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The findings of the study indicated that the different strategies were respectively emphasized for students of arts and science and engineering. Alireza and Abdullah explore the use of language learning strategies among Iranian Engineering and Political Science graduate students. Thirty Iranian graduate students at University Putra Malaysia took part in the study. The findings showed that the students from different majors used different language learning strategies.
The research subjects were undergraduate science- oriented students in 6 universities in the north of Vietnam. Consistent research findings in the literature have strongly supported the hypothesis that academic majors or fields of study have an impact on the use of LLSs among language learners.
The present investigation examines whether or not the TNU ethnic students majoring in Social Sciences and Natural Sciences are related to the use of language learning strategies in learning the English language. Keefe, , p. In addition, learning styles are the general approaches, for example, global or analytic, auditory or visual, that students use in acquiring a new language or in learning any other subject.
Claxton and Murrell analyze learning styles at four levels: After reviewing the state of the art of research in learning styles, the authors indicated a need for further investigation in a number of areas. They reported that we need to know more about the actual impact on learning when methods used by an instructor are inconsistent with a student's style. Auditory Learning Learning primarily with ears Reid, ; auditory learners who recall at least 75 percent of what is discussed or heard in a normal forty to fifty-minute period Dunn, The instructor could use tapes, video tapes, records, radio, television, and precise oral directions when setting tasks or for any aspect of the task requiring understanding, performance, progress, or evaluation.
Kinesthetic Learning Learning primarily by experience Reid, ; kinesthetic learners who use the body to experience, do, and become involved with the specific learning Dunn, The instructor could provide opportunities for real and active experiences for planning and carrying out objectives. They learn better by working on experiments in a laboratory, handling, and building models.
Students with tactile perceptual strengths need to underline as they read, take notes when they listen, and manipulate the material when possible. Writing notes or instructions can help them remember information Dunn, The instructor could use manipulative and three-dimensional materials to implement the objectives. Instructors could use pictures, filmstrips, computers, films, videos, graphs, charts, transparencies, diagrams, drawings, books, and magazines provide resources that require reading , and written assignments and evaluations.
Group The learners learn more effectively through working with other at least one other students Reid, They prefer group interaction and classwork with other students and complete work more successfully when they work with others.
Individual The learners learn more effectively through working alone Reid, Individual learners prefer to work alone. They learn new material best when they learn it alone and they remember new information they learn by themselves. The learning style of the student is another factor that needs to be taken into account when discussing strategy choice. As Wharton , pp. Additionally, Green and Oxford , p. Although learning styles are not dichotomous black or white, present or absent , learning styles generally operate on a continuum or on multiple, intersecting continua.
For example, a person might be more extroverted than introverted, or more closure-oriented than open, or equally visual and auditory but with lesser kinesthetic and tactile involvement. Few if any people could be classified as having all or nothing in any of these categories Ehrman, Active and reflective learners are related to extrovert and introvert, as described by the Myers-Briggs model the model of personality development created by Briggs Myers.
Sensing learners learn by observing, gathering data through the senses, while intuitive learners learn by indirect perception and imagination.
Visual learners learn by seeing pictures, diagrams and timetables. On the other hand, verbal learners learn through words, written and spoken explanations. Reid ; and Oxford and Anderson demonstrate that ESL students varied significantly in their sensory preferences, with people from certain cultures differentially favoring the three different modalities for learning. Students from Asian cultures, for instance, were often highly visual, with Koreans being the most visual.
Reid discovered that Japanese are very non-auditory. ESL students from a variety of cultures were tactile and kinesthetic in their sensory preferences. It has been stated that people from different cultures and even individuals within the same culture have distinctive learning style patterns Guild, Due to different types of learning style, teaching methods which are used by instructors may vary. Some instructors prefer giving lectures at classroom; other may focus more on rules, some use demonstration, while some prefer memorization.
Although a great amount of research has been conducted on learning styles, Wintergerst et al. In this respect, the present study explores the possible relationships between the TNU ethnic students preferred learning styles and their use of language learning strategies.
Language Learning Strategy Research in Vietnam Research works in the field of LLSs in Vietnam mainly focus on investigating overall strategy use which students employed in order to help themselves to be successful in achieving the target language e. Hoang finds out the most preferred strategies for learning English, the different and similar strategies of different groups, factors affecting the learning strategy choice and the need of a training course in LLS in Hue, Vietnam.
Eighty EFL learners at high school and university in Hue, Vietnam took part in his research; they are then divided into four groups according to their academic level. Questionnaires are generated based on previous class observation and interview and administered to all the learners. The result from his study shows that there are high correlations between the frequency and the usefulness of strategy use, and Vietnamese learners tended to be metacognitive learners. Huyen conducts a research study to explore strategies in learning vocabulary employed by English-major university students as well as the frequency of strategies used.
Findings from her study show that students used more direct strategies than indirect strategies. Regarding vocabulary learning strategies, Hang explores vocabulary learning strategies which high school students employed, and the choice of strategies use in relation to their gender and majors.
The results of the study show that there was no significant difference in the choice of strategies use in learning vocabulary in terms of gender. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the English major students made use of strategies introduced in the questionnaire more frequently than the Mathematics students.
They use compensations strategies with a relatively high frequency; metacognitive, cognitive, affective, social and memory strategies with a medium frequency. The findings also show that there was a positive correlation between the frequency of strategy use and the academic achievement.
Recently, Nhan and Lai conduct a research study on the similarities and differences in the frequency of strategy use for EFL learning by 50 male and 50 female Vietnamese first-year-students at Ho Chi Minh City University of Natural Resources and Environment in Vietnam.
The female Vietnamese learners tended to use indirect strategies more often and direct strategies less often than the males did. So far, it can be seen that research work in language learning strategy with Vietnamese students has mainly been carried out with university students, and most of the participants are English major.
Students who come from ethnic minorities groups and non-English major have never been examined. Theoretical Framework of the Present Study Through the review of related research works and other materials on language learning strategies, the researcher gets general background and has evidence to locate the present investigation in the context of past research and the opinion of other researchers as to develop a specific theoretical framework for the present investigation.
The main point of the present study focuses on how four independent variables which are: Before proposing the theoretical framework of the present study, the theoretical framework based on the empirical past research studies on language learning strategies is presented in order to give a clear picture about what variables affect language learning strategies. Figure 1 below shows the theoretical framework based on the empirical research. Theoretical Framework based on the Empirical Research Source: Adapted from Ellis , p.
Regarding learning outcomes i. It appears to indicate that more active use of strategies may indeed be responsible for raising language proficiency levels. Figure 2 below shows the theoretical framework of the present investigation. The four variables of the present investigation are probably linked with one another as source of language learning and teaching to take place.
In the present investigation, some variables e. Variable as major field of study natural sciences and social sciences has hardly been found to be investigated to present. Moreover, no empirical research has been conducted with the ethnic students in mountainous areas.
Different researchers have defined LLS differently due to their purposes, experiences, and abilities. The term LLS seems varied among researchers. In the present investigation, LLSs are understood as conscious behaviours or thought processes performing learning actions, whether they are observable behaviours or techniques or unobservable thoughts or mental processes , that the TNU ethnic students use to enhance their English language learning.
Thus, this study is an attempt to meet such research need. It is also the major contribution of this research to the body of knowledge in EFL teaching and learning. In the second part, the researcher presents and discusses the setting, participants, instrumentations, data collection and data analysis of the study.
These are sumarised at the end of this chapter. At present, TNU has a current enrollment of 90, students, of which there are about 65, undergraduate 55, full-time and 10, part-time and others are professional vocational students.
The annual application average is from 70 - 80, applications from various parts of the country, mostly from 16 northern upland provinces of Vietnam. Given the established significance of this issue, all efforts to gain deeper insights into LLSs are worth doing. This study is especially worthwhile in the EFL teaching and learning setting of Viet Nam, where context-specific research into different aspects of LLSs is still in its early stage.
It is expected that the careful investigation and evaluation of the LLS use by Vietnamese EFL students will help build the scientific premises on which practice-based efforts operate. Qualitative Research Definitions and Characteristics of Qualitative Research There are many definitions of qualitative research, however, most of researchers, when defining the term, tend to focus on the purpose as follows: Merriam, , p.
Sociologists using these methods typically reject positivism and adopt a form of interpretive sociology. It consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that makes the world visible.
These practices transform the world. They turn the world into a series of representations, including field notes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings, and memos to the self. At this level, qualitative research involves an interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world. Qualitative researchers use the inductive method of reasoning and strongly believe that there are multiple perspectives to be uncovered. Here are some of them: According to Barbie , quantitative research is the numerical representation and manipulation of observations for the purpose of describing and explaining the phenomena that those observations reflect.
In addition, according to Cohen , quantitative research is defined as social research that employs empirical methods and empirical statements. Typically, empirical statements are expressed in numerical terms. Another factor in quantitative research is that empirical evaluations are applied. Empirical evaluations are defined as a form that seeks to determine the degree to which a specific program or policy empirically fulfills or does not fulfill a particular standard or norm.
Punch includes the following characteristics of quantitative research: Research Design for the Present Study Cohen et al. Burns and Grove , p. Parahoo , p. Therefore, when conducting research, it is very important to specify the purposes, types of research as well as to design a systematic plan of gathering the data from whom, how and when to collect the data, and how to analyse and interpret the data obtained.
Cohen et al. The present study is a cross-sectional survey. These functions well fit the purposes of the present study. In this study, the researcher, firstly, examines and determines the types and frequencies of LLSs used by ethnic students the descriptive purpose and, secondly, to find out the relationships between LLSs with regards to learner variables the explanatory purpose.
This survey employed a mixed-method design, involving both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative part was two questionnaire surveys and the qualitative component was a semi-structured interview. Justifying the use of mixed methods research design in this study, it is appropriate to refer to its four major advantages as elaborated by Denscombe , p. The advantages include 1 a more comprehensive account of the thing being researched; 2 clearer links between different methods and different kinds of data; 3 good use of triangulation; and 4 a practical problem driven approach to research.
The question of LLSs in essence is a complex inquiry with a multitude of aspects to explore. In order to obtain a comprehensive picture, it was a necessity to adopt the mixed methods approach, using both questionnaires and interviews for data collection in this study In a discussion of the combined use of quantitative and qualitative approaches, Creswell also posits three modes of design: The mixed-method design employed in the present study meets with the second mode which, according to Creswell , is where the researcher presents the study in a dominant approach with one component of the overall study using an alternative approach.
In view of the present study, this dominant — less dominant design is represented by a dominant use of the questionnaire survey the quantitative part and the questionnaire survey is incorporated with the semi-structured interview the qualitative part. The quantitative part plays a dominant role as findings from this part address major research questions. The qualitative findings are used to elaborate and illuminate the results from the quantitative part.
The quantitative design was used before the qualitative one. The mixed design is depicted in Figure 4 below. Research Design for the Present Study In other words, the study was implemented in two stages. In the second stage, ten participants who had high frequency use of language learning strategies were selected to take part in the semi-structured interviews.
The overall design of the research is presented in as follows: Based on the strategy classification system put forward by Oxford , these 50 items belong to the following 6 categories: The participants were interviewed individually and a list of questions was given to the participants 10 minutes prior to the interview. The interviews were audio-taped. Data collection: In sum, Figure 4 below summarises the research design adopted in this study. Mixed-Methods Research The use of both qualitative and quantitative research techniques in a single study constitutes mixed method research.
A consensus definition by Johnson et al. For example, the use of data collection, quantitative and qualitative viewpoints, and analysis and inference techniques in a single piece of research is an evident use of mixed research methodology According to Marguerite and Katherine , educational researchers are increasingly recognizing the value of collecting both quantitative and qualitative data.
One of the major advantages is that it combines the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research, providing both an in-depth look at context, processes, and interactions and precise measurement of attitudes and outcomes.
The application of concurrent designs in mixed methods research is more common than the sequential design. The effectiveness of the concurrent approach ensures that data obtained from both quantitative and qualitative approaches has the same time relevance.
This feature emerges from a study of linguistic articles since to The nature of this approach to research as a versatile research methodology would facilitate more effective uses of mixed methods in the future. Mixing methods for this purpose seeks convergence, corroboration, and correspondence of results across the different methods. Mixed methods as used for this purpose measure overlapping, but distinct facets of the phenomena under investigation.
For this purpose, different methods are used sequentially in order to use the results of one method to help develop the other method or inform its implementation. For this purpose, different methods are used for different inquiry components in order to extend the breadth and range of the inquiry. For this purpose, mixed methods intentionally seek the discovery of paradox and contradiction, and new perspectives or frameworks via the recasting of questions or results from one method with questions or results from the other method.
However, mixed-methods research also has some disadvantages. As Marguerite and Katherine state mix-methods requires knowledge and skills in both qualitative and quantitative methods. In addition, a mixed-methods study usually requires more time and resources to complete than a study using only one type of data. The researcher must spend time developing quantitative measures and also in In addition, another shortcoming of mixed method research is the inherent challenges of providing statistical measurements of qualitative data.
To reduce the time used to analyse the data, researchers have to change their research design, including reducing the sample of the research in an effort to affect the statistical outcomes such as variance and t- test analyses.
Therefore, a balanced utilization of the two approaches in the same research becomes a challenge. In an effort to minimize the above disadvantages, a balance is struck between the two approaches qualitative and quantitative. Data legitimation is achieved to determine the quantity of data to be used. In addition, integration crises are resolved through a critical evaluation of the available resources and provision of these resources to the researcher prior to the commencement of the research.
The research takes a personal approach, where the researcher is involved with the participants in the presence of a neutral third party, eliminating the challenges of ambiguity and bias. In addition, the best research method, with corresponding research tools, is the method which better provides an answer to the research questions.
In this study the qualitative data was used to compliment the quantitative data. As it will be further explored below, a quantitative approach was more appropriate to answer the research questions , whereas a qualitative approach was used to find more answers and to have an in-depth look into the relationship between LLS and the factors affecting the choices of TNU students. Different themes and opinions emerge through the use of mixed methods that otherwise would not have been discovered Driscoll et al.
It is the need for such a discovery that makes the use of mixed method research a reliable tool to use for research. To recall, this research aims to answer the following questions: What English language learning strategies are frequently used by ethnic students at TNU? As noted above, the nature of the questions often dictates the most appropriate research method to be used. Whereas questions 1 to 3 sought to establish an objective relationship between variables that could be easily measured.
Consequently, a quantitative approach was more appropriate to answer questions 1 to 3, whereas a qualitative approach was better suited to explore the perspectives of ethnic students at TNU. As such, a mixed method approach needed to be followed in order to answer these questions. Furthermore, some of the questions answered by participants via the quantitative LLSQ questionnaire were answered again in the context of a semi-structured qualitative interview, thus providing an opportunity for triangulation of data.
As a researcher, the need to present original, authentic and unbiased research results was a major factor that led to the adoption of the mixed method approach.
In addition, the merits mentioned previously will inevitably clarify and explain any conflicting theories or challenges encountered in the research. Data Collection Methods Researcher in the field used many instruments to collect data for the survey research i. It is because both of these instruments provide a means of obtaining data by asking people rather than by observing their behavior.
While the questionnaire consists of a set of questions that the respondent answers on paper by himself, the interview consists of an interviewer asking the questions and recording the responses.
Guyette , pp. Participants of ethnic students in TNU were sampled. Individual ethnic students were interviewed in phase 2 in order to investigate how the LLSQ and PLPQ results in phase 1 related to ethnic students on an individual basis. Student interviewees were of varying ethnics, levels of proficiency, had different learning styles and also varied in gender and major fields of study.
To achieve the purpose of the study, the following research questions are proposed: Data Collection Instruments 2. Language Learning Strategy Questionnaire In this study, the instrument used to elicit and collect information is in the form of questionnaire. The SILL, a self-scoring questionnaire, developed by Oxford , is a tool to assess a broad range of general L2 learning strategies.
The SILL includes two versions: Memory strategies, such as grouping, imagery, rhyming, and structured reviewing nine items. Cognitive strategies, such as reasoning, analyzing, summarizing all reflective of deep processing as well as general practicing fourteen items. Affective emotional, motivation-related strategies, such as anxiety reduction, self-encouragement, and self- reward six items.
Social strategies, such as asking questions, cooperating with native speakers of the language, and becoming culturally aware six items p. Each item in the survey is a statement starting with, I do. The internal consistency of SILL ranges from 0. For instance,. Therefore, the present study will use SILL as the survey instrument. The LLSQ was then translated into Vietnamese, so that the students had no difficulty in understanding them. As seen in Table 2. One is that it does not provide detailed information about the language learning strategies used by students in their response to specific language learning tasks.
The user of learner self-report is dependent on the attitude and willingness of the research participants to give free participatory information. The learners must be willing and able to describe their behaviour, both cognitive and emotional, as reported by Harlow , and emphasized by Oxford Biased conclusions and recommendations and over-subjectivity and the inability to verbalize are clearly other challenges of the approach which face the researcher.
This is mainly due to low self-awareness among the learners. However, continued research in the field shows that learners are capable of recalling the strategies they use and can even describe them objectively and lucidly. For these reasons, the researcher puts in mind all those disadvantages when using SILL in this study.
According to Walker and Burnhill , the advantage of adapting an existing instrument is that the theory has been assessed in previous studies and validation has been undertaken and published. Building on previous work of an existing instrument also helps improve the quality of the instrument and allows the researcher to relate the findings of similar studies to one another.
Reid also provided a self-scoring guideline, sorting learning style preferences of participants into three categories: Reid specified the final score of each style construct with minimum and maximum scores of , and , that reflect preferences to learning styles as the major, minor or negligible learning style, respectively In this study, the questionnaire was translated into Vietnamese and was administered right after the students finish the LLSQ.
The translation was done by the researcher and it was proofread by colleagues who have been teaching English for at least five years. The questionnaire was then piloted with some other 40 students before it was administered to the participants of this study.
The piloting of the questionnaire also helped to determine the time that would be given to students during the actual administration of the questionnaire. The students were able complete the questionnaire in minute time and the calculation of the results took around 10 minutes.
Depending on the timing during the piloting, it was decided that half an hour was ideal for students to respond to the questions, transfer them on the scoring sheet, and found the totals for each category. The PLPQ has been previously validated and tested for its reliability and reported to have adequate indices for the instrument reliability and validity. The researcher, therefore, rechecked the reliability of the instrument and found it acceptable for the present research study. The PLPQ also demonstrated an acceptable reliability.
Table 2. In addition, the PLPQ is user-friendly. Semi-structured Interview According to Nunan , p. In addition, Punch , p. Nunan states that interview can be placed on a continuum ranging from unstructured interviews through semi-structured interview to structured interview. Of the three types of interviews, semi-structured seems to be broadly used among the researchers because of its flexibility. Semi-structured interviews are types of interviews that are conducted using an open framework.
The main use of semi- structured interviews is to help in giving and receiving information. They are not formulated like the questionnaire framework. In a questionnaire, detailed questions are formulated beforehand. In a semi-structured interview, interviewing starts off with the most general questions or topics, before narrowing down to the more specific detailed information.
The relevance of topics is identified and is followed by accompanying issues such as the effectiveness, availability and expense, as specific issues that do not require prior preparation and planning. However, not all questions are prepared and synthesized before time. In an effort to allow the interviewer and interviewee the flexibility to probe for details and discuss issues arising from the interview, the majority of the questions are created during the interview.
The guide for semi-structured interviews is prepared beforehand and acts as the propelling framework for the interview. Semi-structured interviews serve as a highly valuable tool for the collection of qualitative data in the research process. The students were asked about the strategies they found most useful and about their development of strategies to deal with the difficulties they had found with learning English.
Any other interesting insights were also noted. Ethnic students were assured that all the scores they provided were completely confidential, so they had no reason to indicate higher scores than they earned. The total score of the English Final Examination is Data Collection Procedures 2.
Participants According to the curriculum at TNU, all of the students have to enroll 6 credits of General English GE in the first two years 3 periods of 45 minutes per week. In the first semester of the 2nd year, they have to enroll 4 credits of English for Specific Purposes 4 periods of 45 minutes per week.
The number of students in each class varies from 40 to 50 aged from 18 to Almost all of them come from mountainous areas in the northern Vietnam. In the first phase of data collection, the participants consisted of ethnic students who were randomly selected from over ethnic students at TNU. Most of the students are years of age and they are from different ethnic minority groups, gender, major fields of study, levels of proficiency and learning styles.
In the second phase of data collection 10 students were purposively selected to be interviewed. Although all participants had studied English as subject for at least 3 to 7 years in high school, however, generally speaking, their English is below the average according to their English scores after the first semester final exams.
In total, TNU ethnic students from 6 universities participated in this study. Characteristics of the participants in the Qualitative Phase Each interviewee was coded in number in order to help the researcher for further reference.
Regarding learning styles, two of them preferred tactile style, kinesthetic 1 , visual 1 , individual 2 , group 2 and auditory 2. Figure 5 below shows the results of the averages of the six groups of strategies in the LLSQ.
Based on the data, there were some distinct findings of strategy uses among the interviewees. The results of the most frequently used strategies were compensation and memory strategies, whereas cognitive and social strategies were reported with comparatively lower usage than the other strategies. Figure 6: Group averages of the LLSQ scores The average use of cognitive strategies was the lowest among the interviewees.
After cross-checking the responses, most of the ethnic students did not try to talk like native English speakers and did not find anything interesting in reading English. Data Collection 2. Instead, non-probability sampling would best suit its purpose and the given circumstances.
More specifically, opportunity or convenience sampling was employed to recruit the participants for the quantitative phase of this study. The opportunity or convenience sampling in this study was selected on the basis of the availability of the ethnic non-English major students from 4 universities within Thai Nguyen University.
The sample size is considered a crucial factor from which certain inferences can be made about a population. A sample size which is too small may produce inconclusive results and conversely a sample size which is too large may waste unnecessary resources. During the data collection process, valid questionnaires were collected and this sample was considered statistically adequate to identify patterns of language strategies used by students and substantial enough to capture significant association between variables.
Permission was granted to conduct the study. The students were notified in advance that they would be completing the two questionnaires on a certain day. Before the questionnaires were administered, the students were given guidelines and instructions for administering the questionnaire.
The ethnic students were fully informed, both verbally and in writing, of the following: The students were informed that their participation was entirely voluntary and that they were not under any obligation to consent to participate. The two questionnaires took students 1 hour to complete.
The questionnaires were explained to the students in Vietnamese by the researcher in order to ensure that the questionnaires were answered accurately.
The questionnaires were administered anonymously. The students gave neither their names nor their identification numbers: They were given numbers to be written on the top of the two questionnaires to make sure that the same person had answered the questions in the two questionnaires. There was no time limit and it took about 25 minutes for students to score all of the items in the two questionnaires. After filling out the questionnaires, the students gave directly to the researcher. The researcher received around questionnaires, and the responses were analysed, as will be discussed in the following chapter.
Qualitative data from the semi-structured interview The semi-structured interviews were conducted after the researcher finished analyzing data from the two questionnaires. The same procedures were applied to the participants of the interviews, when the preliminary agreement to participate was obtained, the participants were informed later and the researcher made arrangements for each participant to take part in at least one individual interview with the researcher.
In addition to providing direct answers to the questions, the students were encouraged to elaborate on their answers by providing examples and personal insights, which were also noted by the interviewer. Acknowledgement gestures were used by the researcher to indicate to the participant that he or she had been heard, and that what he or she had said had been comprehended.
Promoting statements were also used by the researcher to elicit elaboration or clarification of statements that might be made by the participant. The interviews were conducted individually at a place preferred by each participant and arranged by the researcher, providing that it was private and free of outside interruption and noise. The researcher and the participant were the only people present during the interview sessions. Each individual interview was approximately twenty minutes in length.
When conducting the interview, the researcher kept in mind steps that Bryman and Teevan suggest when preparing for the interviews. Second, the researcher should try to use language that is comprehensible and relevant to the people being interviewed.
Third, the researcher should ask or record information of a general details name, age, gender, etc. By applying purposeful sampling for the qualitative phase of this study, the 10 ethnic students were chosen for this study.
According to Patton , p. As suggested by its name, the purpose of the sampling process reflects the desired qualities of the chosen sample which are most relevant to the topic of the investigation Denscombe, The 10 ethnic students completed the two questionnaires LLSQ and PLSQ and were invited to a semi-structured interview which lasted about twenty minutes, during which time their responses and comments were recorded.
Since the students come from four different colleges within Thai Nguyen University, i. During the interview, the LLSQ responses were discussed with the students. They were asked about the strategies they had found most useful and about their development of strategies to deal with the difficulties they had found in learning English.
Any other interesting insights were also noted for further analysis. Interviews were conducted in Vietnamese, were recorded, transcribed and translated into English.
Translations were checked by professional translators to ensure validity.
Interview questions were structured along the following examples: Which language learning strategies have you found most useful for learning English key strategies?
Do you think the strategies you use have been affected by your a ethnicity b gender c age d other factors If so, what effect have these factors had? A probability level of less than. Univariate outliers are outlandish cases with standardized scores of 3. There were no outliers found in the data set. Descriptive statistics method was used to examine the frequency of strategy use and to compare the degree to which strategies will be reported to be used frequently or infrequently by students in general.
There are three levels of strategy use: In this study, this method was applied to answer Research question 2. Analysis of variance ANOVA is used to test the significant differences among the means of two or more groups on a variable to see whether the variation is greater than predicted. The independent variables are usually nominal, and the dependent variable is usual an interval. Since more tests leads to more chances of getting something significant, the post hoc Bonferroni-corrected paired t-tests is used to examine the significant difference among the means of the six strategy categories as the result of ANOVA where the variable has more than two groups.
This test is used to indicate which pair of the groups under such a variable contributes to the overall differences. Qualitative data was transcribed, translated and analyzed. Interview transcriptions were reviewed first to derive an overall sense of the data. Initial findings were jotted down in the form of memos or reflective notes. This allowed for discerning major themes, dimensions, or categories of information that emerged from the data.
Further, by reading, classifying, and interpreting the data, subthemes were established and represented by segments of data. As in axial coding, interconnections among the themes and subthemes were also explored. Finally, in representing the data, explanatory interpretations were developed and well supported by data. Synthesizing Quantitative and Qualitative Data In the mixed-methods study, according to Yin , the juxtaposition of quantitative and qualitative methodologies is needed to serve two purposes a triangulation, and b complementarity.
This was achieved at the stage when inferences were drawn. Analyses of the interview data provided a detailed view of how these factors were affected in the individual language learners.
The interview results complemented the results of the quantitative analyses and generated a deeper view of how learners from different ethnics, different universities, different gender, different majors, different proficiency and at different learning styles used language learning strategies, and other factors if any. Conclusion The previous part has presented an overview of research methods in language learning strategy studies in terms of definitions, characteristics of each method as well as some principles when applying these methods for the present study.
Then, research questions; and methods for data collection and data generation for the present investigation have been proposed. This is followed by the research design for the present study. Finally, the analysis, interpretation, and report of data has also been discussed. Having established the methodological framework, the next chapter will discuss the data analysis process and major findings and results of this study.
Operational and Measurement Levels of the Variables The dependent variables, i. Each variable was given an abbreviated name. These abbreviations are used in subsequent tables and figures. Table 3. The LP scores were reclassified into three ordinal categories classified on a substantive basis. Results and Discussions of the Quantitative Phase 3.
To answer research question one, which based on the responses on strategy use on the SILL questionnaire, preliminary descriptive statistics for mean and standard deviation were computed. I say or write new English words COG 1 1. I use new English words in a sentence COG 4 1.
I connect the sound of a new English MEM 3 word and an image or picture of the 1. I look for opportunities to read as MET 7 1,00 5. I look for words in my own language COG that are similar to new words in 1. I pay attention when someone is MET 3 1. I think about my progress in learning MET 9 1. I plan my schedule so I will have MET 5 1.
I try to relax whenever I feel afraid of AFF 1 1.
MEM 8 I review English lessons often 1. SOC 5 I ask for help from English speakers. COG 3 I practice the sounds of English. I make up new words if I do not know COM 3 1. I try to find as many ways as I can to MET 1 1. I write down my feelings in a language AFF 5 1. I try to guess what the other person COM 5 1.
I use rhymes to remember new English MEM 5 1. SOC 3 I practice English with other students. D I try to learn about the culture of SOC 6 1. I have clear goals for improving my MET 8 1.
I read English without looking up COM 4 1. I talk to someone else about how I feel AFF 6 1. SOC 5 I ask questions in English. I try to find out how to be a better MET 4 1. I remember new English words or phrases by remembering their location MEM 9 1. COG I make summaries of information that 1. COG I try to find patterns in English.
I remember a new English word by MEM 4 making a mental picture of a situation 1. COG 7 I read for pleasure in English. As can be seen from the table, the mean scores of 50 items in the LLSQ ranging from 1.
I read for pleasure in English to 4. Low Medium High use use use 1. As can be seen in Table 3. This means that these ethnic students at Thai Nguyen University, as the whole, reported employing language learning strategies with moderate frequency when they have to deal with language learning. In other words, ethnic students at TNU used all six categories of learning strategies at a medium level. Basically, the ethnic students actively applied a variety of strategies to facilitate acquiring English.
In other EFL studies, too, metacognitive and compensation strategies were found to be among the most highly frequently used strategies and memory strategies, the least frequently used ones, as in Wharton, ; Yang,; Oh, ; and Green, , to name a few. D Frequency Category Memory Category 3. The Bonferroni-corrected paired t-tests showed that the mean for metacognitive 3. Similarly, the lowest mean belonging to cognitive strategies 3. Many authors have made the assertion that metacognitive strategies are essential to the process of SLA Samida, ; Takac, ; Sung, ; Aljuaid, ; Johnson Oxford gave the following definition of metacognitive strategies: Sung noted that the main function of metacognitive strategies is the organization of learning, so that learners can coordinate their learning process more easily.
By employing metacognitive strategies in this way, they set goals and identify the purposes of the language tasks they set for themselves. Samida also added that metacognitive strategies become vital as soon as new vocabulary, new grammar rules, or a new writing system begin to confuse the learner: Johnson also pointed out the exceptional value of metacognitive strategies in the process of SLA.
Problem identification, the skill of explicit identification of central points needing resolution in a task to identify an aspect of the task potentially preventing its successful completion, is another important benefit of the use of metacognitive strategies. Therefore, metacognitive strategies are generally very important in the SLA process because they contribute to academic success in general. The reason why metacognitive strategies were the most frequently used ones by the TNU ethnic students might be the fact that Vietnam is an EFL context and language learners do not have much exposure to the target language to pick it up unconsciously.
In fact, due to the lack of enough exposure to the target language, they hardly have any chance to unconsciously pick up the target language. Through conscious attention to language learning process, they can compensate for this deficiency, and that is why metacognitive strategies were used at such a high level.
Furthermore, in most English classes, in schools, university, or even language institutes, a lot of emphasis is put on explaining about the language and making the learners conscious of the process of learning even in cases where the communicative approach is adopted.
Squares Square Memory Between Groups Squares Square Total In these 16 strategies, 3 strategies belong to Memory categories, 2 belongs to Compensation category, Cognitive and Metacognitive category have 4 strategies, 2 strategies belong to Affective category and only one strategy belongs to Social category. I say or write new English words COG 1 4. I use new English words in a sentence COG 4 4. I connect the sound of a new English MEM 3 word and an image or picture of the 3.
I look for opportunities to read as MET 7 3. I look for words in my own language COG that are similar to new words in 3. I pay attention when someone is MET 3 3. I think about my progress in learning MET 9 3. I plan my schedule so I will have MET 5 3.
I try to relax whenever I feel afraid of AFF 1 3. MEM 8 I review English lessons often 3. The results for the individual strategies confirm the lack of exposures in English and the focus on language forms rather than learning process as mentioned previously The results of the present study also show cognitive strategies were used at a medium level, however, in terms of individual strategies, a quick review over the four cognitive strategies used very frequently by the participants of this study may explain their high frequently use.
These strategies were: In other EFL studies, such as Wharton , Bremner , and Park cognitive strategies were reported to be among approximately at the middle of the hierarchy of strategy categories. Oxford suggests that cognitive strategies are essential in learning a new language because they operate directly on incoming information.
Consequently, the ethnic students at TNU may not different from students around the world in terms of using cognitive strategies. The next frequently used strategy category was memory category.
The results are consistent with those of Wharton , and Oh The participants of the current study reported memory strategies as one of the highest frequently used strategies MEM 2, MEM 3 and MEM 8 , this is consistent with Oxford when she regarded memory strategies as a powerful tool in language learning.
These techniques included making a mental picture of the situation in which the word might be used, using rhymes to remember new words, and grouping new words into synonyms, antonyms, nouns, and verbs.
Therefore, it is possible that the participants of the study were familiar with these techniques in memory strategies. Affective strategies were also found to use frequently by the participants of the present study. For instance, Wharton Chang , Noguchi , Bremner , Wharton , and Peacock and Ho reported that affective strategies were among the least frequently used strategies.
This difference might be due to the difference between the cultural background of the participants of the above-mentioned studies, mostly being Asian students, and the Vietnamese students. That is, although both groups of students studied English in an EFL context and faced, more or less, the same type of problems in learning English, they did not experience the same amount of emotional pressure while using the language Riazi, In other words, the high use of affective strategies by TNU ethnic students might imply that they experienced more affective problems, and thus, used more affective strategies.
Indeed, affective strategies enable learners to control their emotions, attitudes, and motivations in language learning processes. Such situations usually occur when the leaner is supposed to give presentations or speak with a native speaker. A likely explanation for the high use of such strategies by the TNU ethnic students is that in language classes they are usually supposed to give lectures and presentations.
Giving a presentation in front of a group of classmates creates anxiety in the individual, let alone having to do it in a foreign language over which they do not have enough mastery. That might be the reason why they were so much concerned about and paid a lot of attention to affective factors.
Riazi, The frequency of the use of individual strategies justifies this explanation. It should be stated that these strategies are usually applicable to the situations where the learners have a lot of opportunity to use the language or have access to the native speakers. This can justify the scant use of these strategies.
The less use of this strategy was quite expected as it characterizes contexts where language learners have access to native speakers, not a context like Vietnam in that EFL learners rarely have access to English native speakers. It was quite predictable that the participants of the present study would not report a frequent use of these strategies as compared to other strategies.
No statistically significant differences were found between male and female students in the rest categories of language learning strategies. The results also revealed that females had higher preferences of strategy uses than males in three out of six categories of learning strategies Memory category, Metacognitive category and Affective category whereas, males had higher preferences than females in two categories Compensation category and Social category. As has been noted, the body of research into male and female LLS use trends is quite varied and contradictory.
At the same time, Teh et al. In support of Teh et al. More than that, Huerta et al. The findings were also different from that obtained by Green and Oxford in which a significant difference was found in memory, metacognitive, affective, and social groups, but no difference was shown in cognitive and compensation groups.
The other two means of language contact have significantly less documentation. Contact through commerce was certainly common throughout the history of Sino-Vietnamese relations; though, it was probably not continuous enough to result in widespread language shift. Finally, language contact came through the periodic influx of Chinese immigrants into Vietnam who were assimilated into the old Viets or Lac Lords culture.
This latter aspect may be the most important one in exploring the effect of Chinese on Vietnamese since it provided a means of linguistic borrowing through direct social contact and pressure. These Sino-Vietnamese families may have helped introduce and maintain some parts of Chinese culture and accompanying vocabulary, but it can be assumed that they shifted to the language spoken in that region an early ancestor of modern Vietnamese with little overall effect on that language as they adopted the local lifestyle.
In terms of language contact, then, Chinese influence on the language of old Viets was through linguistic borrowing.
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Indeed, that simple statement appears to be the case for Chinese-Vietnamese language contact even two thousand years later, that is, lexical borrowing with some phonological influence. Unless widespread bilingualism was present over following centuries, a claim for which there is no evidence, the mostly illiterate population in that region would have had little direct contact with Chinese, and the structural linguistic changes probably occurred very slowly mostly in the post-Tang era, after the era of Chinese political domination.
What was the language of the Vietnamese ancestors like two thousand years ago at the beginning contact with Chinese? Based on core vocabulary, the Vietnamese language is clearly, as are other Vietic languages a term coined by Hayes in , 3 a Mon-Khmer language Huffman ; Gage Over the past two millennia, Vietnamese5 has borrowed extensively from the Chinese lexicon, much more so than neighboring languages in the modern mainland Southeast Asian region, such as Thai and Cambodian.
However, despite assumptions that significant changes in Vietnamese linguistic structure—particularly its phonology—are due to contact with Chinese, most linguistic characteristics of 20th century Vietnamese can be viewed as the result of ordinary language internal changes seen among languages in Southeast Asia, changes in which Chinese played a smaller part than has been previously thought. Some structural changes that have given Vietnamese its Chinese-like appearance are actually quite recent, developing only in the past several centuries without direct Chinese political domination.
In this paper, Vietnamese phonology, morphology, and syntax are shown to have primarily Southeast Asian and in some cases specifically Mon-Khmer typological traits, despite heavy lexical borrowing from Chinese.
Chinese influence on Vietnamese linguistic structure is shown to be minimal, and much of it, relatively recent within the last several centuries. Numerals, body parts, unmarked terms for natural phenomena e. It is in part due to this mixture of etymological sources that Vietnamese has been claimed by some scholars to be a language for which no single parent source can be posited.
How much of the Vietnamese lexicon is Chinese? Some estimates put the number at 60 percent Nguy-n D. Other Vietnamese linguists have put that number even higher in personal communication. However, considering the nature of dictionaries, on which these figures are based, literary entries necessarily constitute a disproportional amount, thereby misrepresenting the amount of words actually used in the Vietnamese vernacular.
In daily speech, which is a clearer indicator of genetic origin and language contact, the percentage of Chinese loanwords is significantly lower. One part of the Vietnamese lexicon includes reduplicant forms, which constitute a notable part of the vernacular and which are non-Chinese in origin.
Basic vocabulary may constitute a smaller portion of a dictionary than literary vocabulary, but it will be a larger portion of the spoken language. Hence, for purposes of understanding language contact at the colloquial level, the Chinese element, though still prominent, is not nearly as high when the literary language—a portion not directly available to non-literate Vietnamese in previous centuries—is excluded from statistics.
What lexical areas of spoken Vietnamese has Chinese influenced? The two areas, content words non-grammaticalized and function words grammaticalized vocabulary , are discussed in the following two subsections. The focus is on vernacular Vietnamese. Taylor Ibid.
Loanwords from that period still remain. However, those borrowed familial terms have very different grammatical functions than do the forms in Chinese, functioning like pronouns, as discussed in section 5. Vietnamese vocabulary related to studying are generally Chinese loans e. Most of the OSV words were borrowed again around the Tang dynasty era, but the OSV forms have remained the winners in the competition for daily use, while the later Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary remained part of the literary language only.
Only in the 20 th century, with the rise of widespread literacy and the spread of East Asian modern vocabulary see Sinh , has Chinese taken a more prominent role in the Vietnamese lexicon.
Regardless, most of the Sino-Vietnamese loans have changed both syntactically and semantically, often appearing in bisyllabic words with indigenous Vietnamese forms.
Sino-Vietnamese words that have maintained roughly the same semantic functions and syntactic distribution as in Chinese include some measure words and clause-linking words. In Table 1, underlined portions of the clause-linking words are of Chinese origin while the others are non- Chinese. Mandarin readings of the words of Chinese origin are given for reference. Clause-Linking words of mixed etymological sources In a list of about classifiers and measure nouns10 in Vietnamese from Nguy-n D.
The Sino-Vietnamese measure words have kept the original meanings and in some cases are also used as measure words in modern Chinese. However, Sino-Vietnamese classifiers as opposed to measure words were generally not originally classifiers in Chinese.
So some Sino- Vietnamese measure words were not necessarily borrowed grammaticalized but instead underwent grammaticalization later. Classifier and measure nouns 3 Vietnamese Phonology This section discusses potential cases of Chinese influence on Vietnamese consonants and tones. However, Vietnamese has been considered typologically closest to Tai or Chinese languages due to their shared traits, namely tonal systems and so-called monosyllabic word forms.
In fact, based on more recent evidence from Minor Vietic languages Nguy-n V. A new proposal is given for the development of tones in Vietnamese, one that requires little interaction with Chinese. However, many of the similarities with Chinese seen in modern Vietnamese are rather recent changes and appear to be the endpoint after several hundred years of mainly language internal processes. There is no indication of language shift towards Chinese and no evidence of extensive bilingualism, and borrowing alone cannot have caused such a great change to the Vietnamese syllable structure.
The Vietnamese consonant system has both marked and unmarked traits in regard to Southeast Asian typology. A common characteristic seen in Southeast Asian languages is a four-way point of articulation distinction labial, dental, palatal, velar for both nasals and voiceless stops. Vietnamese consonants and their phonotactic distribution The labial category in Vietnamese may have been partially affected by phonological changes in Late Middle Chinese Pulleyblank , but the issues are complicated by changes in both Chinese and Vietnamese.
In Modern Vietnamese, [p] is the only voiceless stop that can not be a syllable onset. The retroflex category in Vietnamese, a rather typologically marked feature in Southeast Asia, might appear to be the result of borrowing numerous Chinese words with retroflex initials.
However, this category came relatively late. A Vietnamese-Chinese wordlist from the Ming dynasty shows evidence of consonant clusters, if not complete presyllables Gaspardone Initial retroflex consonants in many Vietnamese words not of Chinese origin are the endpoints of consonant cluster reduction, which were in turn former presyllables.
Consonant clusters in some Central Vietnamese dialects corresponding to retroflexes in other dialects have existed into this century see Maspero A complete range of stages of development in Vietic is seen among the languages of the Vietic language group Alves, forthcoming , from presyllables, to clusters, to single-consonant initials.
Telescoping is a natural lenition process that, in Vietnamese, was more of a language internal process resulting from typological tendencies than the direct result of contact solely with Chinese.
Other Southeast Asian languages are undergoing similar processes of presyllable reduction and telescoping e. Though the large number of Chinese loanwords could have participated in these changes among Vietnamese initials, at best, they were assistants in the ongoing process. These changes took place over the past several centuries, after the era of direct Chinese political domination. More recent data on the tonal systems of highly conservative Minor Vietic languages Nguy-n V.
In Stage 1 Table 4 , having separated from some sub-branch of Mon- Khmer, Proto-Vietic may have had some kind difference in vocalic phonation i.
All available data on Vietic languages shows some kind of phonation difference. In some Minor Vietic languages, there is only a clear-creaky difference; sometimes there is both vocalic phonation and tones; and, as in some varieties of Vietnamese and Muong, there are tones with inherent phonation qualities.
A Clear vowel B Creaky Table 4: The existence of that stage of development did not require contact with tonal languages; instead, it was linked to natural and areal typological processes involving laryngeal features. Again, evidence for this stage is seen in the highly conservative Minor Vietic languages. Languages such as Arem Nguy-n V. It is significant to note that Chinese vocabulary in Ruc shows evidence of Han era loans, but not much of the Tang dynasty loans. This may further suggest that these earlier four-way systems arose without much contact with Chinese.
Stage 2 Proto-Vietic Eventually, in stage 3 Table 6 , the loss of certain final consonants, specifically fricatives and liquids, in combination with increasing amounts of Chinese loans, which may have provided a tonal phoneme slot, led to the final tonal contour category. Category 3 not only developed later than the other two categories, but a split in pitch height resulting in two tonal phonemes may have come later as well. This notion is supported by the uneven distribution of the two tones in category 3 among dialectal varieties of Vietnamese.
Category 3 tones have undergone varying mergers in dialects throughout Vietnam Maspero Stage 3 Viet-Muong To summarize, contact with Chinese may have been a partial catalyst to the last stage of the development of the Vietnamese tonal system.
The earlier stages were the result of regional, phonetically conditioned processes.
Due to presyllabic telescoping, remnants of earlier Mon- Khmer prefixes and infixes can only be seen in some interesting sets of doublets Ferlus , thereby hiding what was present in Vietnamese and what is present in the Minor Vietic languages Nguy-n V. Reduplication is an entirely non-Chinese process, while compounding is typologically unmarked and does not require contact with another language to occur.
However, massive quantities of 20 th century sinitic neologistic compounds that have entered Vietnamese certainly increased the process of compounding in Vietnamese. Table 7 contains examples of the three possibilities. The morphs of Chinese origin are underlined in the compounds of two sources. REDUP refers to the bound alternating-reduplicant syllable.
Most of the compounds with two Chinese morphs from the latter part of the 19th century up through the 20th century are part of the Pan-East- Asian wave of lexicon that originally spread from Japan Sinh Compounding is a typologically unmarked characteristic, so compounding in Vietnamese is not the result of language contact with Chinese.
However, the widespread use of bisyllabic compounds has increased massively in Chinese in the 20th century Tsao , and the same can be said for the Sino-Vietnamese lexicon. Sino-Vietnamese affixes What was discussed showed influence of Chinese on Vietnamese, but this is not always the case.
Whereas modifying elements precede nouns in Chinese, they follow them in Vietnamese. This has consequences in Sino- Vietnamese. On the other hand, when native Vietnamese speakers recognize the distinct meanings of two morphs in a compound, and those morphs are in the modifier-noun order, variation has occurred over time and in different regions. For both structural and sociolinguistic typically, political reasons, analyzed compounds have generally been consciously reordered according to Vietnamese syntax.
This common pattern of reduplication in Vietnamese and other Southeast Asian languages is not shared by any variety of Chinese. The borrowing of syntactic patterns through language contact typically occurs after absorbing large quantities of lexical items, but also, and more significantly, in a shift situation involving interference Thomason and Kaufmann Were Vietnamese to have experienced a period of even partial shift, some differences in syntax should be evident.
Overall phrasal structure in Vietnamese and Chinese includes either shared unmarked patterns e. No similar patterns have been reported for modern varieties of Vietnamese spoken in Vietnam, suggesting that despite large quantities of Chinese loanwords, Vietnamese syntactic structure has experienced no significant structural changes, as to be expected in a borrowing situation. Instead, Vietnamese has maintained the grammatical status of some Chinese loans or some Sino-Vietnamese words have undergone grammaticalization.
Grammaticalized Sino- Vietnamese has taken a life of its own in Vietnamese. There are two categories of grammatical words in Vietnamese of Chinese origin: Most of these loanwords fall into the second category, another example of Chinese elements being fit into the Vietnamese linguistic system.
There are a few Sino-Vietnamese clause-linking words, mainly Tang dynasty forms. However, they are usually used in compounds in which the other morph is indigenous, as shown in Table 9 where the Chinese form is underlined. The use of compounds reduces ambiguity, which, in addition to linguistic prestige, may have provided impetus to borrow words synonymous with existing ones.
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Both the superlative and comparative syntactic patterns have irregular usage among Mon-Khmer languages,15 suggesting the possibility that Chinese provided such patterns in Vietnamese. Detailed diachronic comparisons are needed to consider the timing of the development of these patterns and potential influence or lack thereof. Negation in Vietnamese, too, has been affected. However, all negation words in Vietnamese of Chinese origin as in Table 11 have undergone semantic and syntactic shift and grammatical specialization see Nguy-n P.
The alternate readings for these words represent language internal changes at the non-literary level, highlighting the vernacular nature of the forms. The most commonly used forms in 20th century Vietnamese are Chinese in origin, but this is very recent development. These words share some of the semantic and syntactic characteristics of their Chinese counterparts, in particular the option of agents in the lower clause, but they now have expanded and specialized functions not present in Chinese.
Nhớ Phùng Quán
Table 12 taken from Alves b: Sino-Vietnamese Native Vietnamese Viet. Chinese Gloss Viet. Each can serve as 1st, 2nd, or 3rd person with simultaneous reference to gender and relative age of the speaker and listener Thompson The original Vietnamese pronoun system has been largely supplanted by these Sino-Vietnamese socially conditioned pronouns Alves, forthcoming. It was probably during the rise of the Sino-Vietnamese families that these terms were spread.
However, when exactly the systems of terms of address seen throughout modern day Southeast Asia were spread is unclear, meaning that we cannot yet know whether Vietnamese had such a system at time of contact with Chinese. Despite Chinese lexical influence elsewhere in the Vietnamese lexicon, basic Vietnamese numerals are strictly Mon-Khmer.
Vietnamese interrogative words are definitely not Chinese, but rather are probably connected to Mon-Khmer, as seen by patterns of word shapes in referential terms e. Marking plurality in Vietnamese is a mixed bag, including some indigenous and some Chinese forms. Overall, Vietnamese has borrowed a few Chinese numeric terms for grammatical e. Vietnamese indefinite numerals 5.
The order in Vietnamese quantified noun phrases patterns with that of Chinese languages. However, though it may be possible that Chinese, through the various venues of language contact, may have left its imprint the order of elements, in terms of syntactic structure, Vietnamese and many minority languages in Vietnam that share this order is still typologically Southeast Asian.
By viewing numerals and measures as noun subtypes, each of which may take a following common count noun as a dependent, Vietnamese is still structurally a right- branching language, despite the apparent superficial ordering difference. In a typical Vietnamese quantified NP, a numeral noun requires a measure word as a dependent, since it cannot take common nouns as immediate dependents. The measure word in turn takes its semantically selected common noun dependent.
The historical development of measure words, too, suggests a more complicated situation than just borrowing word order. Chinese had only stabilized its current NP word sometime during the Tang dynasty Peyraube Vietnam had seceded from China just after then, so influence could have occurred by that time.
Thus, older literary Vietnamese is at least partial evidence of competing structures during earlier stages of Vietnamese.Therefore, the present study will use SILL as the survey instrument. I don't think they should get married yet.
Most fights inside a company happen when colleagues compete for the same responsibilities. The results also revealed that females had higher preferences of strategy uses than males in three out of six categories of learning strategies Memory category, Metacognitive category and Affective category whereas, males had higher preferences than females in two categories Compensation category and Social category.
Research Question 3: Huffman, Franklin. Sensing learners learn by observing, gathering data through the senses, while intuitive learners learn by indirect perception and imagination.
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