AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by SARATH M.R. SARATH PRADEEP. AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER MINI PROJECT REPORT Carried out in the partial fulfillment of the. Controller With Bidirectional Visitor Counter “on having completed this project. Very first would like to This Project ―Automatic Room Light Controller with Visitor Counter using Microcontroller is a .. INCLUDE reg_pdf. RB0 EQU H.
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Automatic Room Light Controller with Visitor Counter. Anjali Sinha1 reliable circuit that takes over the task of controlling the room lights as well us counting number of persons/ visitors in the . ARM7 Datasheet bestthing.info Page Automatic Room Light Controller with Visitor. Counter Desgined using Microcontroller. Rajat shah1, Deepak Rasaily. 2, Tashi Rapden Wangchuk3. The project titled - “Automatic Room Light Control Using Bidirectional Visitor . Counter with Automatic Room Light Controller and Arduino as the master.
Reply Devang b patel 6 October, at pm Permalink Sir is any sensor to detect light brightness and then on light at day timeor keep it off At day time with blood sensor and temperature sensor Can u give any comment about this. Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 10 October, at am Permalink Hi Devang b patel, we have already included Light sensor to detect daytime.
We can even add Temperature sensor as per your requirement. But please send details of your customized requirement to our email id. However it is not possible to add blood sensor in this project. Reply Aleee 4 October, at am Permalink Does it works for same entry ,exit door..???? Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 4 October, at pm Permalink Hi Aleee, yes it works for the rooms which has only 1 door for entry and exit. Reply mbavu 8 October, at pm Permalink am getting started with some project in the same line with this only that mine has to consider all the appliances in the room e.
TV, radio set, fun, flat iron, computers, chargers. We have provided a relay with this project. It can be used to turn a single device or many devices at a time.
Also we can provide a time lag between switching off devices. Can u guys make a tutorial to detect room entry alert system using alarm with clear explanation???
I dont like to download some projects in some other project center. So i think some concept and when i take some notes related to my project through internet i have found yours….. Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 10 October, at am Permalink Hi Naveen, Two transmitters should have sufficient distance between each other so that they will not interfere with each other.
We have to take precaution that the IR rays of first transmitter should fall only on first IR receiver and not on second receiver. Reply khushboo thakare 30 December, at pm Permalink how can we implement this project by sending the data to a remote location using mobile or internet? Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 31 December, at pm Permalink Hi khushboo thakare, we can implement computer interfacing or GSM modem interfacing with this project.
And PC interfacing can be used to send data to computer then a computer application can be developed to send this data to internet. Reply chinnu 6 January, at pm Permalink when a cat or any other animals comes across the ir sensor , will light remain on or off?
So if any animal crosses the sensor then the visitor counter will be incremented or decremented depending on the direction and then lights will be turned on if count is greater than zero. Reply Roshan 17 January, at am Permalink Sir, is there any kind of programming also involved with the micro-controller 89s51 in this project? If yes then are programming for counters and for LCD Displaying separately? Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 10 October, at am Permalink Hi Roshan, yes 89s51 microcontroller programming is involved in this project.
Although there are different functions for LCD and person counter modules, but they are combined in a single program. Reply shanthini 27 January, at pm Permalink hi i m shanthini. So it can detect the person but it gets difficult to understand if the person is entering in the room or leaving the room.
Kaya ap ya bna sakty hn?? Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 9 July, at am Permalink Yes, we can send the data to remove location via GSM modem Reply anjali 1 March, at pm Permalink 1 why is IR sensor the best choice in this case…why not proximity sensor or any other sensor??
Reply Sissharth 4 March, at am Permalink Sir, Can you please provide us the research paper if any for the same project..?? Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 10 October, at pm Permalink Hi kashaf , microcontroller just reads the output signal from IR receiver sensor. And this sensor does not recognize the number of person.
It just responds to the IR rays falling on it.
So if two or more person enters in room without any gap between them then it will treat as a single pulse. And this pulse will be given to microcontroller for further processing.
Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 9 July, at am Permalink No, this project can not work for multiple rooms simultaneously. You have to install one project for each room. Reply bhakti2 3 August, at am Permalink can i interface dc motor on this object counter becaus when no. However for this we need to modify the circuit.
I would recommend to add a comparator instead of a Analog to digital convertor. Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 10 October, at pm Permalink Hi papun, yes we can connect these devices to a single relay. But then all these devices will be turned on or off at the same time. If you want con control them individually then we need to modify the circuit to add 2 more relays. Reply Mukta 23 September, at am Permalink I have a question,have you calculated how much energy is saved by implementing this project.
Reply Felix 2 October, at am Permalink since the counter will either increment or decrement when there is obstruction on the sensors, how can it differenciate between the person that is entering or leaving the room? When person enters room then sensor sequence will be as below: Initially first sensor will be activated and later second sensor will be activated.
And in case of person leaving the room, sensor sequence will be as below: Initially second sensor will be activated and later first sensor will be activated. Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 9 July, at am Permalink These details are mentioned in the project report. You will get all documents after downloading the project.
Reply palak 26 October, at pm Permalink I have a doubt.. Reply Arif 5 January, at pm Permalink Hi I am Really looking forward to download this project… but i am not getting how does both the Tx n Rx will count the person entering and leaving the room with same door for entrance and exit…. Counter will increment if first sensor is interrupted first and then second sensor. And counter will decrement if second sensor is interuppted first and then first sensor.
Reply encikpatrick 22 March, at pm Permalink how about the price of this project? Extra shipping charges are applicable for delivery out of India. Please email us your address in detail. We will reply you total cost including shipping charges. Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 9 July, at am Permalink In such cases the counter will not be incremented.
There is a waiting period of 5 seconds. If the second sensor is not interuppted within 5 seconds then the waiting period gets over and action is cancelled. Actually we already have 2 such projects. But it is less compare the the power consumption of Lights and Fans. And take an example of a big seminar hall.
In such places the power consumption of project is negligible as compare to the electricity wastage. Reply Deepthi 2 July, at pm Permalink Hi…. What is the use of buzzer in this project… Reply Microtronics Technologies Post author 9 July, at am Permalink Buzzer will be turned on when maximum limit of person count has reached.
Suppose a seminar hall has seating capacity of then only people should be allowed inside room. Whenever th person enters then buzzer should be turned on to indicate that maximum capacity has reached. In this project we have set the limit to 15 for demo purpose. Reply Rajkumar 6 September, at pm Permalink Is the programme is alredy dumped by you?
ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGG.(KGRCET) Page 1
Or we have to dump? Reply Oliver vincent 8 September, at pm Permalink Hi sir,this project is almost well for us but i want to know about disadvantages for this project.
So in order to get a pure d. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage. Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the a. This is done by a transformer. Thus, a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a required level.
The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification.
Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage. As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it.
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, and voltage regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the required output voltage levels. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer.
By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C52 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification.
External pull-ups are required during program verification. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current IIL because of the internal pull-ups.
In addition, P1. Port Pin Alternate Functions P1. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current I IL because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use bit addresses MOVX DPTR. In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull ups when emitting 1s.
Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.
When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current I IL because of the pull ups.
Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port Pin Alternate Functions P3. RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin is also the program pulse input PROG during flash programming. However, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory.
Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.
However, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12V programming enable voltage VPP during Flash programming when 12V programming is selected.
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.
The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control.
On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory.
The cheapest way to remotely control a device within a visible range is via Infra-Red light.
Automatic Room light controller with sensors
Almost all audio and video equipment can be controlled this way nowadays. Due to this wide spread use the required components are quite cheap, thus making it ideal for us hobbyists to use IR control for our own projects. This part of my knowledge base will explain the theory of operation of IR remote control, and some of the protocols that are in use in consumer electronics.
Infra-Red actually is normal light with a particular color. We humans can't see this color because its wave length of nm is below the visible spectrum. That's one of the reasons why IR is chosen for remote control purposes, we want to use it but we're not interested in seeing it.
Although we humans can't see the Infra-Red light emitted from a remote control doesn't mean we can't make it visible. A video camera or digital photo camera can "see" the Infra-Red light as you can see in this picture. If you own a web cam you're in luck, point your remote to it, press any button and you'll see the LED flicker.
Unfortunately for us there are many more sources of Infra-Red light. The sun is the brightest source of all, but there are many others, like: In fact everything that radiates heat also radiates Infra-Red light.
Therefore we have to take some precautions to guarantee that our IR message gets across to the receiver without errors. Modulation is the answer to make our signal stand out above the noise.
With modulation we make the IR light source blink in a particular frequency. The IR receiver will be tuned to that frequency, so it can ignore everything. The detected signal is coming out of the receiver at the other side. In serial communication we usually speak of 'marks' and 'spaces'. The 'space' is the default signal, which is the off state in the transmitter case. No light is emitted during the 'space' state. During the 'mark' state of the signal the IR light is pulsed on and off at a particular frequency.
Frequencies between 30 kHz and 60 kHz are commonly used in consumer electronics. At the receiver side a 'space' is represented by a high level of the receiver's output. A 'mark' is then automatically represented by a low level. Please note that the 'marks' and 'spaces' are not the 1-s and 0-s we want to transmit. The real relationship between the 'marks' and 'spaces' and the 1-s and 0-s depends on the protocol that's being used. More information about that can be found on the pages that describe the protocols.
The transmitter usually is a battery powered handset. It should consume as little power as possible, and the IR signal should also be as strong as. Preferably it should be shock proof as well. Many chips are designed to be used as IR transmitters.
The older chips were dedicated to only one of the many protocols that were invented. Nowadays very low power microcontrollers are used in IR transmitters for the simple reason that they are more flexible in their use. When no button is pressed they are in a very low power sleep mode, in which hardly any current is consumed. The processor wakes up to transmit the appropriate IR command only when a key is pressed. Quartz crystals are seldom used in such handsets. They are very fragile and tend to break easily when the handset is dropped.
Ceramic resonators are much more suitable here, because they can withstand larger physical shocks. The fact that they are a little less accurate is not important. In order to get an acceptable control distance the LED currents have to be as high as possible. A trade-off should be made between LED parameters, battery lifetime and maximum control distance.
Average power dissipation of the LED should not exceed the maximum value though. You should also see to it that the maximum peek current for the LED is not exceeded. All these parameters can be found in the LED's data sheet. A simple transistor circuit can be used to drive the LED. A transistor with a suitable HFE and switching speed should be selected for this purpose. The resistor values can simply be calculated using Ohm's law. The normal driver, described above, has one disadvantage.
As the battery voltage drops, the current through the LED will decrease as well. This will result in a shorter control distance that can be covered.
An emitter follower circuit can avoid this. The 2 diodes in series will limit the pulses on the base of the transistor to 1. The base-emitter voltage of the transistor subtracts 0. This constant amplitude across a constant resistor results in current pulses of a constant magnitude.
Calculating the current through the LED is simply applying Ohm's law again.
The most important selection criteria are the modulation frequency used and the availability in your region. In the picture above you can see a typical block diagram of such an IR receiver. Don't be alarmed if you don't understand this part of the description, for everything is built into one single electronic component. The received IR signal is picked up by the IR detection diode on the left side of the diagram. This signal is amplified and limited by the first 2 stages. The limiter acts as an AGC circuit to get a constant pulse level, regardless of the distance to the handset.
The Band Pass Filter is tuned to the modulation frequency of the handset unit. Common frequencies range from 30 kHz to 60 kHz in consumer electronics. The next stages are a detector, integrator and comparator. The purpose of these three blocks is to detect the presence of the modulation frequency.
If this modulation frequency is present the output of the comparator will be pulled low. As I said before, all these blocks are integrated into a single electronic component. There are many different manufacturers of these components on the market. And most devices are available in several versions each of which are tuned to a particular modulation frequency.
Since many embedded systems are produced in the tens of thousands to millions of units range, reducing cost is a major concern. Embedded systems often use a relatively slow processor and small memory size to minimize costs. The slowness is not just clock speed. The whole architecture of the computer is often intentionally simplified to lower costs. For example, embedded systems often use peripherals controlled by synchronous serial interfaces, which are ten to hundreds of times slower than comparable peripherals used in PCs.
Programs on an embedded system often must run with real-time constraints with limited hardware resources: often there is no disk drive, operating system, keyboard or screen. A flash drive may replace rotating media, and a small keypad and LCD screen may be used instead of a PC's keyboard and screen.
Firmware is the name for software that is embedded in hardware devices, e. Firmware is usually developed and tested too much stricter requirements than is general-purpose software, which can usually be easily restarted if a problem occurs.
One common configuration for embedded systems is the system on chip, an application-specific integrated circuit, for which the CPU was downloadd as intellectual property to add to the IC's design. Those software tools can come from several sources: Software companies that specialize in the embedded market Ported from the GNU software development tools. Sometimes, development tools for a personal computer can be used if the embedded processor is a close relative to a common PC processor.
Embedded system designers also use a few software tools rarely used by typical computer programmers. Some designers keep a utility program to turn data files into code, so that they can include any kind of data in a program.
Most designers also have utility programs to add a checksum or CRC to a program, so it can check its program data before executing it. The microcode interrupt lets the debugger operate in hardware in which only the CPU works.
This feature was pioneered on the PDP Developers should insist on debugging which shows the high-level language, with breakpoints and single stepping, because these features are widely available. Also, developers should write and use simple logging facilities to debug sequences of real-time events. PC or mainframe programmers first encountering this sort of programming often become confused about design priorities and acceptable methods.
Automatic Room Light Controller With Visitor Counter
Mentoring, code-reviews and ego less programming are recommended. Some large or old systems use general-purpose mainframes computers or minicomputers. Usually it disables interrupts, sets up the electronics, tests the computer RAM, CPU and software , and then starts the application code.
Many embedded systems recover from short-term power failures by restarting without recent selftests. Restart times under a tenth of a second are common. Many designers have found one of more hardware plus softwarecontrolled LEDs useful to indicate errors during development and in some instances, after product release, to produce troubleshooting diagnostics.
A common scheme is to have the electronics turn off the LED s at reset, whereupon the software turns it on at the first opportunity, to prove that the hardware and start-up software have performed their job so far. The loop calls subroutines. Each subroutine manages a part of the hardware or software. Interrupts generally set flags, or update counters that are read by the rest of the software.
Automatic Room Light Controller With Visitor Counter
A simple API disables and enables interrupts. Done right, it handles nested calls in nested subroutines, and restores the preceding interrupt state in the outermost enable.
This is one of the simplest methods of creating an exokernel. Typically, there's some sort of subroutine in the loop to manage a list of software timers, using a periodic real time interrupt. When a timer expires, an associated subroutine is run, or flag is set. Any expected hardware event should be backed-up with a software timer.
Hardware events fail about once in a trillion times. That's about once a year with modern hardware. With a million mass-produced devices, leaving out a software timer is a business disaster. A change of state stores a different function into the pointer.
The function pointer is executed every time the loop runs. Many designers recommend reading each IO device once per loop, and storing the result so the logic acts on consistent values. Many designers prefer to design their state machines to check only one or two things per state.
Usually this is a hardware event, and a software timer. Designers recommend that hierarchical state machines should run the lower-level state machines before the higher, so the higher run with accurate information. Complex functions like internal combustion controls are often handled with multi-dimensional tables. Instead of complex calculations, the code looks up the values. The software can interpolate between entries, to keep the tables small and cheap.
One major weakness of this system is that it does not guarantee a time to respond to any particular hardware event. Careful coding can easily assure that nothing disables interrupts for long. Thus interrupt code can run at very precise timings. Another major weakness of this system is that it can become complex to add new features.
Algorithms that take a long time to run must be carefully broken down so only a little piece gets done each time through the main loop. This system's strength is its simplicity, and on small pieces of software the loop is usually so fast that nobody cares that it is not predictable. Another advantage is that this system guarantees that the software will run.
There is no mysterious operating system to blame for bad behavior. Designers recommend testing the user interface for usability at the earliest possible instant. A quick, dirty test is to ask an executive secretary to use cardboard models drawn with magic markers, and manipulated by an engineer.
The videotaped result is likely to be both humorous and very educational. In the tapes, every time the engineer talk, the interface has failed: It would cause a service call. For example, use two buttons the absolute minimum to control a menu system just to be clear, one button should be "next menu entry" the other button should be "select this menu entry".
A touch-screen or screen-edge buttons also minimize the types of user actions. Another basic trick is to minimize and simplify the type of output. Designs should consider using a status light for each interface plug, or failure condition, to tell what failed. A cheap variation is to have two light bars with a printed matrix of errors that they select- the user can glue on the labels for the language that she speaks. For example, Boeing's standard test interface is a button and some lights.Reply mbavu 8 October, at pm Permalink am getting started with some project in the same line with this only that mine has to consider all the appliances in the room e.
VCC - Supply voltage. Dimples in the surface do not always indicate a serious problem, but they should be avoided since they are precursors to voids. Any expected hardware event should be backed-up with a software timer. Voltage Regulator Description: The sensing unit consists of 2 pairs of transmitter and receiver placed on the door frame, in-front of each other. For this it needs at least 8V dc as input. I would recommend to add a comparator instead of a Analog to digital convertor. This obstruction is sensed by the Microcontroller.
The sensing unit consists of two IR pairs for the detection of people entering and leaving the room.
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