a cursor functionality where you can check the open, high, low and close of the candlestick if you put your cursor over it — you can use this function to check if it qualifies. The final condition is very important and, unfortunately, often forgotten. Only if we see this shape of candlestick in a falling market can we call it a Hammer.

As you can see from the following chart it certainly did a good job in this instance. This was the August subprime selloff in the Dow — the first time it hit the fan anyway!

Dow Jones Industrial Average; daily candlestick chart; 10 July — 20 September , showing 16 August Hammer We can see clearly from this chart that the Hammer candlestick did indeed call an end to the selling, and from here the market rallied strongly, only returning to these levels months later. To answer this question we need to think about the price action that goes into the formation of a candlestick of this shape.

The best way to do this is to zoom in on that particular day and see what actually happened over the session, but while we do this we should also keep in mind that the daily chart only requires four pieces of data: We have cut the day into small minute segments and the following chart shows the direction of travel taken if we split the price action down into these small parts. Dow Jones Industrial Average; minute candlestick chart for 16 August 22 Single Reversal Patterns You can see that on this day the market sold off dramatically — over points in the first 4 hours of trade — but then rallied strongly and took back all of the earlier losses, closing the session right back at the highs.

What a roller-coaster ride! The market sold off sharply, then hit a price where the selling stopped and the downloaders took over. From here the market rallied strongly and ended up right back where it started. It also closed near the high, which is important, because quite often a sell off in late trade can spoil the party. But in this case the gains seen in the second half of the session were sustained into the close.

It could have been so different You can see that the bears had another go in afternoon trade on this particular day — the sell off between the points marked A and B on our chart. At the start when the markets begin to sell off no one is surprised, are they? Imagine, with this level of complacency, how uncomfortable the afternoon suddenly becomes for the bears with each tick higher.

Who goes home happier that night? Things are certainly a lot better for them now than they were when the market hit that low earlier in the session.

They may well stew on it overnight, then come in tomorrow, swallow their pride, and cover their shorts becoming downloaders in the process.

Hopefully this gives some insight into why this sort of session can be so important and trend changing. A Hammer represents a session where things change. Where the sellers drop the ball, where the downloaders suddenly wake up and where the balance of power shifts from the sellers to the downloaders.

This was just a couple of years into the unified currency, when the euro was almost being classed as a laughing stock. Euro vs. The open of each candle is the first trade on the Forex markets on a Monday morning in Asia. The close is the last print on Friday night in the US. As you can see, the market finished each big down-leg with a Hammer candlestick, which is all very nice, and suggests that these patterns are the best thing since sliced bread. I want you to take a closer look and find two more Hammers on the chart.

The first week of September turned out to be one of the worst weeks for the euro on the whole chart. They were without doubt the worst possible signals of a reversal.

If you had a trading system based on downloading the market on appearance of a Hammer on this chart, you would have been stopped out by the time the good signals came along. One lesson we can learn from this is that we should never have a decision-making process based purely on one candlestick pattern being posted. This is common sense, surely. Or do you also want to have a certain type of neck, and a specific style, and a particular material or texture?

Of course you do! This is where academics get it all wrong where technical analysis is concerned. Whereas technical analysts, in the main, are a well dressed bunch myself apart! Look at Figure 3. Or did they? If you had used the filter of needing a green candle straight after a Hammer to give you a download signal you would have refrained from taking download signals at B and C, which would have turned out to be very good decisions.

More to follow on this. But you would have taken the signal after candlestick D at the end of the green candle straight after the Hammer, and then would have suffered three straight weeks of losses.

I hope so anyway. After Hammer G you would have waited for a green candle then bought, and made a tidy profit. No issues with this one at all. Because many of the best traders in the world will tell you that saving money, and stopping yourself from making a bad trade, is as important as making money. What does this mean? So you had a strategy to get you into good trades as well as keep you out of bad ones; to deselect or negatively select those that needed staying away from.

In the case of this chart we can take it a step further and redefine our criteria to give us better trade opportunities. We can say that if the market moves above the high from the Hammer week, then we will go long. With this filter we would still stay out of the market after candles B and C a sigh of relief once again , get into the long trade much earlier after the Hammer D nice , and get in slightly earlier after Candle G still nice.

This introduces another factor to the equation: Yes, a Hammer is often a strong reversal pattern, but what you do with it can change from chart to chart.

We can now apply this set of rules to the same chart in future, making the assumption that market action is repetitive. Backtesting is the name given to this exercise; going back in time to see what worked well before, so that you can apply this in the future.

I often give seminars and talks where people gaze at me waiting to be given the Answer. CBOT Dow futures unadjusted active continuation ; daily candlestick chart; 25 June — 8 September , showing 13 August Hammer Another one where support was found at a support level from a few days earlier.

CBOT Dow futures unadjusted active continuation ; daily candlestick chart; 19 September — 8 November , showing 18 October Hammer A slightly odd looking example, but still a Hammer, and still a good reversal signal, as it turned out.

Red bodied and green bodied Hammers; any real difference in the message? As you can see, in both cases the market sold off a long way, then came back a long way. Does it really matter in which order the open and close come? The fact is the bulls recovered from a pretty horrendous start to the day. Of course there may be a slight psychological edge ascribed to a green-bodied Hammer, as the trading at the end of the day managed to surpass the opening value, but in my experience the market makes very little differentiation between red and green real bodies on this pattern.

The Hammer is one of my favourite reversal patterns, whatever the time frame of the chart being viewed. I have found them to be particularly effective on liquid exchange-traded futures contracts like T-Notes, Bunds, the DAX Index and Gold, especially when viewing short-term time frames like minute or minute charts. Later on when I expand upon different time frames we will see plenty more examples of Hammers. It really is an amazingly effective and powerful reversal pattern when used in the correct way!

The Hammer belongs to a family totalling 4 patterns, all with similar characteristics, ie, small real bodies at one extreme of the pattern, leaving one shadow much longer than the other. Very small, or no lower shadow 4.

The long upper shadow should be at least twice the height of the real body 5. Below is a daily candlestick chart for gold in May when highs not seen since the early s were hit. CBOT oz Gold futures; daily all sessions candlestick continuation chart no adjustment for roll-over ; 10 April to 13 June , showing Shooting Star Candlesticks on 12 May and 17 May As you can see there are actually two Shooting Star patterns on this chart, the one that defined the absolute top of the move, then another just 3 days later.

This session was akin to a match that was pretty quiet and predictable in the first half, and honours went to the team in green, who trotted in up at half time.

Incidentally the team in green had won 5 of their last 6 matches, so no one was that surprised that they were winning this one, especially as the reds were near the bottom of the league. But in football sometimes things change.

Over the next 45 minutes we are treated to the best display of football in living memory, with goals galore, and by the end of the game the reds win Whose fans go home happier? Which team is likely to feel better going into the next game?

Generally the team that dominates the second half of a match will finish the stronger and win the match. It is exactly the same with a day in the life of the markets. Can you see how even a single candlestick can be an extremely effective reader of price action over a particular time period?

I may seem like a stuck record at the moment, but by making sure you get used to the idea of thinking about the direction of travel that goes into the construction of a particular shaped candlestick, you will breeze through the rest of this book, and candlesticks will immediately become a strong ally in your trading or reading of the markets.

CBOT oz Gold futures; minute candlestick chart all sessions ; 12 May On the intra-day chart in Figure we have plotted the four pieces of data that make up the Shooting Star on the daily candlestick chart: As you can see, the direction of travel on the day was upwards in the early part of the session, followed by weakness in the second half, culminating in a weak close.

This is the opposite of the Hammer. The bulls are in charge going into the session, remember that. So when the maarket starts to rally in morning trade no one is surprised.

The bulls continue on their happy way while the bears continue to get beaten up. But at The second half of the session, as evidenced by the wild assortment of candlesticks, was a ding-dong affair. Another reason I like this chart is because of the two previous examples in mid-November and late November. The big jump in volume, and the sheer volatility of the candlestick that actually gave us the top, alerted us that it was something not to be ignored.

The break of trend support labelled T1 on the chart a few weeks later confirmed our suspicions, and the subsequent break of the bottom of the Shooting Star week the horizontal line labelled T2 added further weight to the argument for a top. Eurex September Bund futures; minute candlestick chart; 6 and 9 June The move in the first few hours of this particular morning came as something of a surprise at the time, but the market was in a downtrend overall, so many traders were looking for a chance to sell any strength.

The up move ended with a high volume Shooting Star on the minute candle chart. A severe sell off followed.

Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts

The construction and psychology are exactly the same but in reverse. In summing up the Hammer I said that it was one of my favourites, so it follows that its bearish opposite number will also be high on my list. It is indeed. These patterns are so simple yet so effective.

Just the sort of technical analysis I like! Market is in a downtrend Getting inside the pattern Does this shape of candlestick look familiar? The only difference is the last condition, ie, what the trend is when we see a pattern of this shape.

We are in a downtrending market, so the bears are dominating. On this day we see a strong rally followed by a sell-off, which gives us the long upper shadow. As with the Shooting Star the market moves in an arc shaped direction of travel, moving higher then lower. So why could this possibly be a reversal? Say for example you get a download signal after a candle with a close at 1. Do you say you bought at 1. My answer would be 1. You may pay 1.

Here is a fact: One more thing to think about regarding backtesting: Are you happy to take a signal from your system two minutes before this regularly market-moving event? A release that you know could move the market significantly up or down? We all have our own different risk parameters. The bulls did give us that move higher in the early part of the session, so they can make a difference. The selling in the second half of the day saw the market move back down to where it started, more or less.

So possibly this is more of a warning signal, rather than a strong reversal signal per se. In my experience these do not make strong reversal patterns, but can appear in the run up to a bottom, so can serve a purpose in warning us that things may be changing.

So if Inverted Hammers work beautifully on your chart, then place more importance on the next one you see. This is why I shy away from giving candlestick reversal patterns a star rating on their potency: The bottom, as you can see, was a Hammer day with a lower shadow that had breached the previous support.

Even then, there were a few more small bodied candlesticks seen after that before the bulls finally got their act together. The following chart is interesting, as it has a plethora of Inverted Hammers, as highlighted.

This once again proves the importance of confirmation for any candlestick pattern. Also you could have placed your initial stop below gap support at Incidentally this was the absolute low of this index after the dotcom bubble had burst.

One reason I wanted to cover this pattern was to complete the picture and differentiate it from the similarly shaped Shooting Star. Hanging Man The last candlestick in this family is the Hanging Man, and what a marvellously descriptive name it has!

Does anyone think this might be a bullish pattern? A Hanging Man is formed during an uptrend on a day when the market sells off then rallies to take back most or all of the losses seen earlier in the session. Psychology The reasoning behind this pattern is akin to the Inverted Hammer, but in reverse: ICE Brent Crude Oil futures unadjusted active continuation ; daily candlestick chart; 27 December — 15 February , showing Hanging Man on 30 January On this chart a Hanging Man sandwiched in between two similar highs was posted.

Once the low between these highs was broken a Western chart pattern called a Double Top had been completed. What about A and H? Argue amongst yourselves! What a great name, summoning up the most bearish of bear thoughts! As long as there is a small real body, it qualifies as a Doji. No or a VERY small real body 2. The open and close are at or very close to the bottom of the candle, leaving no lower shadow 3.

A long upper shadow 4. Market is in an uptrend Once again the first of these patterns has been named rather aptly. So what is a Gravestone Doji? We rally right from the very first trade, but at some point the downloading runs out of steam and the market starts to sell off. This selling sees us right back down to the first trade of the day and the market closed at this level, leaving absolutely no or a very small lower shadow, as well as no or a very small real body.

What does this description sound like? Reed Elsevier; daily candlestick chart; 4 December — 11 February , showing Gravestone Doji on 2 January At the time that this Gravestone Doji was posted there was a gap support below at , but once this broke on a closing basis on 8 January the selling started in earnest.

As you can see the Gravestone Doji was posted around lunchtime on 22 April, making a new high for the day in the process with a The market then headed steadily south from this moment onwards for the rest of the day, closing at Your time might be up The open and close are at or very close to the top of the candle, leaving no upper shadow 3. A long lower shadow 4.

This means the market sold off from the first trade, then recovered these losses to end the session right back where it started. Psychology The bears were winning the accolades early on but at some point at the low to be precise this balance of power changed, and from this point onwards the bulls dominated, right up until the close, which was also the high of the day and right back where the market started. This has a similar psychology to the Hammer in that the market had a shocking start to proceedings, but had recovered nicely by the time the session finished, which could empower the bulls going forward.

Do these patterns turn up so rarely? I class this chart as one of my old favourites. It has featured in my seminars for many years, and for good reason. We will come back to it for a third time in the next section, where we discuss the importance of volume to confirm candlestick patterns. It is a Doji with an open and close at the top of the candlestick, leaving the real body looking like a line across the top of a vertical line, hence the rather descriptive names.

These Doji look like an Umbrella or a Dragonfly. Not a pattern to be ignored. The open and close are at or very close to the middle of the candle 3. This means the upper and lower shadows are equal in length 4. A reversal pattern in an uptrend or a downtrend Inside the pattern The final pattern of this triumvirate is the marvellously named Rickshaw Man.

The failed attempt higher had equal price attributes to the selling to the lows that also proved to be unsuccessful. This can be classed as the ultimate in indecision. There was an almost total balance between downloaders and sellers. Obviously if you see this sort of thing at an extreme high or an extreme low there may be a change afoot.

Examples Source: CBOT Corn futures Pit session, unadjusted continuation chart ; weekly candlestick chart; 13 October — 23 August , showing Rickshaw Man on week of 5 — 9 April This near perfect Rickshaw Man right at the top of a move in corn gave us a significant top. If you missed shorting this, the Shooting Star a couple of months later gave you another signal that the market was toppy.

Eurex Bobl futures; daily candlestick chart adjusted continuation ; 11 February — 23 April , showing 17 March Rickshaw Man The Rickshaw Man at the top of this chart signalled a high in the Bobl in March Four days later the market completed a Double Top and the significant sell signal we got from this combination served the bears well. I have to admit it took a while to find really good examples of this pattern, which proves that maybe it is only in here because its name has mildly amusing connotations of confused men carting Rickshaws around, unable to work out which direction to take next!

Volume is, quite simply, the amount of trade going through at each price or each period of time. Quite simply, accompanying volume is one of the best ways to confirm any candlestick pattern, but if you see a reversal pattern or a major price move on very weak volume you should treat it as suspect.

Volume is illustrated on a candlestick chart in a separate box below the main body of the chart, usually expressed as a histogram. There have been attempts to incorporate volume into the candlesticks themselves. One example is an Equivolume candle chart, where the width of the real body varies depending on whether it was accompanied by strong or weak volume. The fatter the body the more volume was seen.

Even today in a dealing room at one of the large banks or brokers you can tell almost instantly whether a market is quiet or busy. I think this is where a lot of remote traders miss out when they sit and trade from home. I have also highlighted a few other Doji candlesticks on this chart with the blue down arrows , but as you can see if you look down to the volume histogram, there was no significant accompanying activity; this suggests that these Doji were probably the result of indifference rather than a big two way swing between downloaders and sellers that could have trend changing significance.

This is quite simply because volatility is very low, and therefore the chances of opening and closing at the same levels increases. I spend a lot of time looking at short time frame charts, but find that candlesticks work well whatever the time frame, something that this chart once again illustrates very well. The Doji candles that were formed on light volume were merely the result of the market going sideways; marking time because no one was actually around to trade.

They appear over lunchtime when the morning rush is done and the market is waiting for the US session to get underway. In this minute period only three different prices were traded, The market opened and closed at If we add the volume into the equation we suddenly realise that this minute period with an extremely tight range was actually one of the busiest minute periods over the whole day. The sellers walked away after our high volume tiddler of a Dragonfly Doji, but it was only the volume that highlighted how significant this candlestick actually was.

More on the subject of short-term trading A question I often get asked is whether candlesticks work well in time frames other than the daily chart, particularly for short-term traders. The nice thing about this is the instant gratification that they can provide. While on a daily chart you have to wait 2 days to see a Hammer and a green candle to confirm it, on a 10minute chart this would only take 20 minutes.

The message is exactly the same: The green candle adds its weight to the argument for a reversal. I will spend a bit more time on these ideas later on see pages With these patterns you should always look for confirming volume, which proves that a battle has indeed taken place at this time.

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In fact on short-term time frames candlesticks like Shooting Stars and Hammers make even more sense. To use a Hammer as an example, the big traders look for places where small, weaker traders have their sell stops, and they trigger these stops, then flip their direction and start downloading the market, taking it back through the old support level as quickly as the stops had seen us drop below there.

This sort of price behaviour generally leaves a long lower shadow on the short-term charts, or a Hammer to you or me. We will now move on to reversal patterns that are constructed using more than one candlestick. We will now take things further by looking at combinations of candlesticks that make patterns that are made up of more than one candlestick.

Do you remember how a Shooting Star is formed by an arc shaped direction of travel — gains then weakness? Well, most of the bearish reversal patterns discussed in this chapter do exactly this, except that the movement occurs over several candlesticks as opposed to just one. I have retained the rules section and the summary for quick and easy reference.

Strike 2!

Strike 1! Strike 4! The bulls often step in and download weakness to the gap, but on this occasion the market falls through the gap support. Strike 1 to the beaten up bears. Strike 2. This, in turn, is followed by a sell off through the Marabuzo line see page 81 of the green candle — Strike 3.

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Two candle pattern 2. The first candle has an open real body, in line with the Bull trend 3. The second candle has a filled real body 4. The size and position of the shadows on either candles does not matter 6. On day one the market goes up, as evidenced by the open bodied candlestick. But then it all changes; the sellers are resurgent, and by the end of this session the market has sold off. The filled real body that surrounds or engulfs the open real body preceding it means enough has been sold off to give back all of the gains made the day before, and a bit more.

Thomas Bulkowski Encyclopedia Of Candlestick Charts

So there is an arc shaped direction of travel, a rise then a drop, and a weak close to boot. AMEC plc; daily candlestick chart; 16 October — 24 January , showing Bearish Engulfing Pattern on 3 and 4 January 72 Multiple Reversal Patterns On the 4 January a key support level was also broken at , and the move through here produced a Western Double Top formation as the market broke down through the low from a few sessions previous 24 December The other thing to note about this chart is how the market failed right on the resistance from a few months before.

ICE Brent Crude Oil futures all sessions, active unadjusted continuation ; daily candlestick chart; 30 November — 11 February , showing 3 and 4 January Bearish Engulfing Pattern This Bearish Engulfing Pattern saw a red candle surrounding a Star see page 9 made the day before. Immediately after the Bearish Engulfing Pattern another big red candle was posted, so there was some instant gratification. There was an uptrend line to break before we got too excited though, and you can see there was another solid reaction to the downside once this line gave way.

This is an important point to make: The ideal world volume characteristics of this pattern is higher volume on the second candlestick, ie, the selling on the second day is more ferocious than the downloading that was seen on the first.Candlesticks can be used over different time frames and we will look at their application whether you are a short-term trader or a long-term money manager.

Downward breakouts in a bear market took exactly the same time, four days, to make the journey. Below is a daily candlestick chart for gold in May when highs not seen since the early s were hit. The Scoring Trade by Thomas Bulkowski Here's a scoring system for symmetrical triangles that helps predict performance. Obviously this was also about the time that charting in general suddenly became a lot easier, due to the widespread use of the PC.

I use a day exponential moving average as a starting point and season it with special rules to allow price trends of a day or two to override the result.

Another big red candle proves that the bears are back in the box seat. The first candle has a filled real body, in line with the Bear trend 3. It was only the market closing that stopped them from downloading more. Beta-Adjusting Trailing Stops by Thomas Bulkowski Have you ever wondered how to improve the performance of your favorite indicator or trading system?

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