ELECTRONICS REPAIR ARTICLES PDF

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Electronics Repair Articles Pdf

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We will discuss how they work, how to use them and some of the differences between them. The cost is determined by the number of ranges and also the extra features such as diode tester, buzzer continuity , transistor tester, high DC current and others. Since most multimeters are reliable and accurate, download one with the greatest number of ranges at the lowest cost.

This article explains the difference between a cheap analogue meter, an expensive analogue meter and a digital meter.

You will then be able to work out which two meters you should download. Some Digital Multimeter DMMs are auto ranging; they automatically select the correct range of voltage, resistance, or current when doing a test. Before making any measurement you need to know what you are checking. If you are measuring resistance, select the Ohms range x1, x10, x, x1k, x10k.

If you are measuring current, select the appropriate current range DCmA 0. Every multimeter is different however the photo below shows a low cost meter with the basic ranges.

The most important point to remember is this: You must select a voltage or current range that is bigger or HIGHER than the maximum expected value, so the needle does not swing across the scale and hit the "end stop.

A "-1" indicates the leads should be reversed for a "positive reading. The red lead fits into the red socket for Voltage and Resistance. The following two photos show the test leads fitted to a digital meter. The probes and plugs have "guards" surrounding the probe tips and also the plugs so you can measure high voltages without getting near the voltage-source.

Analogue meters have an "Ohms Adjustment" to allow for the change in voltage of the battery inside the meter as it gets old. If the pointer does not reach full scale, the batteries need replacing. Digital multimeters do not need "zero adjustment. Before taking a reading, you should select the highest range and if the needle does not move up scale to the right , you can select another range. Always switch to the highest range before probing a circuit and keep your fingers away from the component being tested.

If the meter is Digital, select the highest range or use the auto-ranging feature, by selecting "V. DC means Direct Current and the voltage is coming from a battery or supply where the voltage is steady and not changing and AC means Alternating Current where the voltage is coming from a voltage that is rising and falling. You can measure the voltage at different points in a circuit by connecting the black probe to chassis.

This is the 0v reference and is commonly called "Chassis" or "Earth" or "Ground" or "0v. Sometimes there are "test points" on a circuit and these are wires or loops designed to hold the tip of the red probe or a red probe fitted with a mini clip. It may be the voltage across a transistor, resistor, capacitor, diode or coil. In most cases this voltage will be less than the supply voltage.

Here's a simple case. The circuit below consists of two 1M resistors in series. Here how it works: Every meter has a sensitivity. If this multimeter is used to test the following circuit, the reading will be inaccurate.

See how easy it is to get a totally inaccurate reading. This introduces two new terms: In other words it has a very HIGH input impedance. Most Digital Multimeters have a fixed input resistance impedance of 10M - no matter what scale is selected.

That's the reason for choosing a DMM for high impedance circuits. You can measure "across" a component, or between any point in a circuit and either the positive rail or earth rail 0v rail. In the following circuit, the 5 most important voltage-measurements are shown. Voltage "A" is across the electret microphone. It should be between 20mV and mV. Voltage "B" should be about 0. Voltage "C" should be about half-rail voltage. This allows the transistor to amplify both the positive and negative parts of the waveform.

Voltage "D" should be about v. Voltage "E" should be the battery voltage of 12v. Measuring the current of a circuit will tell you a lot of things. If you know the normal current, a high or low current can let you know if the circuit is overloaded or not fully operational. Current is always measured when the circuit is working i.

The easiest way to measure current is to remove the fuse and take a reading across the fuse-holder. Or remove one lead of the battery or turn the project off, and measure across the switch.

If this is not possible, you will need to remove one end of a component and measure with the two probes in the "opening. You have to get an "opening" so that a current reading can be taken. This voltage may be too high for the circuit being supplied and the result will be damage.

Measuring current through a resistor Measuring the current of a globe. Do not measure the "current a battery will deliver" by placing the probes across the terminals. It will deliver a very high current and damage the meter instantly. There are special battery testing instruments for this purpose.

When measuring across an "opening" or "cut," place the red probe on the wire that supplies the voltage and current and the black probe on the other wire. If you are using a Digital Meter, a negative sign "-" will appear on the screen to indicate the probes are around the wrong way.

No damage will be caused. It just indicates the probes are connected incorrectly. If any voltage is present, the value of resistance will be incorrect. In most cases you cannot measure a component while it is in-circuit. This is because the meter is actually measuring a voltage across a component and calling it a "resistance. If any other voltage is present, the meter will produce a false reading.

If you are measuring the resistance of a component while still "in circuit," with the power off the reading will be lower than the true reading. Measuring resistance. Measuring resistance of a heater via the leads. Measuring the resistance of a piece of resistance-wire.

Measuring the resistance of a resistor. Do not measure the "Resistance of a Battery". Do not measure the "resistance of a battery. It is measured by creating a current-flow and measuring the voltage across the battery. Do not try to measure the resistance of any voltage or any "supply. If the bar is thinner, the resistance is higher. If the bar is longer, the resistance is higher. If the material of the bar is changed, the resistance is higher.

It's a bit like standing on a hose. The flow reduces. When current flow is reduced, the output voltage is also reduced and that why the water does not spray up so high.

Resistors are simple devices but they produce many different effects in a circuit. A resistor of nearly pure carbon may be 1 ohm, but when non-conducting "impurities" are added, the same-size resistor may be ohms, 1, ohms or 1 million ohms. Circuits use values of less than 1 ohm to more than 22 million ohms. The letter "E" is also sometimes used and both mean "Ohms. The size determines the wattage of the resistor - how much heat it can dissipate without getting too hot.

Every resistor is identified by colour bands on the body, but when the resistor is a surface-mount device, numbers are used and sometimes letters. If 3rd band is gold, Divide by 10 If 3rd band is silver, Divide by to get 0. The first 3 bands produce the resistance and the fourth band is the "tolerance" band. These two bands provide the digits in the answer. But it's easy to follow. This represents a ZERO in the answer. This is different to 4-band resistors where black represents the word OHMS!

The following list covers 10 ohms 10R to 1M. Surface Mount Resistors. All the SM resistors in the above photos conform to a 3-digit or 4-digit code. But there are a number of codes, and the 4-digit code caters for high tolerance resistors, so it's getting very complicated.

Here is a basic 3-digit SM resistor:. A k SM resistor. Three Digit Examples. Four Digit Examples. If you want to create a "Special Value," simply connect two resistors and read the value with a Digital Meter. Keep changing the values until you get the required value. We are not going into series or Parallel formulae. You can easily find a value with a multimeter. You simply ADD the values. This can be done with any to two values as shown. Three equal-value resistors in series is three times the value.

Three equal-value resistors in parallel is equal to one-third the value. If you want a particular value and it is not available, here is a chart. Use 2 resistors in series or parallel as shown: There are other ways to combine 2 resistors in parallel or series to get a particular value. The examples above are just one way.

The surrounding components can affect the reading and make it lower. You can take the reading of a resistor "in-circuit" in one direction then the other, as the surrounding components may have diodes and this will alter the reading. You can also test a resistor by feeling its temperature-rise. Resistors are just "resistors" and they can be in AC circuits or DC circuits.

It is a low-value resistor and has a voltage-drop across it but this is not intentional. The voltage-drop is to create a "heating-effect" to burn out the resistor. In all the other types of resistor, the voltage-drop is intentional. A Ballast resistor is a normal resistor and can be called a Power resistor, Dropper resistor, Supply resistor or Feed resistor. It is designed to reduce the voltage from one source and deliver a lower voltage. It is a form of: A Load Resistor is generally connected across the output of a circuit and turns the energy it receives, into heat.

It is made with many resistors of the same value, all in one package. One end of each resistor is connected all the other resistors and this is the common pin, identified as pin 1 and has a dot on the package.

These packages are very reliable but to make sure all the resistors are as stated, you need to locate pin 1. All values will be identical when referenced to this pin. Some resistor networks have a "4S" printed on the component. The 4S indicates the package contains 4 independent resistors that are not wired together inside. The housing has eight leads as shown in the second image. Independent resistors have an even number of pins and measuring between each pair will produce identical values. R esistance between any pair will indicate leakage and may be a fault.

When cold, it has a very low resistance and a large current flows when the monitor or TV is switched on. This current heats up the Posistor and the resistance increases. This causes the current to decrease and any magnetism in the shadow mask is removed.

The posistor can one or two elements and it is kept warm so the resistance remains high. Many Posistors have a second element inside the case that connects directly to the supply to keep the Positive Temperature Coefficient resistor high so that the current through the degaussing coil falls to almost zero. This constant heat eventually destroys the package. The heavy current that flows when a set is turned ON also causes the posistor to crack and break and this results in poor purity on the screen - as the shadow mask gradually becomes magnetic..

Posistors have different resistance values from different manufacturers and must be replaced with an identical type. They can be checked for very low resistance when cold but any loose pieces inside the case will indicate a damaged component.

The resistance of a "burnt" resistor can sometimes be determined by scraping away the outer coating - if the resistor has a spiral of resistance-material. You may be able to find a spot where the spiral has been damaged. Clean the "spot" burnt section of the spiral very carefully and make sure you can get a good contact with the spiral and the tip of your probe.

Measure from one lead of the resistor to the end of the damaged spiral. Then measure from the other lead to the other end of the spiral.

Add the two values and you have an approximate value for the resistor. You can add a small amount for the damaged section. This process works very well for damaged wire-wound resistors. They can be pulled apart and each section of the resistance-wire nichrome wire measured and added to get the full resistance.

There is another way to determine the value of a damaged resistor. Get a set of resistors of the same wattage as the damaged component and start with a high value. It's handy to know if the resistor is in the range: Start with a very high value and turn the circuit ON. You can perform voltage tests and if you know the expected output voltage, decrease the resistance until this voltage is obtained. If you do not know the expected voltage, keep reducing the value of resistance until the circuit works as designed.

This is the best advice in a situation where you do not know the value of a resistor. There is a third way to determine the value and this requires measuring the voltage drop across the resistor and the current-flow. By multiplying the two you will get a wattage and this must be less than the wattage of the resistor being replaced.

A Rheostat is a variable resistor using only one end and the middle connected to a circuit. The resistance between the two outside pins is the value marked on the component and the centre leg will change from nearly zero to the full resistance as the shaft is rotated.

Cleaning with spray fixes the bad focus but if the pot is leaking to chassis from inside the pot due to the high voltage on the terminals simply remove it from the chassis and leave it floating this will restore the high voltage to the picture tube or you can use one from an old chassis.

We have already covered placing resistors and capacitors in parallel and series: Two 1k 0. Zener diodes can be connected in series to get a higher voltage. Two 12v zener diodes in series produces a 24v zener. You can use the resistance scale "x1" or "x10" to detect low values of resistance. The cost is determined by the number of ranges and also the extra features such as diode tester, buzzer continuity , transistor tester, high DC current and others.

Since most multimeters are reliable and accurate, download one with the greatest number of ranges at the lowest cost. This article explains the difference between a cheap analogue meter, an expensive analogue meter and a digital meter. You will then be able to work out which two meters you should download. Some Digital Multimeter DMMs are auto ranging; they automatically select the correct range of voltage, resistance, or current when doing a test.

Before making any measurement you need to know what you are checking. If you are measuring resistance, select the Ohms range x1, x10, x, x1k, x10k. If you are measuring current, select the appropriate current range DCmA 0.

Every multimeter is different however the photo below shows a low cost meter with the basic ranges. The most important point to remember is this: You must select a voltage or current range that is bigger or HIGHER than the maximum expected value, so the needle does not swing across the scale and hit the "end stop. A "-1" indicates the leads should be reversed for a "positive reading. The red lead fits into the red socket for Voltage and Resistance. The following two photos show the test leads fitted to a digital meter.

The probes and plugs have "guards" surrounding the probe tips and also the plugs so you can measure high voltages without getting near the voltage-source. Analogue meters have an "Ohms Adjustment" to allow for the change in voltage of the battery inside the meter as it gets old.

If the pointer does not reach full scale, the batteries need replacing. Digital multimeters do not need "zero adjustment. Before taking a reading, you should select the highest range and if the needle does not move up scale to the right , you can select another range. Always switch to the highest range before probing a circuit and keep your fingers away from the component being tested.

If the meter is Digital, select the highest range or use the auto-ranging feature, by selecting "V. If the meter is not auto-ranging, you will have to select if the voltage is from a DC source or if the voltage is from an AC source.

DC means Direct Current and the voltage is coming from a battery or supply where the voltage is steady and not changing and AC means Alternating Current where the voltage is coming from a voltage that is rising and falling.

You can measure the voltage at different points in a circuit by connecting the black probe to chassis. This is the 0v reference and is commonly called "Chassis" or "Earth" or "Ground" or "0v.

Sometimes there are "test points" on a circuit and these are wires or loops designed to hold the tip of the red probe or a red probe fitted with a mini clip. It may be the voltage across a transistor, resistor, capacitor, diode or coil. In most cases this voltage will be less than the supply voltage. Here's a simple case. The circuit below consists of two 1M resistors in series. Here how it works: Every meter has a sensitivity.

If this multimeter is used to test the following circuit, the reading will be inaccurate. See how easy it is to get a totally inaccurate reading. In other words it has a very HIGH input impedance.

Most Digital Multimeters have a fixed input resistance impedance of 10M - no matter what scale is selected. That's the reason for choosing a DMM for high impedance circuits. You can measure "across" a component, or between any point in a circuit and either the positive rail or earth rail 0v rail. In the following circuit, the 5 most important voltage-measurements are shown. Voltage "A" is across the electret microphone. It should be between 20mV and mV.

Voltage "B" should be about 0. Voltage "C" should be about half-rail voltage. This allows the transistor to amplify both the positive and negative parts of the waveform. Voltage "D" should be about v. Voltage "E" should be the battery voltage of 12v.This may help you to locate which IC has gone bad-or the failure could be caused by a cascading effect with one chip or component elsewhere causing others to malfunction.

For a transformer with a single secondary winding: Encapsulation The most popular form of encapsulation used for ICs is the dual-inline package. This causes the main fuses to blow. The posistor can one or two elements and it is kept warm so the resistance remains high. We will begin to search for the answer in the internet, books and electronic repair magazine, forums and from our fellow repair friends. Our main objective is to ensure that the Electronics Repair Manual contains comprehensive, instructive and up-to-date material.

Here is a zener diode tester. The left knee should be bent. The light is proportional to the signal, so the signal is transferred to the photo transistor to turn it on a proportional amount.

MYRTLE from McHenry
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