Leonard Meyer's Emotion and Meaning in Music. My old paperback copy is falling apart. It tells me it was printed in , and I'm pretty sure I found it that. emotion, engagement and meaning in strong experiences of music performance alexandra lamont keele university, uk abstract this paper explores the emotions. IN RECENT years Leonard Meyer's theory of musical meaning, though now Meyer's theory in his Music and the Emotions: The Philosophical Theories.2 But.
|Language:||English, Japanese, Hindi|
|ePub File Size:||28.63 MB|
|PDF File Size:||13.68 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Introduction. The perception of emotional meaning in music is one of the final events in a communication process. This consists of the transmitting of messages . Emotion and Meaning in Music (Phoenix Books) [Leonard B. Meyer] on site. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Altogether it is a book that should be. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Mar 1, , Laurel Trainor and others published The emotional origins of basis of musical expectations: from probabilities to emotional meaning.
Reviewed by: Bradley W. This article was submitted to Emotion Science, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Apr 26; Accepted Oct The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
Emotion and meaning in music
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Summary of emotion locus in music studies reviewed. PDF K. Abstract In his seminal paper, Gabrielsson distinguishes between emotion felt by the listener, here: Inclusion criteria and limitations of this review Inclusion criteria The inclusion criteria for the research tabulated for the review are as follows: Limitation 1: Limitation 2: Limitation 3: Limitation 4: Limitation 5: Previous psychological accounts leading up to gabrielsson's publication Pre-review period before accounts by music psychologists demonstrating an awareness of the distinction between felt and expressed emotion are frequent e.
Review of the contemporary literature: Locus terminology The labels used to denote internal and external locus varied considerably across the tabulated studies. Table 1 Terminology of emotion locus levels by grammatical subject perspective. Open in a separate window. Design and procedures Many of the tabulated studies ask the participant to perform tasks in a laboratory setting and often in groups.
Emotions rated The most frequently used pole labels whether rating item was bipolar or unipolar were happy including happiness and very-happy and sad including sadness and very sad , both used in at least 3 eight studies Supplementary Table 1 , rows 1, 2, 4, 9, 11, 13, 14, and Number of steps per rating item When making a response via a rating item, participants are given a number of graded steps points along a continuum from which they are to make a single selection.
Unipolar vs. Key finding In nine of the tabulated entries, it was possible to perform a simple count of the number of times the mean internal locus rating was greater than the corresponding mean external locus rating e. Figure 1. Theoretical considerations Felt emotion less than expressed: Felt emotion more varied than expressed: Mixed responses: Table 2 Revision of Gabrielsson's relationships between felt and expressed emotion loci in music.
Contagion 2. Unmatched relationships The music is happy but makes me feel sad. Interesting Subcategories, classified within category 1, 2 or 3 above a. Felt level magnitude The music expresses a lot of sadness, but I only feel a little bit sad. The example suggests both or Complex c. Differential variance across loci Felt emotion ratings more varied than expressed emotion ratings Contagion, Decoding theory Contagion occurs, but decoding of emotion occurs with statistical noise as suggested by the Lens model , which might be explained, for example, by the mood of the listener, their cultural immersion and their familiarity with the style of the music.
Revision of gabrielsson's locus relationships Gabrielsson's categories of emotion locus relationships have provided an important framework for encouraging direct engagement with and awareness of the question of emotion locus in music.
Discussion and conclusions Gabrielsson's rediscovery and systematic organization of the relationships between felt and perceived emotion during a musical experience can be considered significantly responsible for opening up a new topic of music psychology and in regard to emotion research in general because it brought to focus the distinction between the locus of emotion when the reactions are not between two sentient beings, but between one sentient being and a piece of music.
Conflict of interest statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments I am grateful for the detailed and helpful suggestions made by the reviewers.
Footnotes 1 Music is used in clinical and laboratory settings to induce mood. Supplementary material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: Click here for additional data file.
References Ali S. Intensity of emotions conveyed and elicited by familiar and unfamiliar music. Music Percept. Feeling thermometers versus 7-point scales: Which are better? Methods Res. Emotional dissonance, burnout, and in-role performance among nurses and police officers. Stress Manage. Music-evoked nostalgia: Emotion 10 , How emotions expressed by adults' faces affect the desire to eat liked and disliked foods in children compared to adults. Remembrance of things past: Researchers misunderstand confidence intervals and standard error bars.
Methods 10 , — Varieties of musical experience. Cognition , — Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion. How interpersonal power affects empathic accuracy: Front Hum.
Toward understanding emotional management at work: Mahwah, NJ: The origins of the aesthetic enjoyment of music—a review of the literature. Musicae Sci.
The Measurement of Aesthetic Emotion in Music
Beyond bipolar conceptualizations and measures: Impaired recognition and experience of disgust following brain injury. Identifying outcome reporting bias in randomised trials on PubMed: BMJ , Facial mimicry in response to song. The heat of emotion: Endowment and contrast: Appraising valence. Seeing is Deceiving: The Psychology of Visual Illusions. Oxford, England: The use of spatio-temporal connectionist models in psychological studies of musical emotions.
Inference by eye: Musical Meaning and Expression. Ithaca, NY: Philosophy, music and emotion. Do data characteristics change according to the number of scale points used? An experiment using 5 point, 7 point and 10 point scales. The role of peripheral feedback in emotional experience with music. The personality structure of affect. Unconscious facial reactions to emotional facial expressions. Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias.
Cognitive versus automatic mechanisms of mood induction differentially activate left and right amygdala. Neuroimage 54 , — A comparison of the discrete and dimensional models of emotion in music.
Music 39 , 18—49 Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion , in Nebraska Symposium on Motivation , ed. Cole J. University of Nebraska Press;. Quantification of Gabrielsson's relationships between felt and expressed emotions in music , in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Music and Cognition , eds Baroni M.
Relationships between expressed and felt emotions in music. The Perception of Music. Hillsdale, NJ: Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Perceived emotion and felt emotion: Strong Experiences with Music: Oxford University Press; Individual differences in the enjoyment of negative emotion in music: Negative emotion in music: A qualitative study. Rumination and sad music: The University of Western Australia;. Adaptive and maladaptive attraction to negative emotions in music.
Play it again, Sam: Mood state and cardiovascular response in active coping with an affect-regulative challenge. Emotions in music a postscript. Art crit. Emotion, mood, and temperament: Theory, Research and Applications for Management.
Transportation into narrative worlds: Discourse Process. Individual emotional reactions towards music: Emotions over time: Emotion 7 , — The dissociation of emotion expression from emotion experience: Mental state decoding in past major depression: An empirical study of normative dissociation in musical and non-musical everyday life experiences.
Music 41 , — Experimental studies of the elements of expression in music. The affective value of pitch and tempo in music. Film music influences how viewers relate to movie characters. Arts 5 , Mixed affective responses to music with conflicting cues. Feelings and perceptions of happiness and sadness induced by music: Arts 4 , 47—56 Why is sad music pleasurable?
A possible role for prolactin. Imitation, empathy, and mirror neurons. A comparison of acoustic cues in music and speech for three dimensions of affect. Experiential and cognitive changes following seven minutes exposure to music and speech. Social context effects on facial activity in a negative emotional setting. Emotion 1 , 51—69 Perceived emotional expression in synthesized performances of a short melody: Cue utilization in communication of emotion in music performance: Music and emotion: From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Life Rev.
Toward a computational model of expression in music performance: Expression, perception, and induction of musical emotions: New Music Res.
Emotional reactions to music in a nationally representative sample of Swedish adults Prevalence and causal influences. Musical expression of emotions: Music Analysis 29 , — Emotional responses to music: Brain Sci. Emotion perceived and emotion felt: Validation of a music mood induction procedure: Event-related skin conductance responses to musical emotions in humans. Sound Sentiment: Philadelphia, PA: Music Alone: Philosophical Reflections on the Purely Musical Experience.
Feeling the musical emotions A philosophical approach. Introduction to a Philosophy of Music. Oxford, UK: Clarendon [ Google Scholar ] Knobloch S.
Music and emotion
Mood management via the digital jukebox. Investigating emotion with music: Brain Mapp. The aesthetic trinity: Does music induce emotion? Arts 2 , — Comparative effects of music and recalled life-events on emotional state.
Music 36 , — Cardiovascular responses to music listening: Using music to induce emotions: Cognitive styles of music listening. An exploratory study of musical emotions and psychophysiology.
Protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer patients. Health Psychol. Rapid emotion regulation after mood induction: Music and Its Lovers: Experimental evidence of the roles of music choice, social context, and listener personality in emotional reactions to music. Music 37 , 61—90 An empirical study concerning terminology relating to aesthetic response to music. Music Educ. A health-care model of emotional labour: Health Organ.
Protective buffering and psychological distress among couples coping with breast cancer: Directional Statistics. Cultural similarities and differences in display rules. Idiocentric and allocentric differences in emotional expression, experience, and the coherence between expression and experience. Asian J. Why people listen to sad music: The rewards of music listening: Neuroimage 28 , — Emotion and Meaning in Music. Chicago, IL: Emotions and the structuring of narrative responses.
Poetics Today 32 , — Revisiting truth or triviality the external validity of research in the psychological laboratory. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: Methods 39 , — Distinguishing self and other in joint action.
Evidence from a musical paradigm. Cortex 22 , — This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel experience pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness.
This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life.
When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness.
In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion. We often regulate our mood by listening to our music of choice. People tend to listen to cheerful music when they want to improve their mood because specific qualities contained in that music amuse us and improve our emotional state. With this in mind, why do we listen to sad music? It is reasonable to assume that sad music would evoke sadness in listeners, as we tend to tap into the sadness it emits when we elect to listen to it.
Therefore, we focused on music in a minor key and defined it as sad music in this study. However, this seems unusual. Within emotion psychology, sadness is generally regarded as an unpleasant emotion.
Thus, for instance, a particular piece of music may have occurred repeatedly together in time with a specific event that always made you happy e. Over time, through repeated pairings, the music will eventually come to evoke happiness even in the absence of the friendly interaction.
This is sometimes referred to as the "Darling, they are playing our tune" phenomenon. It has for example been found that listening to unconventional music may sometimes cause a meaning threat and result in compensatory behaviour in order to restore meaning.
This can involve a number of varying personal preferences, such as the message conveyed, skill presented or novelty of style or idea. Comparison of conveyed and elicited emotions[ edit ] Evidence for emotion in music[ edit ] There has been a bulk of evidence that listeners can identify specific emotions with certain types of music, but there has been less concrete evidence that music may elicit emotions.
Researchers use one or a combination of these methods to investigate emotional reactions to music. This is the most widely used method for studying emotion and has shown that people identify emotions and personally experience emotions while listening to music. In fact, a meta-analysis of 41 studies on music performance found that happiness, sadness, tenderness, threat, and anger were identified above chance by listeners. The findings showed that the categorizations were not different between the trained and untrained; thus demonstrating that the untrained listeners are highly accurate in perceiving emotion.
This leaves reporting vulnerable to self-report biases such as participants responding according to social prescriptions or responding as they think the experimenter wants them to. Some evidence shows one of these changes is within the nervous system.
Studies using facial electromyography EMG have found that people react with subliminal facial expressions when listening to expressive music. In general, research agrees that feeling and perception ratings are highly correlated, but not identical. The results found that emotions conveyed by music were more intense than the emotions elicited by the same piece of music.
Findings showed that ratings for conveyed emotions were higher in happy responses to music with consistent cues for happiness i. Sometimes conveyed, sometimes elicited[ edit ] Another study that had 32 participants listen to twelve musical pieces and found that the strength of perceived and elicited emotions were dependent on the structures of the piece of music.
On the other hand, elicited emotions were stronger than perceived emotions when rating for pleasantness. A separate 19 listeners rated to what extent they experienced each of these emotions. The findings showed that all music stimuli elicited specific emotions for the group of participants rating elicited emotion, while music stimuli only occasionally conveyed emotion to the participants in the group identifying which emotions the music conveyed.
There is disagreement about whether music induces 'true' emotions or if the emotions reported as felt in studies are instead just participants stating the emotions found in the music they are listening to. Therapeutic techniques involve eliciting emotions by listening to music, composing music or lyrics and performing music.
In one study, music therapy provided child oncology patients with enhanced environmental support elements and elicited more engaging behaviors from the child.
While other avenues of emotional expression and understanding may be difficult for people with autism, music may provide those with limited understanding of socio-emotional cues a way of accessing emotion. Foundations of Cognitive Psychology: Core Reading: — Musicae Scientiae.
Oxford University Press.Figure 1. Further explanation of our tendency to respond in this way to music will be in some other domain, such as the psychology of music. Of course, when our experienced emotion is identical to our perceived emotion, then felt emotion and perceived emotion coincide. Though many of our claims about musical works may be paraphrasable into claims about sets of possible performances, some seem to make intractable reference to works.
Eliciting emotion through music[ edit ] Along with the research that music conveys an emotion to its listener s , it has also been shown that music can produce emotion in the listener s.
Sign in via your Institution Sign in. Also, when a number of the musical items were repeated later, the increase in the scores of students proved to be statistically significant, indicating that the test can also be used to measure growth in appreciation. Regarding the first point, our emotional responses to music lack many of the behaviors characteristic of the supposedly felt emotion.