1 An Overview of Networks have been great successes; on the other hand, unauthorized PDFs of popular textbooks . Progress Notes. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in . -According to the protocols involved, networks interconnection is achieved. NETWORKS. A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes) connected by communication links. A node can be a computer, printer, or any other.
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The second reason is that the computer networking community is a strong participant in the .. Note that for the regular service the Post usually does. Describe the functionality of LAN, MAN, and WAN networks. • Identify the What is a Network? • A network refers to two or . Note: ISDN BRI cable pinouts are. Networks A network is a set of devices (nodes) connected by communication links. Types of Page 56 of the PDF for the textbook. Lecture 1 Page 11 Circuit.
Every component is different but as long as its PCI compatible, it is installed the same way except for the audio cable. It is installed only on sound cards and motherboards. This port will also allow you to connect a device such as a MIDI keyboard to the computer, additional information on this can be found in the Midi section. Line Out connector is the location which the speakers or headphones will be connected to get sound out of the sound card.
Volume control is generally no longer found on sound cards. However for cards that do include this as a feature this allows for the volume to be turned up and down on a non-amplified output such as a set of headphones. Microphone allows you to connect a microphone to the computer and record your own sound files.
Preventive maintenance of a PC To learn how to maintain a PC so that it gives longer service without any problems. Take the backup of data at regular intervals. Use floppy disks for small data and if data is very large perform backup using CD- RW or tape drives. Floppy disk drives are vulnerable to dust as they contain a large opening in the system case through which air continuously flows.
Therefore, they accumulate a large amount dust and chemical buildup within a short time. Where as cleaning a hard disk requires simply blowing the dust and dirt off from the outside the drive. To clean the boards, it is usually best to use a vacuum cleaner. Also blow any dust out of the power supply, especially around the fan intake and exhaust areas.
Use a duster can and blast the compressed air into the supply through the fan exhaust port. This will blow the dust out of the supply and clean off the fan blades and grill, which will help with system airflow.
To clean the connectors on the board use the cleaning solutions. Before you defragment your disk use Scandisk to scan your hard disk. To scandisk your hard disk follow the below steps. Go to programs Accessories System tools Scandisk To scandisk your hard disk follow the below steps. It is a must if you intend to overclock your PC. Note: You can find the meaning of an abbreviation at the end of this article under the heading Jargon Buster.
Step 1: Installing the motherboard Make sure you have all the components in place and a nice, clean and big enough place to work with.
Put your antic-static wrist strap on to prevent your components from getting affected. Make sure your hands are clean before starting.
First we will be installing the motherboard which is a piece of cake to install. It is advisable to put the motherboard on it for some time and then remove it from the antistatic bag before placing it in the cabinet. Also try not to touch the pins frequently so that they do not get dirty. Get hold of your motherboard and CPU manual. You need to place the CPU on the dotted white patch of the motherboard in a particular fashion for it to fit properly.
There is a golden mark on the CPU to help you assist. Consult both your motherboard and CPU manual to see which position it fits exactly or you could also use try all the 4 positions. Got the thermal compound? Now is the time to use it.
Take small amount of it and carefully apply it on the top surface of the processor. Be careful not to put it on the neighboring parts of the motherboard. If you do so clean it immediately using the cloth. Tip: Thermal compounds should be changed once every six months for optimal performance. Step 3: Installing the heat sink After installing the processor we proceed to installing the heat sink. There are different kinds of heat sinks that are bundled with the processor and each has a different way of installation.
Look into your CPU manual for instructions on how to install it properly. Again look into the motherboard manual on where to connect it and then connect it to the right port to get your heat sink in operational mode.
The newer RAMs ie. If you want to use dual channel configuration then consult your manual on which slots to use to achieve that result. There is not much to be done to install a PSU. Consult your PSU manual to see how to install them. AGP graphics cards have become redundant and are being phased out of the market quickly. So if you bought a spanking new card it will certainly be a PCI-E. Step 7: Installing the hard disk Hard disk is another fragile component of the computer and needs to handled carefully.
Step 8: Installing optical drive The installation an optical drive is exactly similar to an hard drive. Make sure you make one as primary and other slave by using the jumper. This is not applicable if the drives are SATA drives. Step 9: Connecting various cables First we will finish setting up internal components and then get on to the external ones. You will need to consult your motherboard manual for finding the appropriate port for connecting various cables at the right places on the motherboard.
Close the side doors of the cabinet and get it upright and place it on your computer table. Get the rest of the PC components like monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers etc.
Power on and see your rig boot to glory.
Step Installing the OS and drivers We are done with the hardware part. Now get your favorite OS disks ready and the CD that came with your motherboard. Soon as computer starts booting from the CD your will get the following screen: Step 2 - At this stage it will ask you to press F6 if you want to install a third party Raid or SCSI driver.
Please make sure you have the Raid drivers on a floppy disk. Normally the drivers are supplied on a CD which you can copy to a floppy disk ready to be installed. If you are not sure how to do this then please read your motherboard manuals for more information. Step 3 - Press S to Specify that you want to install additional device. Press enter after you have inserted the disk. Select the correct driver for your device and press enter. You have the option to do a new Windows install, Repair previous install or quit.
Since we are doing a new install we just press Enter to continue. Press F8 to accept and continue Step 8 - This step is very important. Here we will create the partition where Windows will be installed. If you have a brand new unformatted drive you will get a screen similar to below. In our case the drive size is MB.
We can choose to install Windows in this drive without creating a partition, hence use the entire size of the drive. If you wish to do this you can just press enter and Windows will automatically partition and format the drive as one large drive.
However for this demonstration I will create two partition. By creating two partition we can have one which stores Windows and Applications and the other which stores our data. So in the future if anything goes wrong with our Windows install such as virus or spyware we can re-install Windows on C: drive and our data on E: drive will not be touched. Please note you can choose whatever size partition your like. For example if you have GB hard drive you can have two partition of GB each.
Press C to create a partition. Step 8 - Windows will show the total size of the hard drive and ask you how much you want to allocate for the partition you are about to create. I will choose MB. You will then get the screen below.
Notice it shows C: Partition 1 followed by the size MB. This indicates the partition has been created.
We still have an unpartitioned space of MB. Next highlight the unpartitioned space by pressing down the arrow key. Then press C to create another partition.
You will see the total space available for the new partition. Just choose all the space left over, in our case MB. Step 9 - Now you will see both partition listed.
You will also have 8MB of unpartitioned space. Don't worry about that. Just leave it how its is. Windows normally has some unpartitioned space. You might wonder what happened to D: drive. Select Partition 1 C: Drive and press Enter.
This is the recommended file system. If the hard drive has been formatted before then you can choose quick NTFS format. We chose NTFS because it offers many security features, supports larger drive size, and bigger size files. Windows will now start formatting drive C: and start copying setup files as shown on the two images below : Step 11 - After the setup has completed copying the files the computer will restart.
In few seconds setup will continue. Windows XP Setup wizard will guide you through the setup process of gathering information about your computer. Step 12 - Choose your region and language.
Step 13 - Type in your name and organization. Step Enter your product key. Step 15 - Name the computer, and enter an Administrator password. Don't forget to write down your Administrator password. Step 16 - Enter the correct date, time and choose your time zone. Step 17 - For the network setting choose typical and press next.
It is cost effective. Cable required is least compared to other network topology. Used in small networks. It is easy to understand. Easy to expand joining two cables together. Disadvantages of Bus Topology 1. Cables fails then whole network fails. Cable has a limited length. It is slower than the ring topology. RING Topology It is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is connected to another computer, with the last one connected to the first.
Exactly two neighbors for each device.
Features of Ring Topology Text from page-3 1. A number of repeaters are used for Ring topology with large number of nodes, because if someone wants to send some data to the last node in the ring topology with nodes, then the data will have to pass through 99 nodes to reach the th node. Hence to prevent data loss repeaters are used in the network. The transmission is unidirectional, but it can be made bidirectional by having 2 connections between each Network Node, it is called Dual Ring Topology.
Note for Computer Network - CN By Tulasi Miriyala
In Dual Ring Topology, two ring networks are formed, and data flow is in opposite direction in them. Also, if one ring fails, the second ring can act as a backup, to keep the network up. Data is transferred in a sequential manner that is bit by bit.
Data transmitted, has to pass through each node of the network, till the destination node. Advantages of Ring Topology 1.
Computer Networks Notes Pdf Free Download – CN Notes Pdf
Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more nodes, as only the nodes having tokens can transmit data. Cheap to install and expand Disadvantages of Ring Topology 1.
Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology. Adding or deleting the computers disturbs the network activity.
Hardware & Networking Notes
Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network. STAR Topology In this type of topology all the computers are connected to a single hub through a cable.
This hub is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the central node. Features of Star Topology 1. Every node has its own dedicated connection to the hub. Hub acts as a repeater for data flow. Text from page-4 3. Can be used with twisted pair, Optical Fibre or coaxial cable.
Advantages of Star Topology 1. Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic. Hub can be upgraded easily. Easy to troubleshoot.
Easy to setup and modify. Only that node is affected which has failed, rest of the nodes can work smoothly. Disadvantages of Star Topology 1. Cost of installation is high. Expensive to use.
Hardware & Networking Notes
If the hub fails then the whole network is stopped because all the nodes depend on the hub.For example: Random access, controlled access, channelization. Choose 'help protect my PC by turning on automatic updates now' and press next. You will then get the screen below. Line up component with PCI slot and install. The basic function of the transport layer is to accept data from session layer and split up into smaller packets then pass to the network layer; ensure that all of them arrive correctly at the other end.
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