bottom of the list. Many teachers say there's just not enough time to teach pronunciation. Beyond Repeat After Me: Teaching Pronunciation to English Learners. PDF | Teaching pronunciation is often a neglected or ignored in English language. Nevertheless, correct pronunciation is without doubt a. PDF | On Dec 1, , Heyad Al Tuhafi and others published Teaching English pronunciation to non-English speakers ().
|Language:||English, Dutch, Portuguese|
|ePub File Size:||26.88 MB|
|PDF File Size:||13.88 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Teaching pronunciation involves a variety of challenges. To begin with when English learners speak in class, they are typically not thinking about how. This thesis discusses the teaching of English pronunciation in primary schools in may have and the situation regarding English language teaching in primary bestthing.info Department of English Language and Literature. Teaching The final thesis is concerned with teaching pronunciation of voiced and voiceless TH pdf>. 2.
Some of the comments are noted as below: Teachers training and workshops should be arranged in this regard. The provision and use of different training aids particularly AV aids in schools was associated with improvement in the pronunciation aspect of language learning.
The teachers expressed their feelings regarding need for training and refresher courses of English language teachers in pronunciation. At the same time they emphasized the inclusion of pronunciation based exercises in text books, and adopting various teaching techniques and methodologies conducive to pronunciation learning.
Analysis of each aspect of class observation is presented in the following table. Traditional method of teaching English. Grammar — translation method. Interactive class. Teacher centered class. Student centered class.
Use of audio-video training aids. English language used as a medium of instruction. Encouraged students to communicate in English. Described vocal organs and speech mechanism. Teaching pronunciation by vocal organs position.
Describing vowel and consonant sounds. Teaching phonetics sounds and symbols. Practice words of similar sound pattern. Practicing tongue twisters. Conducting pronunciation exercises.
Drawing and discussing speech organs. Grammar-translation and traditional methods of teaching were observed in most classes. Interactive classroom situation were rarely observed. The classrooms were primarily teacher centered. The teachers did not encourage students to communicate in English.
All the classrooms were teacher dominated giving less chances to students to get involved in class activities. The teachers also did not mention position of vocal organs in making speech sounds.
None of the classrooms was observed with teachers teaching specific phonetics sounds and symbols. The teachers did not apply various pronunciation teaching techniques like practicing to identify odd word in a group of words, practice words of similar sound pattern, isolate a particular sound from other sounds in a word, minimal pairs, practicing tongue twisters, use of dictionary to consult pronunciation of words, and conducting pronunciation drills which are essential to pronunciation learning.
Mispronounced words were noted during class observation. These words are grouped together based on similarity of mispronunciation in Table No.
Table 7 List of mispronounced words observed in the classroom S. Secondary school teachers lacked enough knowledge of English pronunciation. The teachers did not attend pronunciation courses before joining the teaching profession as teachers of English.
Pronunciation teaching was also not included in pre-service training courses. The English teachers did not get pronunciation teaching training during the teaching profession as professional development courses. Teachers lacked the knowledge of phonetics and were found unable to recognize basic English sounds.
Teachers were not equipped with current instructional practices used in pronunciation teaching. The teachers frequently discussed the correct pronunciation of words among colleagues but lacked pronunciation knowledge which affected this exercise. The teachers were aware that English pronunciation taught to students in Pakistan was the distorted version of the actual pronunciation and the regional languages influenced English pronunciation.
The teachers rarely took steps for self-improvement with regard to correct English pronunciation learning. They seldom used to consult dictionary for pronunciation correction or listened to English news channels for improvement in their pronunciation. The teachers did not use any explicit method for teaching pronunciation. Conventional grammar-translation and traditional methods of teaching were followed and the classrooms were mostly teacher centered.
The teachers did not practice pronunciation drills, activities or rehearsals in classrooms, however, they considered these practices and techniques important for learning pronunciation.
Support for users of the PronSci and Silent Way charts
The teachers argued that English textbooks had no exercises on pronunciation teaching. The teachers rarely had time for pronunciation learning and the main focus was on teaching reading, translation, and grammar exercises.
The teachers rarely communicated with students in English. They relied a great deal on spelling-pronunciation correspondence which resulted in incorrect articulation of words. The teachers were unable to pronounce the primary consonants and vowels.
Teachers suggested that they ought to be imparted training and refresher courses in pronunciation learning skills. The provision of supportive audio- visual training aids in teaching English pronunciation was deemed essential in classrooms.
Pronunciation teaching should be made a compulsory component of training courses imparted to teachers. Teachers training courses should include intensive pronunciation learning skills. Particularly, the courses should focus on prospective English teachers who must be skillful in teaching correct pronunciation to students. Refresher courses in English pronunciation should be made compulsory for teachers annually.
Phonetic symbols should be taught to students and trainee teachers so as to enable them to consult dictionary for correct pronunciation of words through phonetic transcription. Teachers should be familiarised with phonetic symbols and it should be ensured that they use this practice in the classroom teaching.
Frequent pronunciation drills should be introduced in English teaching for better English sound teaching. Audio-visual aids needed for pronunciation teaching should be provided by provincial government whereas, training related to these should be given by PITE, RITEs and the district education offices.
Pronunciation should be tested, marked and evaluated during examinations so that teachers and students take its teaching and learning seriously. References Derwing, T.
Second Language Accent and Pronunciation Teaching: A Research-Based Approach. Gilbert, J. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Howlader, M. Bangladesh Perspective. Approaches to developing pronunciation in a school language: A study in Bangladesh. University Review, 5 2 , Levis, J.
Mahmood, A. Communicative Skills of Student Teachers in Pakistan. An Introduction to English Phonology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Moyer, A.
Ultimate Attainment in L2 Phonology: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21 1 , Rajadurai, J. Forum, 39 3 , English Phonetics and Phonology for Slovak Students.
Nitra: UKF. Cohen, L.
Research Methods in Education. New York: Routledge. Conti, A. Is it really necessary to teach pronunciation? Eddy, E. Gavora, P et al. Jones, T. Pronunciation in the Classroom: The Overlooked Essential. These speakers of English as a second language may have a restricted audience; they will be using English only with other non-native speakers and therefore a pronunciation which is native-like is totally inappropriate.
However, it must be accepted that, if there is occasion to speak with natives, the divergences in pronunciation may lead to communication breakdown.
While native-like pronunciation may be a goal for particular learners, and while we should never actively discourage learners from setting themselves 'high' goals, for the majority of l e m e r s a far more reasonable goal is to be comfortably intelligible. We will be 1ooBrim. It is significant that in English and m y other languages we can make a distinction between 'hearing' and 'listening'. Hearing requires mere presence plus ears, listening requires w o k , we can ask someone to 'listen carefully' and accuse someone of not listening to what we have said.
We all realize that some people are more difficult to listen to than others, and when we listen to a foreigner speaking our native language we expect to have to work a little bit harder. Bklt i f we have too hard a time - if 'the person pronounces in such a way that we have to constantly ask for repetitions - then at some stage we reach our threshold of tolerance.
We become irritated, and maybe even resentful of the effort that is being required of us. In setting goals for our learners we must consider rhe effect of mispronunciation on the listener and the degree of tolerance listeners will have for this.
English; this is clearly demonstrated by the fact that a foreign accent has some of the sound characteristics of the learner's native language. These are often obvious enough to make a person's origins identifiable by untrained as well as trained people. One or two features are enough to suggest a particular language 'showing through' their spoken English. Because of the role that native language plays, there has been a great deal of research in which the sound systems of English and other languages are compared and the problems and difficulties of learners predicted.
In Part Two we will be referring to the findings of such studies. This applies not only to the individual sounds but also to combinations of sounds and features such as rhythm and intonation. To put it very crudely, the more differences there are, the more difficulties the learner will have in pronouncing English.
We can even say that there are 'more favoured' and 'less favoured' languages. But we must be careful not to over-simplify the situation and think too much in terms of handicap or barriers to learning. To do this would be to ignore what we know to be demonstrable - that people from many different language backgrounds can and do acquire a near-native pronunciation in English - and to deny the role of other factors.
We commonly assume that if someone pronounces a second language like a native, they probably started learning it as a child.
Conversely, if a person doesn't begin to learn a second language until adulthood, they will never have a native-like accent even though other aspects of their language such as syntax or vocabulary may be indistinguishable from those of native speakers. These beliefs seem to be supported by the many cases of adults who learn to speak a second language fluently, but still maintain a foreign accent, even when they have lived in the host country for many years.
Linguists and language teachers have both been fascinated by the question: Is there an age-related limit on the mastery of pronunciation in a second language? This is a much-researched topic, but the studies have unfortunately yielded conflicting results.
We will briefly summarize the findings of a few of the stud.
Table of contents
Oyamal carried out a study of Italian 1e. The subjects sixty male Italian-born immigrants were tape-recorded reading aloud a short paragraph and telling a story about a frightening episode in their lives completely unprepared or rehearsed. Two expert judges listened to the samples and gave each subject a score on a five point scale, ranging from 'no foreign accent' to 'heavy foreign accent'.
The analysis of the results showed that the younger a person was when he 1. This study seems to show that learning to pronounce like a native is very difficult for all but the very young.
As Oyama put it: '. Briefly, the judgements made about their foreign accents showed that if learning had begun before age 11 or so accents were rare, between 11 and 15 they were not uncommon, and after 15 they were virtually universal. So, these and many other studies4 support the hypothesis that age determines the accuracy of a learner's pronunciation.
However, other studies have reached different conclusions. Snow and Hoefnagel-Hohle 5 investigated the pronunciation of speakers of British English who were learning Dutch as a second language in Holland. Their study had two parts: first, a laboratory study in which the subjects were asked to listen to five Dutch words and then try to imitate them; second, a long-term study in which the subjects were tested in much the same way at intervals during their first year of learning Dutch in a Dutch-speaking environment.
The results of the laboratory study showed that the two oldest groups of learners eight year-olds and seven adults of 21 to 31 years old received the highest scores, i. The two youngest groups scored the lowest ten 5-year-olds and ten 6-year-olds. In the second part of the study, forty-seven English speakers ranging in age from 3 to 60 years were tested at various times during their first year of learning Dutch in Holland in a natural setting such as school or work, without any formal instruction.
In the tests the subjects had first to imitate eighty words immediately after a Dutch speaker, and then to say the same words without a model, in response to a picture cue. Results from these tests showed that older people seemed to have an initial advantage, but by four to five months after starting to learn Dutch, age differences seem to have disappeared.
Near the end of the first year of learning the younger children excelled in the pronunciation of some sounds, but there was still no overall age difference.
So, according to this study, youth confers no immediate advantage in learning to pronounce foreign sounds. In the short term, older subjects were considerably better than younger subjects, and only after a period of about a year did younger children begin to excel. Another interesting observation was that, after a time, the progress of the older subjects seemed to level off, whereas the children continued to progress. After eighteen months the researchers had the opportunity to test eleven of the original subjects again.
Only one of them had a truly native-like pronunciation - a teenager. Other studies have similarly concluded that age is not the crucial and only factor. Can these conflicting results be reconciled? When trying to weigh up the evidence, we have to keep two points in mind.
The first point is that different investigations have assessed pronunciation in different ways. Secondly, it is extremely difficult to control for other factors which may be involved, such as ability, attitude, motivation, or opportunity to use and hear the language. Many of these factors have been referred to by investigators in their attempts to provide explanations for the age differences they have found. Some researchers claim that there is a sensitive period for language learning, and that biological changes take place in the brain after a certain age usually said to be between 10 and 13 years.
The claim is that people actually lose certain abilities after this age. In this case, the age factor would actually be closely related to the fact that children have had very recent exposure to new sounds because they have 'just learned their first language.Near the end of the first year of learning the younger children excelled in the pronunciation of some sounds.
Then prepare lists of 'items in stock' or 'items in the store-cupboard'. Teachers viewed that they frequently Bean Bag Toss—Lay the flashcards containing the minimal pairs spread out on the floor. There are several possible contexts.
- UNDERSTANDING AND USING ENGLISH GRAMMAR AZAR PDF
- RS AGGARWAL ENGLISH FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS PDF
- RAPIDEX ENGLISH SPEAKING COURSE PDF KANNADA
- ENGLISH IN MIND LEVEL 3 TEACHERS RESOURCE BOOK
- Q SKILLS FOR SUCCESS ING AND WRITING 4 TEACHER BOOK
- ENGLISH MALAYALAM GRAMMAR BOOK
- RAPIDEX ENGLISH SPEAKING COURSE PUNJABI PDF DOWNLOAD
- NEW AMERICAN STREAMLINE CONNECTIONS TEACHERS BOOK
- SIVAGAMIYIN SABATHAM TAMIL NOVEL PDF
- COURS ENZYMOLOGIE BIOCHIMIE PDF
- HOUSE OF NIGHT BOOK SERIES PDF