Mainframe Refresher Part-1 COBOL-Page: 1 COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language)History. D. Mainframe-Refresher-Partpdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Mainframe Refresher - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online.
|Language:||English, Japanese, German|
|Genre:||Fiction & Literature|
|ePub File Size:||15.35 MB|
|PDF File Size:||10.67 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Mainframe Refresher By Muthu Free Pdf Download. Foo. mainframe refresher muthu mainframe refresher muthu free download ibm mainframe. Mainframe Refresher - This app covers COBOL, CICS, DB2, JCL, PL/I, TSO Commands, Endevor and FILE-AID. Idea behind this app to help. Mainframe Refresher. August 31, These commands function exactly as they do in ISPF/PDF. On all screens involving scrolling, a scroll amount is.
Coding Sheet. It will be ignored by the compiler but visible in the source listing. Language Structure. It specifies an attribute for an entry Statement One or more valid words and clauses Sentence One or more statements terminated by a period Paragraph One or more sentences. Section One or more paragraphs. Identification Division.
Environment Division. Data Division. Procedure Division. This is the first division and the program is identified here. All other paragraphs are optional and used for documentation. Security does not pertain to the operating system security, but the information that is passed to the user of the program about the security features of the program.
It supplies information about the hardware or computer equipment to be used on the program. Configuration Section. This paragraph is used to relate hardware names to user-specified mnemonic names. Substitute character for currency sign. Comma can be used as decimal point. Default collating sequence can be changed.
It will be explained later. Files used in the program are identified in this paragraph. It specifies when check points to be taken and storage areas that are shared by different files. Data division is used to define the data that need to be accessed by the program. It has three sections. Literals, Constants, Identifier, 1.
Literal is a constant and it can be numeric or non-numeric. Numeric literal can hold 18 digits and non-numeric literal can hold characters in it. COBOL74 supports characters only 3. Literal stored in a named memory location is called as variable or identifier. WS-VAR1 is a identifier or variable. It can take a value from the set of integers between or from one of the special level-numbers 66 77 88 01 level. Specifies the record itself. It may be either a group item or an Elementary item.
It must begin in Area A. Specify group or elementary items within a record. Group level items must not have picture clause. Identify independent data item. Condition names. Variable name and Qualifier Variable name can have characters with at least one alphabet in it.
Hyphen is the only allowed special character but it cannot be first or last letter of the name. Name should be unique within the record.
If two variables with same name are there, then use OF qualifier of high level grouping to refer a variable uniquely. Ex: Japanese language applications. Refreshing Basics Nibble. In packed decimal, each nibble stores one digit. By default, every character is stored in one byte. Half word. MVS Full word.
MVS Double word. Number of bytes required equals to the size of the data item. COMP Binary representation of data item. PIC clause can contain S and 9 only. S9 01 — S9 04 Half word.
S9 05 — S9 09 Full word. S9 10 - S9 18 Double word. Most significant bit is ON if the number is negative. COMP-1 Single word floating point item. PIC Clause should not be specified. COMP-2 Double word floating-point item. Two digits are stored in each byte. Last nibble is for sign. Value of item must not exceed picture size. It cannot be specified for the items whose size is variable.
It is stored along with last digit. SYNC clause does this but it may introduce slack bytes unused bytes before the binary item. WS-VAR2 is expected to start at second byte. As the comp item in the example needs one word and it is coded with SYNC clause, it will start only at the next word boundary that is 4 th byte. Redefining declaration should immediately follow the redefined item and should be done at the same level.
Multiple redefinitions are possible. Size of redefined and redefining need not be the same. It should be declared at 66 level.
It need not immediately follows the data item, which is being renamed. A condition name specifies the value that a field can contain and used as abbreviation in condition checking. It cannot be used with 66 and 88 level items. Detail explanation is given in Table Handling section. Linkage section MUST be coded with a half word binary field, prior to actual field.
If length field is not coded, the first two bytes of the field coded in the linkage section will be filled with length and so there are chances of 2 bytes data truncation in the actual field. This is the last division and business logic is coded here. It has user-defined sections and paragraphs. Section name should be unique within the program and paragraph name should be unique within the section.
Procedure division statements are broadly classified into following categories. Statement Type Meaning Imperative Direct the program to take a specific action. MOVE Statement It is used to transfer data between internal storage areas defined in either file section or working storage section. Numeric move rules: A numeric or numeric-edited item receives data in such a way that the decimal point is aligned first and then filling of the receiving field takes place. Unfilled positions are filled with zero.
Zero suppression or insertion of editing symbols takes places according to the rules of editing pictures. Alphanumeric Move Rules: Alphabetic, alphanumeric or alphanumeric-edited data field receives the data from left to right. Any unfilled field of the receiving filed is filled with spaces. When the length of receiving field is shorter than that of sending field, then receiving field accepts characters from left to right until it is filled.
The unaccomodated characters on the right of the sending field are truncated. When an alphanumeric field is moved to a numeric or numeric-edited field, the item is moved as if it were in an unsigned numeric integer mode.
This is regardless of the description of the elementary items constituting the group item. To retain the values of operands participating in the operation. The resultant value of operation exceeds any of the operand size. It is usually coded after the field to be rounded. We can use arithmetic symbols than keywords and so it is simple and easy to code.
Rule: Left to right — 1. Parentheses 2. Exponentiation 3. Multiplication and Division 4. All arithmetic operators have their own explicit scope terminators. It is suggested to use them.
It is also one that other programmers or users can follow logically and is easy to read and understand. A set of precoded JCL that can be modified through the use of parameters or override cards. Procedures can be catalogued or instream. When updating a dataset, you would normally use OLD. JOB — indicates start of jobstream to the operating system and through parms coded on it, certain details about the job time, region, message level, job accounting data.
EXEC — indicates the start of execution of a particular job step, be that step a program or a proc. DD — is a data definition, which is used to describe the attributes of a data set name, unit, type, space, disposition. What is it used for? What is order of searching of the libraries in a JCL? Specifies that the private library or libraries specified should be searched before the default system libraries in order to locate a program to be executed.
The system libraries are specified in the linklist. Secondary allocation is done when more space is required than what has already been allocated. That this is a new dataset and needs to be allocated, to CATLG the Data set if the step is successful and to delete the data set if the step abends.
Railway Reservation system. Operator or operating system initiates the job. Other jobs in the same region must wait. Once CICS is initialized, entering transaction id triggers the transaction to start.
User must wait for batch jobs to produce reports day, week, month. Thus the number can be used for arithmetic operations. This is not the way to terminate a CICS program. CICS has a command for that purpose.
An exchange between a terminal and a data base representing an application process. For example, an inquiry or a deposit and balance update. Pseudo conversational technique is uses the multiple transaction identifiers pct entries and multiple program pct entries. It performsthe terminal conversation in the following way:. A conversational program is logically and physically divided into separte programs after sending a message and before receving the message.
For each separate program, a unique cics trasction identifier is assigned. If an exceptional condition occurs during execution of a CICS application program and if the program does not check the exceptional condition, CICS may continue executing the program or terminate abnormally the execution of the program, depending on the exceptional condition and the command involved. Some of the more common CICS abends are briefly described below.
These are only brief descriptions and do not cover all possible reasons. This is the most common abend in CICS. Check for spaces in a packed decimal numeric field and changes to the file and record layouts. The last character indicates the exact error. This abend usually occurs if your program is looping.
There are CICS parameters that determine how long a task can run without giving up control. These abends indicates that the task was purged.
A program was not found or was disabled. Check the transaction definition to see if the program name was misspelled. Check that the program is enabled. The specified map was not found in the specified mapset. Check that you have not misspelled the map name. This contains a value that tells you what CICS command was last executed. This value can be displayed as part of an error message, to aid in the debugging of your code or when an exception condition occurs.
In case of call , whenever you do changes to the called program you need to compile the calling program also. In case of link , it is not needed. What is Communication Area? Communication Area is used to pass data between the programmer between the task. Which of the following statements correctly describe the syntax of CICS command language?
How can you accomplish braykpoint in intertest? U-for uncondishional braykpoint, C-for condishional braykpoint,and A-for automatic braykpoint.
There are six ways in initiating a transaction. The error code aeiv? It occurs when program interuption takes place. TSQ is temporary in nature i: Hope this will suffice. Give reasons? What does EIB mean? What command do you issue to delete a record in a transient data queue?
Yes it is correct but there is a restriction. U can deletethe records sequentially.. For example if one want to delete 10 th record directly it is not possible with this..
How do you access the records randomly in TSQ? By specifying the ITEM option. The XCTL command passes control to another program, but the resources requested by the first program may still be allocated. The disadvantage of LINK is that it requires that both the calling program and the called program remain in main memory even though both are no longer needed. PCT contains a list of valid transaction ID.
Each transaction ID is paired with the name of the program ,CICS will load and execute when the transaction is invoked.
PPT will also be used to determine whether it will load a new copy of the program when the transaction is invoked. What are the 3 common ways to create maps?
What is Quasi-reentrancy? There are times when many users are concurrently using the same program, this is what we call MultiThreading. And this technique is known as quasi-reentrancy. The physical mapset is a load module used to map the data to the screen at execution time. The symbolic map is the actual copybook member used in the program to reference the input and output fields on the screen.
What CICS facilities can you use to save data between the transactions? For example prog. Prog A. In XCTL the control is directly transfer to prog. It is placed in the linkage section automatically by CICS translator program. It must be the first entry in linkage section. CICS places values prior to giving control to the program and we can find almost any information about our transaction.
If the generic key is specified in the STARTBR command positioning in the file will be before the first record satisfying the generic key.
What is the difference between pseudo-conversational and conversational? Pseudo-conversational will start a new task for each input. Conversational will have an active task during the duration of the data entry. An area used to transfer data between diffrent programs or between subsequent executions of the same program.
Needs to be defined in the Linkage Section. Synonym access is specific to the user who has created it. A non-procedural language. The capability to act on a set of data and the lack of need to know how to retrieve it. Change Man is a system that manages and automates the process of migrating software, or applications, from a development environment to a production environment. Change Man can manage the installation of a variety of components, such as:. A Change Man Change Package is the means by which a new application or change to an existing application is described, scheduled, prepared, and implemented into production.
It may consist of one or more library components. Each package is identified by a unique Change Package ID consisting of the Application Mnemonic and a sequential number e.
Change Man manages the transition from development to production libraries by using staging libraries, which are specific to each Change Package. Existing production components are copied into the development environment where they can be modified and tested. The Change Man staging libraries can be used for both editing and testing.
If private libraries are used during editing, components will be copied into the staging libraries prior to testing. The baseline libraries contain a current production version baseline 0 and up to max.
When a new production component is installed, the baseline libraries are rippled.
This means that the new version becomes the current version, what was the current version becomes the —1 version, and so on. An overview of the Change Man life cycle is given below. It is a step-by-step description of the actions necessary to migrate a change from development to production withinChangeMan.
A Change Package contains all of the elements to be edited and installed into production, and is identified by a unique package ID automatically generated byChangeMan. When a Change Package is created, the information that Change Man needs in order to track and control the package is entered. This includes the implementation instructions, whether it is a temporary or permanent change, the installation date and time, etc. With checkout, components from your baseline libraries are copied to either a Change Man staging library or to a personal development library where changes can be made.
Mainframe Self Study Materials with Complex Interview Questions
The Change Package is now ready for Testing. This locks the package prohibiting further changes , and makes the package available for the promotion and approval processes.
Promotion allows a Change Package to be moved through various levels of testing e. The installation process depends upon the option used for installation, while creating package.
Baseline Ripple is the process that Change Man executes to version all package components, i. When you create the Change Package, you are defining the outer structure of the change Package. You specify the date and time for installations, whether the package is temporary or permanent, the installation site, and implementation instructions, etc. Once you have completed the following four panels, the package is automatically assigned a unique Change Package ID.
This panel is to allow you to define package control information. This panel is displayed when option 1 is selected form the previous menu Build Change Package. All the fields are required for the first time you create a Change Package. SO Enter the Relevant data and press Enter. This panel allows you to enter a description of the Change Package.
It should be as complete and descriptive as possible. Use this panel to specify how the package is to be installed. This include the installation method,and specific implementation instructions to be used by in the individual overseeing the installation.
Use this panel to select the install date and time. Ensure that these fields are correct, and modify them or the contacts fields as necessary. After the information in the above panel is filled, press ENTER Change man will then automatically create your change package, return you to the first CREATE panel, and display the change package number in the upper right hand corner of the panel. Once the package is created next process Is checkout.
Use this panel to select the list of components to be viewed. Select from components in the baseline libraries, or components already defined to the Change Package from a previously coped package. Use this panel to enter the checkout information, such as the package to which the component is to be checked out, the type of component, how the component is to be checked out foreground of batch , and the name of the component that is to be checked out, etc.
Use the panels on the following page to complete the staging process for your Change Package components. Once these panels are completed, the component list will be displayed.
Use this panel to tell Change Man where to get the components that are to be staged. This panel is used to select the components in your change package that you want to edit, compile, delete, display history etc. This panel is an optional panel that is customized for each customer site.
Press Enter on the preious menu. Use the Package List panels as an alternative way to perform a variety of Change Man functions. Use this panel to select the Change Packages to be listed.
If the Package Name field is left blank, you can select the application for which you would like to see a package list. Option is 5 from Primary change man screen. This panel displays the Change Packages selected from the previous panel.
There are 36 different line commands available for this panel, which can be placed on CMD filed. The Recompile function can be used to resolve some of the out-of-sync conditions that can occur from the Audit process. The recompile is done from baseline or promotion, directly into staging libraries. After Entering the required data press Enter. Your job is submitted. Any time a statically linked subroutine has been modified, relinking is required.
You can invoke it by selecting the File-AID option from a customized version of the ISPF primary option menu, or from a sub-menu panel your installation has set up. Upon exit from File-AID your suspended screen is restored.
This option is used to display but not change the contents of files using any of three display modes — formatted, vertical, and character. This option is used to create, display and change the contents of files using the formatted, vertical, and character display modes. This option is used to create and maintain selection criteria for use in the Browse, Edit, Copy, Print, and Compare functions. This option allows the records of an input file to be reformatted and written to an output file based on record layouts defining the input and output files.
The first three lines of each display, called the heading lines, have a common format for all File-AID displays.
The remainder of the screen may contain a list of options, input fields and prompts, or scrollable data. The TITLE area line 1 identifies the function being performed and, where appropriate, library or dataset information. On an option selection menu, it may be used to enter either a command or an option. You may change it by overtyping. This line will normally be blank or will contain heading non data entry information.
Dataset specification screens allow you to enter information such as dataset names, member names, and other parameters. The fields in which you may enter information are labeled and preceded with an arrow. Several fields on dataset specification screens are pre-entered with values that you entered the last time on that screen or on a similar screen.
The pre-entered information comes from your user profile, which File-AID automatically builds and maintains across sessions. Information that is maintained in your user profile includes:. A member selection screen is an alphabetic list of the members of a partitioned dataset. It is displayed when requested from any of the File-AID functions DATA ———.
On many scrollable data display screens, you can also update file contents by typing over fields on the screen. The example below shows the edit formatted screen. The Selection Criteria Options screen shown below is an example of this type of screen.
File-AID provides commands for commonly used functions. You may enter commands in one of two ways:. You can assign commands to PF keys using option 0. Before you press a PF key, you can enter information in the command field. The PF key definition is concatenated ahead of the contents of the command field. You can stack multiple commands for execution in one interaction by entering a special delimiter between the commands. The default delimiter is a semicolon ;.
You can change the delimiter using option 0. For example:. File-AID primary commands are divided into four categories listed below. In many File-AID functions, the information to be displayed exceeds the screen size. Also causes scrolling to a data-name that contains, in part or full, the data name occ string. Record manipulation commands allow you to update file contents and to find and change occurrences of a string in a file.
Session control commands have to do with terminating the current function or switching from one function to another. Recursive commands: Upon end from the new function, the suspended display is resumed. Miscellaneous commands cover a variety of functions. They are listed and briefly described below.
However, there are two exceptions. It does not cause exit from File-AID. If you press PA1 after the keyboard has been manually unlocked by pressing the RESET key , it usually causes the current processing to be terminated. On all screens involving scrolling, a scroll amount is displayed on line 2 of the screen. This value indicates the number of lines or columns to scroll when you enter one of the four page scrolling commands.
You can change the scroll amount by simply typing over the scroll amount field. The line or column where the cursor is positioned is moved to the top, bottom, left, or right of the screen depending on which scrolling command is used.
If the cursor is not in the body of the data, or if it is already positioned at the top, bottom, left, or right, a full page scroll occurs. In split screen mode, for example, the edit character display might have 12 lines by 80 columns of scrollable data.
In this case, a scroll amount of HALF would move the window up or down by 6 lines, or right or left by 40 columns. The current scroll amount is saved in the user profile. When you type over the scroll amount, the new value remains in effect until you change it again. You can override the current scroll amount on a given interaction by entering a scroll amount in the command field and using a scroll command or PF key.
To reduce keystrokes, you can change the scroll amount field by typing over the first character s only:. Valid scroll amounts are:. In split screen mode, only one of the logical screens is considered active at a time. The current location of the cursor identifies which of the two screens is active. To switch from one screen to the other, simply move the cursor to the desired screen or enter the. General information about the use of datasets by File-AID follows.
Each topic is presented in sequence, or may be selected by number:. All datasets processed on-line must reside on a direct access storage device or on a mass storage device. When a Dataset Name is required in File-AID, you may enter a fully qualified quoted , unqualified no quotes, userid prefix implied , or pattern catalog search request. Trailing quotes are never required. If allocating a VSAM cluster, with the 3. Valid pattern characters are: Pattern characters are used to represent any or all characters which are not part of the high-level node of a dataset name.
The high-level node must be fully specified. Following are some examples of using the. The File-AID 3.
For further information on pattern characters, explore the tutorial for the 3. For selection purposes, specifying a member name for a partitioned dataset will cause the member to be processed as a sequential dataset. In most instances a Member Name prompt is provided under the Dataset Name prompt. If a member name is specified in parentheses along with the dataset name, the member information is considered as if it had been entered in the Member Name field.
When referencing a PDS dataset, you may specify a Member Name of blank, or use a pattern to generate a list of members for selection. You can use a question mark? However, you must enter at least the first character of the member name before you can use the asterisk.
Using blank or a member name pattern will either cause a File-AID member list to be displayed or a PDS Processing Option screen to appear to provide additional member selection options. Once a list of members is presented, you can select a member from this list by using the S line command. You can also enter the full member name, in parentheses, on the same line as the dataset name. If you do so, you can ignore the Member Name field. On some panels a catalog dataset name may be entered. In this case whether the catalog dataset name is enclosed in quotes or not, the name is always considered to be a fully qualified name and no prefix is appended to it.
It can also be a dataset you are defining or managing with the extended utilities. The next two tutorial pages display tables showing the combinations of dataset organizations and record formats allowed for data files. The table below shows the combinations of dataset organizations and record formats allowed for data files.
The table below shows the combinations of dataset organizations and record formats allowed for VSAM data files. A PATH name may be specified for the input data file name in the browse, edit, copy, print, and compare options. Due to a constraint in the information available to File-AID from the IAM access method, all files are currently handled as variable length files. More than one password may be assigned to the same dataset.
If you attempt to access a dataset protected by an OS password, File-AID will present the OS-Password-Protected screen containing a field where you can specify a dataset password as follows:.
Note that the File-AID 3. This dataset contains the record layouts which are used in many File-AID functions.
The record layout dataset can be one of four types:. If the layout is in a program or if a COPYLIB member contains multiple record layouts, you can isolate the specific layout, or portion of a layout, that File-AID should use by specifying a starting data-name.
If you do not specify a starting data-name, File-AID uses every layout found in the program, or COPYLIB member, to format the data, treating the second through last layouts as additional layouts that may be manually selected and overlaid at any offset via the USE command.
Layouts can also be used to define selection criteria and to specify tests for multiple record type layout usage. When a 66 or 88 level item is encountered File-AID skips to the end of the sentence and performs no syntax checking. Each 01 level entry need not be successively longer than the previous 01 level entry. File-AID skips over these words. File-AID skips these statements and performs no syntax checking. Data-names must be 30 characters or less but are not otherwise validated.
For example, you are not restricted to using characters A through Z, 0 through 9, and hyphen to form data-names, and you need not make data-names unique. The level numbers of data-name-1 and data-name-2 must be identical and can be any level number from 1 to Between the data descriptions of data-name-2 and data-name-1, there may be no entries having numerically lower level numbers than the level number of data-name-2 and data-name If data-name-1 contains an OCCURS clause, its length is computed to be the length of one occurrence multiplied by the number of occurrences.
The size of the redefining area must be less than or equal to the size of the redefined area. Multiple redefinitions of the same redefined area may reference the data-name of the redefined area or the data-name of any of the preceding redefining areas. This clause is checked for valid syntax but it does not affect processing in any way.
This clause affects processing in the reformatting function option 9 only. Normally data is left justified in the receiving field and either truncation or blank padding occurs on the right. Integer-2 must be greater than 0 and less than 32, In FORMAT 2, integer-1 represents the minimum number of occurrences and integer-2 represents the maximum number of occurrences. Integer-1 must be greater than or equal to 0, and integer-2 must be greater than integer-1 and less than 32, The alphabetic, alphanumeric, alphanumeric edited, and numeric edited categories of data are all treated as alphanumeric data i.
Picture characters. External floating point items are fully syntax checked and treated as picture X items. Also, the scaling position character, P, is supported.
mainframe refresher PDFs / eBooks
When specified at the 01 level, every elementary item within the 01 level is synchronized. However, if the USAGE clause is written at a group level, it applies to each elementary item in the group. The usage of an elementary item may not contradict the usage of a group to which an elementary item belongs. Whenever you leave the layout member name blank or use a pattern, File-AID presents a member list. A partitioned processing options PPO screen usually appears first to let you filter the member list to improve performance.
Member list presentation occurs automatically in the XREF function when you use line commands, or enter a pattern in the member name field with or without using the S or SU line command. This panel contains a Source Statement selection area and a compiler option section.
The Source Options panel is also used to enter compiler options. If File-AID cannot determine the language, or if compilation fails, it will display this panel to allow you to change source or compile options.
File-AID reads the layout from the source library member containing either multiple layouts or a program starting with the data-name you specify. File-AID stops reading when it finds a new data structure equal or lower level number or when the end of the record layout, library member, or program is reached. For the fourth situation, the XREF contains the names of the layout library members for each segment of a data record.
In any of the File-AID primary options which use layouts to define the data, the record layout dataset and XREF dataset information are specified as shown in the example below. The table below shows the valid dataset and member entries for the record layout and layout XREF datasets, for each layout usage.
When partitioned datasets are specified on the dataset specification screens, you may display a member list by:. If any pattern character is present, the name becomes a mask. G is the same as PR? For example, the patterns: Use the S Select line command to select the member you want.
On certain dataset specification screens, you can specify multiple partitioned datasets. Therefore, it is possible for you to receive multiple member list screens one for each partitioned dataset specified without a member or with a pattern before proceeding to the next screen in the function.
The member lists are displayed in the sequence that the datasets appear on the dataset specification screen. If the main dataset in Browse 1 , Edit 2 , Copy 3. The PPO screen lets you specify additional member qualification filters such as: In both situations, File-AID intercepts the abend and displays an error screen. In the first case, a message is displayed describing the unrecoverable error encountered. In the second case, the system and user abend codes are displayed. The first keyboard interaction on the error display screen causes the ISPF abnormal termination screen to be displayed.
File-AID is completely compatible with any data security software your installation may have Ex. File-AID processing does not circumvent your security software in any way. File-AID provides your installation with the capability of creating its own security exit routine that File-AID will call during its processing. This enables your installation to limit access to certain datasets.
Following are some examples of the optional security exit routine uses:. In addition to the security exit, an audit exit is provided that can be customized for various uses including:. When you complete your edit session, a screen is displayed giving you the option to print, delete, or keep the audit trail. If you specify that the audit trail be printed, a batch job is submitted which produces a formatted audit trail report. This is especially useful, for example, if your installation wants to ensure that an audit trail is created whenever File-AID is used to edit certain sensitive data files.
If you require information on how your installation may be using any of these audit trail facilities, contact the person responsible for File-AID at your installation. This allows you to work with data files that are stored on disk or tape in a compressed or encrypted format in all File-AID options. Other platforms such as FSP andHitachimay use other representations for shift-in and shift-out.
Use caution when entering DBCS characters to ensure that the shift-out and shift-in characters are accounted for and will not overlay other data values unexpectectly.
Options B browse , C change , H history , M master and S summary can be used to get information on an element. Press enter. This will give a listing of the sources currently existing in endevour e. The search option can be used to search a large list of sources for the occurence of a given string. Follow the steps as given below:. The steps involved in the preparation of an SCL are listed as the following.
After building the SCL, it is advisable to manually browse it. For this, use the EDIT option shown in the first screen. Check for:. Asset management is the service of making investment decisions for investors according to predefined guidelines and objectives.
Investment management, portfolio management, fund management, and money management are synonymous terms. Investments that are fixed income securities with relatively short maturities for example, less than one year. Examples of this are a money market fund and a treasury bill. The risk that the other entity in a financial agreement will be unable to fulfill the obligations of that transaction.
Bank of other financial institution that keeps custody of stock certificates and other assets of a mutual fund, individual, or corporate client.
A type of employee benefit program where the benefit is defined normally in terms of a promised monthly retirement income. An individual investment account for each participant is not maintained. The plan is normally funded through contributions made by the employer. Defined Contribution Plan A type of employee benefit program where the contribution is defined and an individual investment account is maintained for each participant reflecting accumulated contributions and earnings.
Contributions can come from the employer, the employee or both. There is no promise regarding the level of retirement income. A type of security representing ownership possessed by shareholders in a corporation. An equity investment differs from a debt investment in that the issuer makes no promise to pay the investor current income or any guaranteed amount at a future date. Additionally, although they are owners, shareholders do not usually participate actively in the management of the corporation, other than to elect directors, select auditors, and to vote on matters that may be required by law.
A type of security that pays a fixed rate of return. Examples of this include government, corporate, or municipal bonds, which pay a fixed rate of interest until the bonds matures, or preferred stocks, which pay a fixed dividend. So every word has to begin from an address which is divisible by four. When the primary variable is x 3 and the next one is s9 4 comp if the Sync clause is not specified, the second variable will begin from byte 3.
When Sync is specified the beginning address will be 4; this more rapid, even if we may notice a little waste of memory. Answer : These two are options of the compiler for verifying the out of range state for the subscript.
The size of the Control Area depends on the type of allocation cyl, tracks, records and ots maximum reaches 1 cylinder. The Control Interval is something like a block for QSAM files, its size is ranged between bytes and 32 kilobytes, normally 2 or 4 kilobytes. If the Control Interval is bigger the performance will also increase when it comes to sequential processing. Answer : The size of CI has to depend on the length of the record and the processing type.
The normal value is 4 kilobytes but when the length of the record is bigger than 1 kilobyte we have to pick 6 kilobytes or 8 kilobytes.
Empty files can just be opened for output, case in which a dummy record will be written by COBOL and the file will be erased. This is what we call a model dataset, whose ds name has to be similar to the one of the GDG.OLD designates an existing data set; it can be an input data set or an output data set to rewrite.
Search Result for "mainframe refresher part 1 by muthu" List of ebooks and manuels about "mainframe refresher part 1 by muthu" Free PDF ebooks user's guide, manuals, sheets about "mainframe refresher part 1 by muthu" ready for download Loading Options B browse , C change , H history , M master and S summary can be used to get information on an element.
Common routines like error routine, date validation routine are coded in a library and bring into the program by COPY. Matching foreign currency loans with deposits in the same currency when appropriate is one way to manage exchange rate risk. The table below shows the combinations of dataset organizations and record formats allowed for data files.
PIC Clause should not be specified. If you want to manipulate the data before feeding to sort, prefer internal sort. This is what we call a model dataset, whose ds name has to be similar to the one of the GDG.