environment of learning in which learners and teachers make their thinking ' visible' or explicit. These are Decision making and planning around a problem to. Making Thinking Visible: How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for All Learners. By Ron Ritchhart, Mark Church, and Karin Morrison. Teaching Students to Think Pages Making Thinking Visible. When learners speak, write, or draw their ideas, they deepen their cognition. Project Zero's.

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MAKING THINKING VISIBLE. David Perkins. Harvard Graduate School of Education. Acknowledgment: Some of the ideas and research reported here. PDF | 40+ minutes read | When learners speak, write, or draw their ideas, they deepen their cognition. Project Zero's Visible Thinking approach. called Visible Thinking which is being used effectively in a number of schools. Adaptable makes students more aware of their thinking and feeds professional .

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Making Thinking Visible (Article)

download the selected items together This item: Making Thinking Visible: Ships from and sold by site. Creating Cultures of Thinking: Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Ron Ritchhart. A Pedagogy of Promise. Real Talk About Classroom Management: Visible Learning for Literacy, Grades K Make Just One Change: Dan Rothstein. A Guide to Documenting Learning: Silvia Rosenthal.

From the Author Over the last 12 years we have had the pleasure of working with schools, museums, and organizations all over the world. Read more. Praise for Making Thinking Visible "There is a worldwide movement afoot to make the development of the intellect a priority for education in the twenty-first century. Product details Paperback: Jossey-Bass; 1 edition May 3, Language: English ISBN Start reading Making Thinking Visible on your site in under a minute.

Don't have a site? Try the site edition and experience these great reading features: Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention thinking visible making thinking thinking routines project zero great book highly recommend hard copy easy to read site edition grade levels well written great resource high school become better prior knowledge educators at all levels professional development practical advice ron ritchhart every teacher.

Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. site Edition Verified download. Excellent book for teachers. Although the examples are all from primary education, I feel that this book is equally useful for higher ed too.

As a longtime teacher in higher ed, I have seen how hard it is to get student engagement. This book provides many ways in which we can achieve this. I find that many teachers complain bitterly about how students have become dumber over the years and how uninterested they are in learning -- I have been guilty of this too.

We do this without thinking about how we are presenting the material. From what I have seen, the bulk of students come to class with a reasonable amount of keenness to learn; taking care to engage them using creative means can be very helpful. Despite the differing context, most of the content can be extended to higher education, including medical education.

Anthony on a projector screen for students to inspect. Using the routine, she was able to get students to identify subtle clues in the image e. Virtually all of the 21 teaching routines could be extended to medical education in some capacity, but will likely require some creativity on the part of teachers. The book possesses a number of strengths, not the least of which is its excellent research-based foundation. It is very easy to read and should not present any problems for most medical educators.

We highly recommend that many other medical educators explore this very practical and informative text. Making thinking visible: how to promote engagement, understanding, and independence for all learners. Upon completing the language also creates classroom culture, which is activity, the children spontaneously began to use the defined as the set of important understandings.

It is important that were studying the ocean. The group discussion was finished. The research team purpose of action research is for practitioners to analyzed how the children made inferences about investigate and improve their practices by looking the feelings and intentions of others, viewed the systematically at ways to deal with issues that are situation from more than one perspective, judged close to them Hendricks They also noticed that the agenda, the whole group was driven by common classroom environment contributed to children research goals: This experience helped Erika improve her practice and extend her activity to new Like children, teachers also need time to modes of expression.

The research team enhanced construct knowledge from what they already know, her ability to take risks and empowered her to and the group support played a critical role in their continue sharing her work.

In action research, teachers come to In their self-reflections, some teachers admitted understand how others work best and to value the that the teacher-researcher aspect gave them enrichment offered by different perspectives confidence to propose ideas.

This was evident when Salmon and Truax The adoption of a they were invited to design a learning gallery and teacher-researcher outlook occurred at different participate in a teacher panel during a local paces for individual teachers; therefore, their levels conference about VT, in which the keynote speaker of contribution were different.

Some teachers was one of the developers of the VT Project. The remained silent while others were open to sharing learning gallery is an exhibit space where the their experiences. Initially, the teachers felt shared in the research team, the author began to intimidated about being included in the program; visit the teachers in their schools and used video- later, after they had externalized the process they documentary techniques.

While visiting one of the went through in the learning gallery, they were schools, the author noticed that Erica, one of the empowered by compliments from both team teachers who usually was silent, had adjusted the members and outsiders. Through the learning Circle of Viewpoints routine for her four-year-old gallery, they were able to see the process they had students while reading Rainbow Fish to the gone through as learners.

The goal of this routine The preparation for the conference jump-started is to explore diverse perspectives. Considering that the teachers to become even more involved. The young children are egocentric, the teacher engaged bimonthly meetings turned into weekly meetings for them in good conversations using puppets of the a period of four months. The idea of participating in story characters and the thinking routine that this conference committed the teachers to bring consisted of the following questions: Other teachers used video new ideas and share her experience with the other documentary techniques with their digital cameras teachers, was always admired by the other teachers.

During the meetings, the that the way she was implementing one of the group used different protocols to analyze the routines in class was not the best approach to documentation and learn how each teacher created engage the children, so she had decided to start cultures of thinking in the classroom. The result of from scratch. The other teachers, surprised by this long hours of collaborative inquiry and sharing was revelation, used the opportunity to discuss their captured in a video documentary that was presented struggles.

Immediately, two other teachers who felt during the conference and attracted more teachers the same way expressed their frustrations. This to participate in the project. In this the teachers revealed that the research team had risk-free environment, the teachers were open to given them the strength to continue trying new reflecting their personal interpretations of theory in ideas that seemed hard to implement when they their practice because, as they said, they were were working in isolation in their schools.

Through respected as learners. This was a teachable moment sharing their fears with colleagues, the teachers for the group as both individual and group learners. Malaguzzi found that sharing with colleagues mitigates the first Unleashing the Concept of Thinking fear that teachers have about professional Before getting the children on board, the teachers development, which is being unable to connect tested their own understanding of thinking about theories with the objective problems of daily work, thinking.

For Dewey , the origin of thinking including not only instruction but also administrative, resides in perplexity, confusion or doubt. Many legal or cultural realities. Teachers also felt free to inquiries about thinking emerged as the teachers question their own preparation and choices when unmasked their concepts of thinking and became aware of situations that call for thinking in their classrooms.

By sharing their beliefs about thinking, the teachers were not only self-internalizing what thinking is but gaining ownership in creating a culture of thinking in their classrooms. Refining Their Research Eye As the author revisited the notes from the research team meetings, she noticed that at the beginning of their journey, it was common for the teachers to bring documentation with extended narrations of classroom events.

Forman and Hall stated that documentation without a theory of learning and development will create no more than detailed records of experience. Some team members felt intimidated by the amount of information that other teachers brought to share. For Rinaldi , Dios Baby Jesus?

Porque tienen fotos de la virgin methodology; it is a way of thinking and seeing Because they have pictures of the Virgin ourselves in relationship with others and the world. She is thinking pointing to the painting. What makes you say that she is discourse. In other words, by analyzing the videos, thinking?

What evidence do you have to think using while interacting with the children. One of the that she is sick? Because the wind is making her sick. What makes you say that? Do you see routine in a visible place; this reminds her to make the wind? While thinking routine. While analyzing documentation, using the mentioned thinking routines, the teacher the teachers focused their attention on the language was inviting children to show evidence to support of thinking that they used while interacting with the their thinking.

Documenting lets the see that makes you say that? In this short discussion, the teacher thinking routines: Interpretation with knowledge allow teachers to draw upon the justification routine —the routine consists of knowledge and skills found in local households to asking the children: Then, organize classroom instruction.

The use of thinking What do you see that makes you say that? The benefits The children were exposed to La Curandera, a of these strategies for English language learners painting by Carmen Lomas. We are going to open a discussion and then using it in the classroom, posing critical about what you saw here pointing to the questions instead of issuing orders.

By openly reflecting on the messages obtained Child A: He died. What do you see that makes you say high level of understanding of the documentation that?

Related Interests

The teachers who shared their Child B: That thing pointing to the cross on the documentation and those who initially felt painting. What is that shape like? Child C: A cross. During the journey, the author noticed that each Teacher: What does the cross mean? Documentation goes beyond collecting data.

Ask clarifying questions to be sure you relates data to theory, involving teachers in understand the idea. Express what you like about the idea. State puzzles and when teachers are able to use theory in interpreting concerns and offer suggestions. An example of this was having the The use of the ladder of feedback Perkins children use a language of thinking. At this free environment. This routine could use to refer to thinking—connections, consists of the following questions: Recurring conversations about cognitive Me: How do I make my own thinking visible?

How is space in the classroom organized to constructivism theories. How do I give thinking time? Intellectual Collaboration With the use of protocols and the ladder of The process of teaching and learning is shaped feedback, the teachers became reflective. When by past experiences and knowledge. Each person revisiting documentation, the protocol questions interprets theory in relation to practice; reflecting on naturally shaped the conversation and kept the group focused.

The conversations generated many events that happened in the classroom helps inquiries and areas to explore, which allowed the teachers become aware of and understand their group to identify problems.

Professional Development

One of the frequent values, belief and theories of teaching Hill, challenges was having young children ask good Stremmel and Fu As the teachers implemented the child the cognitive tools needed for the Visible Thinking ideas as adult learners and development. The use of thinking routines helped researchers, they had the opportunity to become the teachers create zones of proximal development reflective inquirers when they shared their own ideas ZDP Vygotsky and the documentation and questions.

As teachers shared their Salmon in their classrooms, the research experiences, they generated thinking routines and team group members were also invited by the ideas such as the I Wonder book, for children and author to create a culture of thinking in this their parents to write about what they wonder.

Giving feedback or and thanking the presenting teachers. In order to communicate interpretation, and planning or revising new effectively, the teachers used what Perkins practices Hill, Stremmel and Fu Project Zero.

Available at www. Improving Schools Through Action that what they do is more reflective of who they are Research. A teacher-researcher learns and relearns with children Malaguzzi, L. Westport, Conn: During this project, the McNiff, J. Action Research for Professional teachers had to confront their beliefs about teaching Development: Concise Advice for New Action and learning and connect them with learning Researchers.

Knowledge for Teaching: When the teachers Perkins, D. How shared their experiences, they became more self- Collaborative Conversations Create Smart Organizations.

Pfister, M. Rainbow Fish to the Rescue! North-South Books. References Rinaldi, C. In Dialogue with Reggio Emilia: Listening, Researching and Learning. Intellectual Character: Matters, and How To Get It. San Francisco: Educational Research: Dewey, J. How We Think. Mineola, NY: Dover, Salmon, A. Providence, RI: Brown University. The Seuss, D.

Oh, the Thinks You Can Think. Importance of Observation in Early Education. Available at Vygotsky, L. Mind in Society: The Development of http: University Press. Families and educators play a strategies that strengthen collaborative home—school significant role in the development of child relationship programs at the elementary school level. Learning takes place in a Abstract multitude of ways in both home and school, each This study involved the development, implementation contributing multiple levels of expertise and skills to and assessment of a comprehensive home-reading enhance student learning.

The objective of the study was to explore the requires dialogue and the collective expertise and relationship between parental support at home in a talents of all partners in the education process. Among these partners, educators play a particularly Employing both qualitative and quantitative methods, the important role in determining how and to what author initiated the study with an interactive literacy night extent parents become involved.

Successful home— reading strategies being taught in the classroom and in school partnerships offer broad menus of activities turn be empowered to take an active role in assisting their and opportunities that include parents in planning, children with their reading at home.

Data interpretation implementing and evaluating classroom programs. The positive effects of parent involvement Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler By providing instructions and role as that of teacher are more likely to become suggestions, teachers can guide parents in involved and engage in stimulating home activities monitoring, assisting and interacting with their Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler and Brissie ; children at home on learning activities that are Grolnick et al In their study, Sylva et al coordinated with classwork.

These researchers et al , Through modelling, reinforcement Henderson et al According to successful school performance Hoover-Dempsey Bird and Akerman , one of the strongest and Sandler In their study, the child made best assist their children at home, teachers must be strong progress with literacy during his first year at prepared to work in collaboration with them.

When school by being actively engaged in the Literacy teachers make parent involvement a consistent part Early Action Project LEAP , a home-visiting scheme of their regular teaching practice, parents feel more that provides support for parents of children judged positive about their abilities to help Ames Home-visiting gives parents support and involved parents improved their reading from fall to allows modelling of various teaching techniques in spring more than students of teachers who did not familiar surroundings.

However, to ask a single or who involved parents to a lesser degree. Parents valued the Plourde Co- and home spheres that nurture learning in all its constructed relationships, characterized by ongoing diverse forms.

To are associated with higher levels of involvement and date, the literature has not focused on the greater benefits for children Lopez, Kreider and systematic and consistent communication of Caspe We have much to learn about how to information and guidance to parents in a home promote parent involvement in home-learning reading program through sending classroom activities and maximize its effects.

Educators have a responsibility to assist and support for literacy. Understanding that families are support parents in becoming knowledgeable an invaluable resource for teachers, I developed, participants in the educational process Robinson administered and assessed a Smarties Read with Me and Fine Parent education on reading Pidgeon , The Parents As Literacy reading tips in classroom newsletters and the extent Supporters PALS program, designed by to which parents felt that the guidance was helpful researchers in British Columbia, Canada, helps when reading with their children.

The effect of families, educators and children learn from one parent support at home on student reading levels another in respectful and supportive ways. The was assessed. The survey included concise and written answers on the surveys. Multiple levels of unambiguous questions with preset suitable approval from the board of education, school response options to allow for the comparison of principal and parents were attained prior to the responses and reduce misinterpretations of initiation of the study.

Participants were asked to indicate their responses by checking the appropriate boxes. Participants Open-ended questions allowed for written responses Over a period of 10 school months, September and the provision of additional observations. The suburban, the effectiveness of the home-reading program and outer-city public elementary school, in southern discern whether parents found the monthly reading Ontario, Canada, was situated in a primarily South tips in the classroom newsletters useful, periodic Asian community and served a primarily middle- feedback was collected throughout the study.

This survey, profile. The study comprised 18 South Asian attached to every third newsletter, asked parents to families, 1 Jamaican, 1 Cantonese and 1 Polish. Does the Smarties The majority of families in the study were nuclear newsletter provide you with helpful tips on how to families in which the mother and father lived help your child read at home?

Three response together. The study was divided into three terms. Space was provided for male and 10 female students one participant moved parents to express comments, concerns and abroad at the end of the second term.

Although suggestions for improvements. Feedback from English was a second language for 16 of these parents helped to determine parental satisfaction students, their parents were comfortable with with the program, changes that were required and English. To evaluate the overall effectiveness of Procedure the program for its usefulness and practicality in the The study was divided into two parts: Do you feel that your child has of a Smarties Read with Me program, each being had a successful year because you have been kept an important element of the home-reading informed about the topics and skills being taught to program.

All parents were invited to participate your child in class? Since all participants showed an interest in reading literacy and the daily reading program in the program, the returned response rate of the the classroom.

Participants were informed of the surveys was high. This informed consent. One hundred per cent of the assessment, which comprised a collection of parents responded positively and returned their benchmark books designed specifically for permission slips.

The home-reading program was assessment purposes in primary grades, was then initiated. While it administered and feedback was attained to assess allowed the children to demonstrate the skills and the perceived usefulness of the presentation strategies they used when reading, this test enabled Appendix 1. The surveys asked if parent interests, me to analyze their reading performances, see what concerns and questions were accommodated, and made the texts challenging for them, and determine invited parents to discuss what they had gained from instructional needs and the skills needed to be the materials.

The survey was translated into taught next. As invitations for their parents and attached them to an a part of the Peel Board of Education literacy information sheet outlining the program and the assessments, teachers in primary schools use the importance of the event.

A return section was Alphakids reading books to aid in their assessment added in which parents were to indicate if they of the reading levels of their students. All teachers in planned to attend. The presentation was scheduled my school were required to conduct this assessment to take place in the evening to make it more three times during the school year and indicate what convenient for parents.

Responses were had attended the presentation. Parents could take organized and summarized by using checklists, and various brochures and handouts, in English and parent responses were recorded in simple tables other languages, that provided advice on how to that indicated emerging themes and suggested enhance student literacy.

Responses to as a second language teacher made herself available questions in the surveys were taken at face value. Refreshments were served in a further and record data, I was aware that my role as effort to create a welcoming atmosphere.

Making Thinking Visible (Article)

The video clips were paused at key The findings from this study are applicable to one times to point out reading strategies employed by Grade 1 classroom in a suburban school in Ontario. The clips first showed With a larger, more representative sample, the how not to read with a child, followed by the correct program can be made effective for teachers and strategies Appendix 2.

Parents were taught reading parents of children in Grade 1 across the strategies appropriate for Grade 1 students, jurisdiction.

With the majority of the parents in this including taking picture walks, relating books to study being South Asian and from a suburban area, personal experiences, sounding out words, finding the results may not be representative of larger small familiar words in bigger, unfamiliar words and populations of other ethnic groups. The collection checking to see if substituted words made sense.

The five Ws who, learning style could also influence reading levels, but what, when, where and why were also discussed. Parents were encouraged to read to their children in their native languages and to celebrate their success. Smarties Literacy Night Translators translated what was said by the teachers Once the students had settled into their new to ensure understanding Linse Parents received encouragement to act as reading role models. DeLoache and techniques, suggestions for words of praise and DeMendoza found that as children get older, enrichment ideas for extending reading at home.

To parents abandon highly interactive reading assess the program, at the end of each school term, throughout a story and instead discuss larger units parents were asked to complete an evaluation of text at the end of the story.

Translators were available to ensure be at-home teachers on the grounds that when effective communication and understanding of parents are continuously invited, educated, informed questions and answers. By receiving reading half an hour to select books from a display in the expectations, strategies and guiding tips to parents classroom and practise the reading strategies. While through the Smarties Read with Me program, parents and their children read, the class teacher parents are better equipped to assist their children served as a facilitator, answering questions and with their reading at home.

Findings emphasize the providing assistance and suggestions as needed. The session ended with the parents and teachers Data from Literacy Night discussing the observations they had made and the various possibilities for continuing, expanding, and Evaluation Surveys reinforcing what they had learned during the On the first part of the survey, parents were evening at home with their children.

Parents who Next, they had an opportunity to give written were unable to attend the presentation received feedback and provide suggestions for improvements. The video shown during The last question invited parents to list other the presentation was also made available for parents workshops they would find helpful in supporting to view at a time more convenient for them.

Parents of 18 out of 21 students attended the Smarties Read with Me Program presentation. A majority of the parents, 14 out of After literacy night, the Smarties Read with Me 18, returned their evaluations Table 1.

Although program was implemented. This program consisted 11 of these 14 parents could read and write in of children taking one book home daily from the English and Punjabi, they all chose to complete the classroom library to read with their parents.

This English version of the survey. Two of these 11 library had books from a variety of genres, including parents chose to complete both the English and fiction, nonfiction and poetry, which were reviewed Punjabi surveys. Data collected from the surveys for balanced and appropriate reading levels for all indicated that parents found the presentation to be students in the class. To support the program, a helpful and full of great ideas. It outlined children with reading at home as a result of being specific reading strategies that were being taught taught various reading strategies during the and practised each month in detail, and provided presentation.

Representative quotes have been written examples to enhance understanding of the included to illustrate written feedback provided on strategies.

Some of the strategies outlined in the the surveys. Further examination of varied educational backgrounds of parents would broaden The program was evaluated three times in the the understanding of how and to what extent school year.

Twelve students brought back all three evaluation Mason found that reading stories to surveys, six students brought back only two. The children, with appropriate coaching and support, is final survey had the highest response rate, with linked to later reading success. In a study conducted all 20 surveys returned. One student did not return by Zellman and Waterman , positive any of the surveys during the year except the parenting style was associated with significantly high final one.

This may indicate that although some reading scores. Table 1: Summary of Data Retrieved from Surveys Part 1 14 parents completed this section.

Part 2 5 parents completed this section. Their responses included: I hope you will arrange the other Literacy Night Program in future and we learn and more teach our kids at home Thank you.

Overall its the best program. More research is warranted on the role of family Data pertaining to reading achievement levels support for literacy at home. Interviews with parents revealed that home-reading support assisted about the time spent reading with their children, the students in their reading literacy skills.

Seventeen nature of the interactions and their observations students exceeded the grade level expectation of would allow further insight into the reading improving by eight reading book levels on the behaviours of children at home. It is possible that in Alphakids reading level tests by the end of the this study, parents of students who were poor school year.

Two children did not meet this readers might have greatly increased their home expectation, but improved by five reading book literacy activities with the support of consistent levels. Table 3 shows the raw data collected through teacher guidance throughout the year. A the course of the study.

Pseudonyms have been questionnaire specifically designed to collect their used to protect the identity of the participants. Although improvements by the end of the school year. Active achievement. Table 2: Does the Smarties newsletter provide you with helpful tips on how to help your child read at home?

This question allowed parents to answer yes or no and provided space for written comments. Do you feel that tips. We get being taught to your child in class? No written feedback was provided. It was a systemic approach that This study highlights the benefits and rewards for intentionally integrated classroom and home classroom teachers, parents and students behind the support to promote the educational success of implementation of a Smarties Read with Me children in the classroom.

This program allowed me program. Coordinating home-reading activities with to make parent involvement a consistent part of my classroom learning proved to be beneficial in teaching practice by informing parents of reading fortifying home—school partnerships. This program strategies in an interactive presentation; enlisting Table 3: All numbers in the November, February and May columns indicate the Alphakids reading book level that the child could read with full comprehension, along with the ability to use a variety of reading strategies to decode unfamiliar words and to critically analyze the text.

This study reflects the program; welcoming ideas to be shared with other importance of collaborating with families in the parents; deriving regular feedback; incorporating implementation of home-reading programs and the parental suggestions; and making modifications as need for reciprocity when teaching parents to be needed.

The program fostered a reciprocal at-home teachers. The Smarties program parents in being at-home teachers and the effect on provides teachers with a tool to build and strengthen student performance on reading assessments. However, a host of measures can for an active, involved and supportive parent ensure a sustained and high degree of parental community. There are some barriers that with families. Current school practices to facilitate educators must overcome to strengthen the school— parent involvement tend to focus solely on teacher— parent connection, including limited English parent relationships.

Substantial resources are proficiency Smith However, the recognition of the The enhance possibilities for communication and rapport success of schools and the children they serve can Quintanar and Warren It is patent play in student success. While schools are in this study that parents welcome and appreciate responsible for promoting family opportunities teacher guidance on how to assist their children for involvement, families, in turn, are responsible with home-reading.

By connecting parents to the for making time to become actively involved classroom, the Smarties program elicits parent and provide support to their children and their support for student literacy. This parent—school teachers. By those educators who seek to implement various taking a collaborative posture when communicating at-home reading intervention techniques to support and providing feedback to one another, classroom student learning.

Together, parents associated with their involvement across the years of and teachers enhance student literacy and schooling. Studies in family support for literacy may strengthen parental understanding of the inner focus on the preschool period and the role families workings of the classroom.

The whole team enjoyed organizing the workshop and was pleased to see you there. We hope that we were able to accommodate your interests, concerns and questions. Please return this form to school with your child as soon as possible. Please check the box that best shows your agreement or disagreement with the following statements.

Disagree Not Sure Agree The program was helpful I learned a lot It was clear and easy to follow It provided great ideas that I can use I will make more time to read with my child at home. I will be able to read with my child more effectively The strategies taught during literacy night were useful and easy to understand What part of the workshop did you find most effective? Video Clip 2 The first part of the clip portrayed The second part of the clip a parent watching TV as her child showed the child choosing a book read a book and telling her the to read, using various reading words that she was unable to read strategies to read unfamiliar words, as opposed to allowing her to finger pointing to control text and attempt various reading strategies.

Parents were home and influence their success encouraged to nurture good by operating largely through literacy habits in the home.

Video Clip 3 The first part of the clip showed a The next clip showed the parent child working on a project for employing different strategies to school and trying to find reading assist their child with their reading material that could be used as a and discussing the text to source of information for the strengthen reading project. However, the parent was comprehension. Parent Involvement: The Relationship Journal of Special Education 34, no 3: Lansing, Mich: Involvement in Schools.

Anderson, J, and F Morrison. Me as a Gramma: Poor and Minority Urban Students.Seven respondents selected Somali as their Ali 5: See and discover other items: Making Thinking Visible: We all tend to gravitate to what is familiar organize the world that we can think about and reassuring to us.

We have to say the more time we spend in education, the more vexing we find this question. What's the other story? What do you see?

DENNIS from Port St. Lucie
Look over my other articles. I absolutely love team play. I do relish reading comics tremendously.