Egyptian born Ahmed Osman, believes that he has been able to find the the religious vision of Akhenaten and the teachings of Moses, Sigmund Freud was. Moses and Akhenaten: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus Paperback – October 1, A reinterpretation of biblical and Egyptian history that shows Moses and the Pharaoh Akhenaten to be one and the same. Now Ahmed Osman, using recent archaeological discoveries. Moses and Akhenaten by Ahmed Osman - A reinterpretation of biblical and Egyptian history that shows Moses and the Pharaoh Akhenaten to be one and the.
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Moses as a son of Akhenaten with Nefertiti as a stepmother, his own biological mother, Ahmed Osman continued the connection and, in his book, Moses and. In Christianity: An Ancient Egyptian Religion author Ahmed Osman contends that Hebrew Pharaohs of Egypt, Moses and Akhenaten, and Jesus in the. Moses and Akhenaten by Ahmed Osman is Ancient A reinterpretation of biblical and Egyptian history that shows Moses and the Pharaoh Akhenaten to be one.
Its anonymous author is regarded as the Egyptian Shakespeare. It is a narrative set in the aftermath of the death of Pharaoh Amenemhat I, founder of the 12th dynasty of Egypt, in the early 20th century BC. It is likely that it was composed only shortly after this date, albeit the earliest extant manuscript is from the reign of Amenemhat III, around BC.
An all seeing eye, that describes the state and hierarchies of ancient Egypt, around 4, years ago. In this context, the ancient story is interesting firstly because the sun god Aton appears for the first time in history although it was a relatively obscure god in the story. Secondly, the narrative is interesting because the hierarchy between the Pharaoh, the gods and his people are excellently described in the years old text, that Akhenaten easily could have read and got inspired from it.
A text, that describes the society and a hierarchy that he was copying and founding in the 14th century BC. In other words, Akhenaten has invented neither the god, Aton, nor the divine status of the Pharaoh in the ancient Egyptian society.
In the old story, there was a clear hierarchy level between the gods, the pharaoh and the people. Pharaoh worshipped the gods, but at the same time had a divine status in the ancient Egyptian society. His people and minions worshiped the Pharaoh.
When a Pharaoh died in story, he has ascended as a god to his horizon and was united with the sun, the divine flesh mingling with its creator. Exactly what Akhenaten wanted to achieve. Here he had transformed the main character, the personal doctor of the Pharaoh, Sinuhe, from the 20th century BC, to the 14th century BC — i.
World famous Egyptologists and archeologists uttered that they had not read anything as remarkable in many years. In particular, the book was praised for its archaeological accuracy and for its historical credibility to ancient Egyptian history. Akhenaten, Hebrew Religion and Moses The Old Testament tells us how Moses led his Israeli people out of Egypt, sharply pursued by the mighty Pharaoh, who, with armies and tanks, was determined to return the Israelites to a life of slavery.
Moses succeeded in getting all the Israelites over the Red Sea and soon they reached the Sinai Mountain. To the sound of the roaring thunder, Moses disappeared on the mountain, where he entered into a covenant with God.
That a people should have moved from Egypt to Israel should have taken place about 3, or 3. This evidence laid the foundation of a theory that Akhenaten was a human teacher of the only god, a mentor of Moses, a holy Christ like figure or the real progenitor of a full-blown monotheism. At the end of the s the Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud became aware of this historical correlation between the rise of monotheism in Egypt and the covenant of the Israelites with God in the Old Testament.
He therefore argued that Moses probably was an Egyptian and not a Jew, and he was a priest of the Atenism religion and with his congregation, he fled to Israel. Moses is, nevertheless, an ancient Egyptian word for child. Ever since, various historians, Aton theorists and amateur researchers have sought to prove that the Akhenaten pharaoh conceived the Jews and thus the God of Christians.
Among their main indications are written knowledge of ancient times and the fact that the traces of Jewish Christian religions are younger than the pharaoh Akhenaten [3, p. Other researchers, amateur historians and writers go a step further, and they have declared that Moses and Akhenaten were the same person and that Akhenaten was the founder of the Hebrew religion.
The Egyptian born writer Ahmed Osman believes that he has been able to find the answers for these questions that bewildered scholars for centuries. He claims strongly that Moses of the Bible is no other than that Pharaoh Akhenaten, who ruled Egypt for 17 years in the midth century BC.
Ahmed Osman, using recent archaeological discoveries and historical documents, contends that Akhenaten and Moses were the same person. Probably because the archeologists and Egyptologists do not know where to dig in sand near the Nile or even in desert.
Egypt was a waste empire and for instance, the Bible does not refer to specific territories in the empire, where the Jewish settlements were established. Nobody knows when the Jews began to cultivate their faith. The oldest archaeological finds for them are a 3,year-old pottery with Hebrew characters.
In other words, the pottery originates from the time after Akhenaten and his monotheistic religion in the ancient Egypt. Although for today's supporters of the Aton theory, the Aton theorists, the missing archeological objects and traces are missing; it is, in their own mind, a proof that their theory is true. The Jews were simply inspired by the Pharaoh Akhenaten, his monotheistic religion and his way of organizing the ancient Egypt in the 14th century BC along the river Nile.
For the supporters of the Aton theory, however, the matter is clear: the Old Testament account of the covenant with God must conceal the fact that the Israelites took their god with them from Egypt — Akhenaten's sun god Aton. Conversely, it is worth remembering that the missing archaeological findings cannot be used as evidence that the Jews do not have their god long time before Akhenaten and Atenism. Archaeologists are still digging and found that a potshot 20 kilometers from Jerusalem the Jewish histories came back to King David's time.
Especially, their historical inaccuracies with years and facts have been critiqued. Whereas, Akhenaten is a true figure of history without memory, Moses is a figure of memory without history. Moses has no tomb, did not receive a cult and no one has ever found any historical traces or evidence in any kind of written sources in Egyptian or Hebrew of him as a human being. However, he is alive in almost all kind of cultural and religious traditions and religions.
Especially in the Bible and the Quran, he plays a very important role [1, p. The biggest difference between the Hebrew and the Egyptian religion is the fact that the last-mentioned religion made careful provision for an afterlife.
Moses and Akhenaten
In fact, the god Osiris, the god of death, was one of the most popular of all Egyptian gods. The Jewish religion, on the other hand, had made no place for eternal life or immortality. A second difference is as already described above, the different structure of the two religions. In Atenism, there is no religious structure, as we know it from the worldwide religions today.
These two differences between both religions suggest that Moses headed a religious reformation, which totally departed from traditional well-established ways that had been on stage in Egypt for nearly fifteen centuries [12, p.
He simply invented naturalism in art. Until then, the strict formalism of Egyptian art was changed and now it depicted its subjects more realistically and women were no longer portrayed as lighter coloured than men were.
It became also allowed to make intimate portraits of the family of the Pharaoh and their children. In architecture the Armana-style art gained ground. The artwork in Aten's temple featured portraits of the wife, Queen Nefertiti, without any portrait for the king, which suggest that the Queen may have played a pivotal role in starting the religious revolution. The king's portraits show unusual description of the physique [11, p. Akhenaten was often depicted with an elongated jaw line and skull, wide hips and a protruding round belly.
This development was a complete break from all of the conventions of ancient Egyptian art, and it has led to some wide speculation. Was the pharaoh developing a new art form, or suffering from a physical affliction? Here is no evidence that he suffered from a severe learning disability, and it would certainly have been difficult for him to have succeeded with such a bold challenge to tradition without being fairly astute. Furthermore, he apparently wrote a number of poems or hymns including the famous Hymn to the Aton.
Many sufferers have a long face, slender tapered fingers, long arms and legs, and a curvature of the spine. However, the disease does not affect intelligence or fertility.
Jesus of Nazareth, then who could he have been? The first and most significant individual in the Old Testament record to be given the name Jesus was Joshua son of Nun, leader of the Israelite conquest of Canaan. It is recognized that the most accurate translation is Jesus, and that Joshua is used in modern English translations to avoid "confusion.
The logical place to look for the Jesus of the Essenes would therefore be in the person of Joshua, the man that Moses clearly designated as his equal Deuteronomy Now, hold on to your hoods and yarmulkes, here comes the truly astonishing part. Akhenaten is known to have been succeeded to the throne by Tutankhamun after the ephemeral reign of Semenkhare. Analysis of the account in Numbers Chapter 25 led both Sigmund Freud and Ernest Sellin who had earlier coined the term "scarlet thread" to conclude that an Israelite leader had been killed at Mt.
Sellin and Freud both suspected that it had been Moses. Having the advantage of a more complete historical framework, Ahmed Osman presents comprehensive and compelling evidence that the "death in the wilderness" disguised in the Bible account was actually not that of Moses as suspected by Freud and Sellin, but it must be none other than that of Joshua son of Nun meaning "fish," and later a symbol of Christianity.
In "Out of Egypt," Ahmed Osman does not lean on techniques of psychology, but on established archaeological findings, accepted historical documents, and objective critical analysis of Biblical texts in making many persuasive arguments to that end. For example, the Talmud confirms that Phineas killed Jesus. This is most certainly not the off-the-wall investigation that it might first appear to be, but one that a preponderance of historical material demands must be undertaken.
See "Gospel According to Egypt" on this web site for a few of the arguments discussed in Osman's earlier works. Sinai, but only symbolically as the "Rock" that sustained Israel, a Rock which has continued to hang as an ominous cloud over the Jewish people from that fateful time forward.
Therefore, the fantastical account of the Conquest of Canaan under Joshua was likely used to cover up the murder of Jesus as Ahmed Osman also suggests.
If Phineas was subsequently killed in retribution of his act, this would explain the mysterious role Phineas plays in following Biblical accounts. However, the judgment by Osman that the Conquest itself was a pure fiction may be better off withheld, as further research may establish it as an adaptation of an earlier tradition of a Hebrew invasion of Palestine that was only later attributed conveniently to Joshua in the Bible.
Returning to a psychological argument this time as my own observation, and not as a proof , the murder of an individual of Tutankhamun's magnitude certainly would have led to equally powerful and enduring traditions, especially considering that his untimely death and many leading experts are now of the opinion that he was indeed murdered resulted in the collapse of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, which was arguably Egypt's finest.
As Osman suggests, there would have remained among the Jews those who refused to allow a crime of this significance to be forgotten, and in times of trouble, such as after the fall of Jerusalem and deportation to Babylon in the 6th Century B.
Such would have been sufficient motivation for the poignant theme in the book of Isaiah, which is thought to have been completed in the 6th Century B.
The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus
Still other theories, such as those offered by Phillip Davies, and Dutch scholars F. Garcia Marinez and A.
S van der Woude, postulate an exilic formation of the Essene sect in the 6th Century B. Ahmed Osman is more in line with the latter theories in that he posits that.
Essene beliefs were already ancient by the 2nd Century B. His theory would also seem consistent with the long lived strife between Enochic and Zadokite Judaism presented in Beyond the Essene Hypothesis.
Osman's theory is unique in its development of the idea that the descriptions in the book of Isaiah were not only prophesies, but projections of an even more ancient event, i.
This treatment is used to strengthen the conclusion that the Qumran Essenes were part of a larger Jewish sect that held Joshua in equal reverence with Moses well before the established Christian era. It has been said by W. Wilson that "originality is just a fresh set of eyes. In the cosmopolitan tradition of Alexandrian scholarship, the author draws from extremely wide ranging source materials, including recent archaeological discoveries in Egypt monuments, tombs, texts, etc.
Hanson, Adolf von Harnack, etc. Parts I and II of "Out of Egypt" provide a new organization and updating of the research presented in the author's three previous titles. This is helpful, because the historical associations of earlier works were presented in the order in which they were made by Osman rather than as a unified theory of Judeo-Christian origins. The author's unassuming style and unleavened narratives in Part I of the book may be too quickly dismissed as irrelevant or unscientific by impatient or over-critical readers.
It will be especially difficult for those unfamiliar with the enormous significance of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty to perceive the potential importance of this research, and sadly most individuals today do not have even vague comprehension of this historical period.
The article, "The Gospel According to Egypt" on this site is an earlier epitome of Osman's prior works, and will provide background and an independent synthesis of this material for the reader. Furthermore, due to the inveterate presuppositions we have each acquired in Western culture, it may be necessary for novices and experts alike to consider all of Mr. Osman's associations very carefully before the mighty gush of inspiration will flow out from this rock of scholarship.
It is not only the strength of individual associations, but the large number of biblical-historical relationships made by Osman, which indicate that a breakthrough of enormous magnitude has been achieved.
In this section, Mr. Osman attempts to demonstrate that the same conclusion that was reached in Parts I and II regarding the original identity of Jesus by working forward from Egyptian archaeological records of the Patriarch Joseph and the Israelite Sojourn can also be made by working backward from the early Christian era.
For example, Ahmed Osman points out that the simple formula of salvation through water baptism and faith in the resurrected god Osiris was already extant in the popular cult of Serapis during the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era. Osman goes on to state that after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, the appeal of immortality through this simple faith became dominant in Egypt, was actively exported beginning with Ptolemy I Soter, and readily adopted throughout the Greek world.
C and 1st Century A. Osman further asserts that it was a logical refinement on the part of the Apostle Paul to substitute faith in a resurrected Christ Jesus for the resurrected Osiris in the Serapis cult.
Moreover, Osman further shows that in late 1st Century A. Egypt, Christianity and Serapis were considered nearly equivalent in contemporary writings.
In his Epistle to the Galatians , Paul gives a short autobiographical account of his mystical encounter with Christ on the road to Damascus and the three full years in Arabia which Osman asserts would have in those times included the Sinai that immediately followed.
The connection between Tutankhamun and Osiris is seen by Osman as conventional Pharaonic belief although rejected by his predecessor Akhenaten , and is graphically demonstrated by a mural in Tut's tomb. This mural is reproduced and explained in the book. Ahmed Osman asserts that the reappearance of Jesus to the "disciples" in the 1st Century A. However, the spearing of Jesus on the cross was also deliberately integrated into the Gospel account.
In any event, a physical redramatization of the Messiah's death would not necessarily have been expected or even endorsed by Essenes in general unless it was to be clearly understood as a deliberate and symbolic reenactment.
That "Rock" which provided life sustaining water for Israel in the Sinai was to be struck but once, and it was written that Moses was barred from the Promised Land for striking it again.
Sinai Convocation, it is clear that there would be a pardon in Christianity even for Phineas himself. In "Out of Egypt," Osman effectively demonstrates the contrived and improbable nature of many Gospel accounts, however the physical existence of a 1st Century A. Osman's research is praised and referenced nine times in the opening chapters of Laurence Gardner's "Bloodline of the Holy Grail.
For example, the Jesus of the Gospels would have been operating in the true "Grail" spirit of Tutankhamun truly a son of Nun, i. Desperate measures were required in those very desperate times as they were in Tutankhamun's, and the legitimacy or exclusivity of a 1st Century A.
Jesus to rule may have been challenged as was the case for Tutankhamun and his predecessor Akhenaten. By using the considerable political clout of one or more major religious sects and an established noble family to full advantage, a daring reenactment of Tutankhamun's hanging could have been staged, differing only in that this Jesus would not physically die, but instead be rescued, resuscitated, and made to reappear on the third day in classic Messianic form to "witnesses" who may also have assumed aliases in the form of the earlier tradition.
In doing so, this Davidic claimant would not only have confirmed his worthiness as a descendent of the Judean Kings, but established his right to reign in the Divine order of the Davidic Thutmosid line of the Egyptian Pharaohs which ended with Tutankhamun.
Even if this plan were successfully "executed," Jesus would still not have been able to return to public life after his "resurrection" for fear of exposing the ruse to the Romans and risking an inescapable death the second time. His whereabouts would have to have been kept secret until the "time was right. Davidic claimant would have ended any immediate hope of his "return" to society as reigning king.
This would also explain why the tone of the New Testament turned from immediate fervent expectation of Jesus' return to a resignment to "occupying" until the end times. Osman clearly evinces that although the Gospels of Paul and of Peter differed substantially, both were derived from an earlier and greater Messianic tradition, and neither depended on the immediate restoration of the Davidic Kingdom.
Out of Egypt begins with an impassioned appeal for healing and restoration of the dignity of the people of Egypt as a result of a new appreciation for the legacy of ancient Egypt in Western Civilization. The diversity of Christian faith in the 1st Century A. The success of the Roman Catholic Church in eradicating Egypt's spiritual and historical connection to its past has made Mr.
Osman's task a formidable one indeed, however further insights are promised in a future work. Osman's deep respect for Jewish, Christian, and Islamic faith is evident in all of his writings.
Out of Egypt itself is dedicated "to the Coptic Church of Alexandria. Osman's sense of modesty has not allowed him to flaunt his discoveries or demand the end of faith as we now know it. Osman reveals the Egyptian components in the monotheism preached by Moses as well as his use of Egyptian royal ritual and Egyptian religious expression. Moses and Akhenaten provides a radical challenge to long-standing beliefs concerning the origin of Semitic religion and the puzzle of Akhenaten's deviation from ancient Egyptian tradition.
In fact, if Osman's contentions are correct, many major Old Testament figures would be of Egyptian origin.
Apart from a rather muddled chronology at the start of the Book of Exodus, the story of Moses it tells is quite straightforward.
However, the picture changes when we examine other holy books and the work of Manetho, the third century BC native Egyptian historian, which was subsequently transmitted by the Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus.
While we know from the Old Testament that Moses was brought up in the royal palace, it does not suggest that he ever succeeded to the throne.
Yet the story of Moses in the Talmud-the compilation of Hebrew laws and legends, dating from the early centuries AD and regarded as second only to the Old Testament as an authoritative source of the early history of the Jews-contains some details not to be found in the Bible and often parallels Manetho's account of the Exodus, derived from Egyptian folklore. One of the details is that Moses was a king. According to the Talmud, which agrees that Moses was brought up in Pharaoh's palace, he grew into a handsome lad, dressed royally, was honoured by the people and seemed in all things of royal lineage.
However, at about the age of eighteen he was forced to flee from Egypt after, on a visit to Goshen, he came across an Egyptian smiting one of his Israelite brethren and slew him.Art History. During his reign, the Pharaoh Akhenaten was able to abolish the complex pantheon of the ancient Egyptian religion and replace it with a single god, the Aten, who had no image or form.
Any deficiency in his English skills is more than compensated by his facility with Semitic and Egyptian sources. Paul initiated at the foot of Mount Sinai: - St. Osman's research.